Skip to main content

Full text of "A directory for the navigation of the Indian Archipelago, China, and Japan, from the straits of Malacca and Sunda, and the passages east of Java. To Canton, Shanghai, the Yellow Sea, and Japan, with descriptions of the winds, monsoons, and currents, and general instructions for the various channels, harbours, etc"

See other formats





LL     BE     FOUND 


0  8-1 












Honorary  Member  of  the  Societa  Geografica  Italiana. 


53,  FLEET  STREET,  E.C. 



Tais  volume  may  be  considered  as  a  sequel  to  our  Sailing  Directory  for  the 
Ind'an  Ocean,  which  describes  all  the  coasts  and  islands  between  the  Cape 
of  Good  Hope  and  the  Straits  of  Malacca  and  Sunda,  the  great,  westward 
portals  of  the  vast  archipelago  which  is  described  in  the  present  work. 
Although  each  book  is  complete  in  itself,  still  tliey  may  be  taken  together 
as  the  modern  representative  of  our  old  "Oriental  Navigator,"  which  was 
first  issued  from  this  house  by  the  predecessors  of  the  present  publisher,  in 
1775,  a  fourth  edition  being  completed  in  1808.  The  arrangement  of  that 
quarto  volume  is  very  much  the  same  as  that  now  followed  in  these  two 
•works ;  and,  as  is  stated  in  the  Preface  to  the  Indian  Ocean  Directory,  was 
copied,  with  most  of  its  matter,  from  the  Oriental  Navigator,  by  the  late 
Captain  James  Horsburgh,  in  the  first  edition  of  his  work,  published  in 
1809—11.     Captain  Horsburgh  died  in  May,  1836. 

This  Directory  completes  the  series  of  those  drawn  up  or  edited  by  the 
writer.  Those  for  the  North  Atlantic  and  South  Atlantic  Oceans,  embracing 
all  the  area  northward,  between  Cape  Horn  and  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope ; 
those  for  the  Indian  Ocean  and  Indian  Archipelago  giving  all  the  countries 
between  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  and  the  North  of  China,  while  the  circuit 
is  completed  by  the  Directories  for  the  Pacific  Ocean.  These  last  named 
works  were  designed  by  the  author  20  years  ago ;  and,  with  the  exception  of 
this  book,  all  have  been  before  the  world  for  some  years,  and,  it  is  hoped, 
have  done  good  service.  They  were  drawn  up  from  materials  scattered 
over  a  wide  range  of  literature,  and  the  collection  of  which  involved  much 
labour  and  research. 

This  book  differs  in  some  degree  from  the  others,  for  a  considerable  por- 
tion of  it  is  taken  from  the  "  Pilots,"  published  by  the  Hydrographic  oflB.ce, 
so  carefully  compiled,  chiefly  by  Commander  John  W.  King,  P.N.,  and 
embracing  all  the  information  given  by  former  works,  combined  with  the 
recent  observations  of  many  naval  officers. 

For  the  China  Sea  and  Coast  of  China  we  are  thus  indebted  to  these 
Admiralty  works,  and  we  fuUy  acknowledge  our  indebtedness  to  them.     In 


many  parts  we  have  somewhat  curtailed  the  details,   without,  it  is  hoped, 
impairing  their  utility  to  the  Mercantile  Marine. 

The  other  portions  of  this  book  have  been  derived  from  various  and 
numerous  sources,  the  chief  of  which  we  may  briefly  indicate,  proceeding  in 
the  geographic  order  in  which  the  book  is  arranged. 

The  Strait  of  Malacca  was  partially  surveyed,  by  direction  of  the  East 
India  Company,  by  Captains  Moresby,  Ward,  and  Moore,  and  part  of  the 
Sands  by  Captain  Daniel  Ross.  The  labours  of  these  zealous  officers,  in  the 
early  days  of  hydrography  as  at  present  understood,  have  been  alluded  to 
in  the  introductory  remarks  to  the  Indian  Ocean  Directory.  The  northern 
part  of  the  Sumatra  coast  was  re-examined  by  Commander  Fell,  under  the 
same  auspices,  in  1851 — 8.  Subsequently  to  this  the  Sumatran  side  was 
surveyed  by  Lieutenant  Jackson,  in  1860. 

The  second  great  entrance  to  the  Indian  Archipelago— the  Strait  of  Sunda 

lias  been  well  surveyed  by  the  Dutch  ;  and  it  is  to  this  nation,  and  the 

zeal  and  talent  of  their  officers,  that  we  are  largely  indebted  for  our  exact 
acquaintance  with  the  hydrography  of  the  archipelago  ;  and,  also,  it  may  be 
at  once  stated,  that  larger  portions  of  the  ensuing  work  are  dei^ved  from  the 
same  sources. 

Subsequent  to  the  cession  of  Java,  and  other  possessions,  to  the  Dutch 
nation,  after  the  vigorous  policy  inaugurated  by  Sir  Stamford  Raffles  during 
the  British  occupation  of  that  fine  island,  the  queen  of  the  archipelago,  very 
much  attention  was  paid  by  the  Netherlands  officers  to  the  acquisition  of 
knowledge  in  almost  every  branch  of  science  relating  to  their  extensive 
territories  ;  and,  however  much  may  have  been  said  as  to  their  exclusive 
policy,  it  is  certain  that  a  vast  amount  of  knowledge,  and  the  records  of  the 
experience  of  a  large  number  of  most  competent  observers,  was  given  to  the 
world ;  but  their  memoirs  being  too  frequently  in  the  Dutch  language,  one 
not  universally  understood,  they  were  left  unheeded  by  those  most  interested 
in  them,  and  thus  it  became  a  general  opinion  that  this  enterprising  nation 
desired  to  keep  the  information  that  was  acquired  under  these  auspices  to 
itself.  Of  late  years  this  opinion  has  been  fully  met,  and  it  is  now  accorded 
that  no  country  has  done  better  service  to  science. 

For  hydrography,  the  establishment  of  the  Commission  for  the  improve- 
in  nt  of  the  Indian  sea  charts,  at  Batavia,  under  the  enlightened  Governor- 
General,  the  Baron  Van  der  Capellen,  in  1821,  a  period  when  our  naiitical 
surveys  were  first  being  commenced  on  a  more  extended  s  ale,  has  led  to 
great  results.  They  are  detailed  generally  in  the  ensuing  pages ;  but  ic  is 
desired  that  every  acknowledgement  of  our  obligations  to  the  labours  of 
this  commission  should  be  given.  They  are  continued  to  this  day,  and  are 
constantly  adding  to  our  stock  of  information.  The  works  of  Capt.-Lieut. 
Baron  Peter  Melvill  van  Carnbee  have  been  alluded  on  page  150  hereafter. 
It  is  to  this  young  officer,  perhaps,  more  than  any  other  individual,  that  we 


owe  a  connected  view  of  the  labours  of  the  commission  to  which  he  was 
secretary,  as  well  as  one  of  its  most  active  surveyors. 

The  Strait  of  Sunda,  as  before  said,  was  surveyed  by  Lieuts.  Rietveld  and 
Boom,  in  1848,  and  since  that  time  many  additional  observations  have  been 
added  for  its  improvement.  Of  the  North  Coast  of  Java  we  have  surveys  of 
some  minuteness,  executed  by  Lieutenants  Escher,  Eschauzier,  Staring, 
Eietveld,  Boom,  and  others,  which  are  generally  sufficient  for  navigation. 

A  portion  of  the  Java  Sea  is  still  incomplete  on  the  charts,  and  is  imper- 
fectly described,  and  dependant  on  old  observations ;  but  the  part  between 
the  Straits  of  Sunda,  comprising  the  Thousand  Islands,  &c.,  has  been  more 
recently  examined.  Banka  Strait  has  been  excellently  surveyed  by  Lieuts. 
Stanton  and  Eeed,  E.N.,  in  H.M.S.  Saracen,  in  1859-60;  and  this  important 
service  has  discovered  a  more  direct  and  open  channel  through  this  great 
highway.  The  charts  and  directions  for  the  strait  leave  little  to  be  desired. 
Gaspar  Strait,  as  now  shown,  is  from  the  survey  by  the  U.S.  officers,  in 
1854.  Carimata  Strait,  the  easternmost  of  the  western  passages  between 
Sumatra  and  Borneo,  is  still  unsurveyed,  although  many  of  its  dangers  and 
features  were  fixed  by  Captains  Eoss  and  Maughan. 

The  labyrinth  of  islands  and  passages  to  the  north-westward,  the  channels 
leading  to  Singapore,  have  not  been  completely  and  systematically  surveyed, 
but  the  charts  and  directions  are  now  so  far  complete  that  the  main  routes 
are  quite  sufficiently  known  and  described  for  safe  navigation.  Lieutenants 
Melvill  van  Carnbee,  Blommendal,  and  Edeling,  have  executed  considerable 
portions,  and  their  charts  have  been  improved,  especially  Ehio  Strait,  by  the 
examination  of  Lieuts.  Eeed  and  Stanton,  E.N. 

Singapore  Strait  was  surveyed  by  a  very  zealous  officer,  J.  T.  Thompson, 
Esq.,  F.E.G-.S.,  the  government  surveyor  at  Singapore,  and  the  constructor 
of  those  excellent  monitors  the  Horsburgh  and  Eaffles  Lighthouses,  which 
mark  its  East  and  West  entrances.  A  portion  of  this  important  strait  has 
since  been  re-surveyed  by  Lieuts.  Eeed  and  Eichards,  E.N. 

The  Gulf  of  Siam,  which  has  been  very  imperfectly  laid  down  on  our 
charts,  was  well  surveyed,  and  its  dangers  and  main  features  accurately  de- 
lineated in  H.M.S.  Saracen,  commanded  by  Staff-Commander  J.  Eichards,  a 
coast  line  of  1,000  miles  in  extent  in  the  short  space  of  twenty  months,  in 
1856 — 8,  a  work  which  reflects  much  ci'cdit  on  its  author.  Cambodia,  or 
Lower  Cochin  China,  was  also  surveyed  by  the  same  officers.  Of  the  coast 
of  the  Annamite  empire,  which  now  belongs  to  the  French,  our  knowledge 
is  less  perfect.  The  Gulf  of  Tong  King  and  Hainan  Island  are  also  mainly 
dependent  upon  the  former  surveys  of  Daniel  Eoss  and  other  officers,  im- 
proved by  the  observations  of  Mr.  Kerr,  E.N. 

The  western  shores  of  the  great  island  of  Borneo  are  well  laid  down  and 
described.  A  large  portion  of  it  was  suiveyed,  minutely  and  excellently, 
by  Sir  Edward  Belcher,  and  other  parts  were  completed  by  Lieut.  D.  M. 


Gordon,  partially  so  by  Capt.  Drink  water  Bethune,  and  of  late  some  points 
have  been  revisited  by  the  Admiralty  surveyors,  conducted  by  Commander 

Palawan,  and  some  of  the  islands  North  of  Borneo,  were  elaborately 
surveyed  and  profusely  described  by  Captain  Bate.  The  western  coast  of 
the  Philippine  Islands  have  been  generally  laid  down  from  the  surveys  of 
various  Spanish  officers. 

The  China  Sea  is  perhaps  the  locality  where  hydrography  has  made  the 
greatest  changes  of  late  years.  Up  to  1862  the  charts  of  this  great  highway 
exhibited  a  labyrinth  of  detached  shoals,  scattered  about  without  order  or 
connection,  laid  down  from  the  isolated  observations  of  zealous  officers  of  the 
East  India  service,  many  of  which  are  now  difficult  of  recognition,  from  the 
vague  manner  of  their  announcement.  The  increasing  importance  of  the 
China  commerce,  and  the  advance  in  the  sailing  powers  of  the  ships  em- 
ployed in  it,  caused  this  great  sea  to  be  much  more  frequented  than  in  former 
years.  Since  the  year  above  named,  Commander  Peed,  with  a  moderate 
staff,  in  H.M.S.  Rifleman,  has  examined  the  outer  line  of  dangerous  shoals 
■which  limit  the  two  great  channels,  which  are  separated  by  a  vast  range  of 
dangerous  coral  reefs  and  shoals,  leaving  the  clear  main  channel  to  the 
north-west,  and  the  Palawan  Channel  to  the  south-east  of  them  perfectly 
free  from  danger  for  those  vessels  which  beat  up  or  down  the  China  Sea  by 
either  passage  in  the  opposite  monsoons.  In  the  work  these  dangers  are 
fully  described  and  enumerated. 

The  Eastern  Passages  are  less  known,  and  their  hydrography,  generally, 
is  less  advanced  than  in  other  parts.  A  great  portion  of  the  islands,  claimed 
by  the  Dutch,  are,  with  the  exception  of  their  noble  possessions  in  Java, 
more  or  less  under  the  control  of  native  chiefs,  and  therefore  their  commerce, 
in  a  European  sense,  is  of  minor  importance  ;  therefore  they  have  attracted 
less  attention.     Still  very  much  has  been  done  by  the  Dutch  officers. 

Of  Java  we  have  before  spoken.  Of  the  volcanic  range,  to  the  eastward, 
the  coasts  have  been  surveyed  by  various  officers,  under  the  direction  of  the 
Commission  at  Batavia  ;  and  the  account  of  its  navigation  was  drawn  up  by 
Mr.  J.  Swart  and  Melvill  van  Carnbee. 

The  remarkable  island  of  Celebes  is,  in  many  parts,  very  vaguely  repre- 
sented, but  its  main  points  are  well  fixed  and  delineated.  Thus  Makassar, 
its  chief  port,  was  surveyed  by  Sir  Edward  Belcher,  as  were  the  ports  at  its 
N.E.  end.  The  remainder  of  its  coasts  rest  on  the  more  vague  authorities 
of  Dutch  travellers  and  voyagers,  and,  for  the  great  Southern  Gulf  of  Buni, 
on  the  single  voyage  of  Rajah  Sir  James  Brooke.  The  groups  to  the  east- 
ward of  this  are  also  but  indifferently  known,  although  there  are  several 
tracks  of  eminent  voyagers  which  have  served  to  correct  the  main  points 
and  features.  Of  these,  the  surveys  of  Lieut.  Gregory  of  the  Dutch  navy, 
with  thoae  of  M.M.  Kolff,  Mudera,  Miiller,  and  other  Dutch  officers,  may 

PEEFACE.  xii 

be  enumerated.  The  celebrated  Dumont  D'Urville  also  made  a  cruise 
through  a  portion  of  the  archipelago  and  settled  many  of  its  points.  To 
these  may  be  added  the  names  of  Sir  Edward  Belcher,  Owen  Stanley,  and 
other  British,  officers,  so  that  although  as  a  whole  our  charts  and  directions 
may  be  somewhat  defective,  they  are  still  sufficient  for  the  general  purposes 
of  navigation. 

The  coast  of  China  is  of  vastly  greater  importance  to  commerce  now 
that  its  ports  and  coasting  trade  are  open  to  the  world.  The  British 
Government,  alive  to  the  importance  of  this,  commissioned  those  two 
well-known  officers  (now  Admirals)  R,  CoUinson,  C.B.,  and  Kellett,  to 
replace  the  vague  outlines  left  to  us  by  the  Jesuits  in  the  first  part  of  the 
last  century,  as  alluded  to  on  page  940  hereafter.  The  most  important 
result  of  this  extensive  and  difficult  enterprise  has  been  to  give  to  every 
one  a  complete  picture  of  the  labyrinthine  coast  of  this  great  empire,  as 
perfect  as  of  any  other  portion  of  the  globe.  Many  minor  features  have 
been  added  to  this  great  achievement,  a  portion  of  which  was  attained 
under  difficult  and  perplexing  circumstances.  The  directions  drawn  up 
appeared  at  first  in  the  Chinese  Repository,  but  have  been  followed  im- 
plicitly in  this  work. 

The  foregoing  brief  and  imperfect  enumeration  of  the  authorities  upon 
which  the  physical  portion  of  this  book  rests,  will  show  how  laborious  and 
extensive  must  be  the  operations  which  can  bring  together  such  a  mass  of 
materials  as  is  here  given. 

The  Editor  feels  it  due  to  his  readers  to  state,  as  has  been  before  alluded 
to,  that  a  large  portion  has  been  already  found  to  his  hands  and  purpose, 
and  he  has  only  to  unite  these  scattered  memoirs  into  one  more  complete 
work  by  filling  up  the  vacancies  from  the  many  sources  which  it  is  hoped, 
as  it  is  intended,  are  acknowledged  throughout. 

London^  March  1,  1869. 

The  foregoing  preface  to  the  first  edition  was  written  before  a  descrip- 
tion of  the  Japanese  Archipelago  was  added  to  this  work.  For  this 
description  we  are  indebted  to  the  China  Sea  Directory,  Vol.  IV.,  and 
recent  reports  from  H.M.  surveying  vessels.  Previous  to  1867,  the  shores 
of  Japan  were  represented  in  our  charts  from  the  descriptions  of  its  own 
ingenious  geographers.  In  the  year  1867,  Commander  Brooker  commenced 
an  examination  of  its  coasts  in  H.M.S.  Sylvia,  and  was  succeeded  in  the 
year  1869  by  Commander  St.  John,  who  continued  the  survey  without  inter- 
ruption till  the  year   1872,  when  the  -Sy^i'^a  was  ordered  home  for  repairs, 

viii  PREFACE. 

and  did  not  return  to  Japan  till  July,  1871,  since  which  time  she  has 
remained  as  a  surveying  ship  on  the  Japanese  coasts.  Of  late  years 
some  surveying  operations  have  also  been  carried  on  by  the  Japanese 

New  and  important  information  has  been  gained  from  the  operations 
carried  on  in  H.M.  surveying  vessels  Rifleman  and  Nassau.  In  the  former 
of  these  vessels,  Staff-Commander  J.W.  Reed,  after  carefully  examining  the 
dangers  in  the  China  Sea,  surveyed  Balabac  Strait  and  its  approaches,  and 
added  to  the  completeness  of  the  survey  of  Singapore  Strait.  In  the  years 
1870 — 1872,  Commander  W.  Chimmo,  in  H.M.S.  Nassau,  was  employed  in 
the  Sulu  and  adjacent  seas.  The  hostility  of  the  natives,  however,  prevented 
a  complete  survey  of  the  Sulu  Archipelago.  In  the  year  1877,  the  Nassau, 
under  Commander  Napier,  E.N.,  was  engaged  in  examining  the  many 
dangers  recently  reported  as  lying  near  the  shore  by  vessels  engaged  in 
trade  between  the  treaty  ports  of  China. 

H.M.S.  Challenger,  with  the  Deep-sea  Exploring  Expedition  on  board,  be- 
tween August,  1874,  and  March,  1875,  was  some  months  in  the  archipelago ; 
and  from  several  books  edited  by  the  officers,  and  from  official  reports,  much, 
has  been  taken  to  add  to  the  completeness  of  the  ensuing  descriptions.  The 
places  visited  in  the  passage  from  Torres  Strait  to  Hong  Kong  were  the 
Arru  and  Ki  Islands,  Banda,  Amboina,  and  Ternate  in  the  Molucca  Sea ; 
Samboangan,  Iloilo,  and  Manila  in  the  Philippines.  In  returning,  the  vessel 
passed  through  the  Philippine  Archipelago  eastward  of  Mindoro  and  Zebu, 
and  westward  and  southward  of  Mindanao,  thence  to  the  Admiralty  Islands 
N.E.  of  New  Guinea,  before  proceeding  to  the  northward  to  Yokohama. 

The  above  labours  of  our  own  government,  and  those  of  the  Spanish  and 
Dutch  governments,  have  afforded  most  of  the  newly  incorporated  informa- 
tion in  this  book ;  but  no  trouble  has  been  spared  to  make  the  work 
complete  up  to  the  date  of  issue  by  the  careful  examination  of  all  other 
available  sources  of  information. 

London,  September,  1878. 






(This  Table  will  serve  as  an  Index  to  the  work  arranged  geographically. 
The  Diagrams  facing  the  title  will  also  serve  as  an  index.) 


I.  Winds  and  Seasons 1 

General  systems  of  the  Winds  and  Monsoons,  1,  2  ;  Eainfall,  3  ;  Malacca 
Strait,  5 ;  Water-spouts,  6 ;  Singapore,  9  ;  Banka  Strait,  13 ;  Java  Sea, 
&c,,  14 ;  Siam,  &c.,  16 ;  Eastern  Passages,  18. 

II.  Currents    25 

General  Remarks,  25 ;  Malacca  and  Singapore  Straits,  26  ;  Siam  and  China 
Sea,  28  ;  Eastern  Passages,  30. 

IIL  Tides  and  Tide  Table    32-38 

IV.  Temperature   39-40 

V.  Magnetic  Variation    41 


1.  The  Atlantic  to  the  Strait  of  Sunda 

2.  Southern  India  to  the  Straits  of  Malacca 

3.  Straits  of  ]\Ialacca  to  Southern  India 

4.  Sunda  Strait  to  Banka  Strait 

5.  Banka  Strait  to  Sunda  Strait 
I.  A. 




VASSAGES— continued. 

6.  Banka  Strait  to  Singapore 

7.  Singapore  to  Hong  Kong 

8.  Hong  Kong  to  Singapore 

9.  Singapore  to  the  Gulf  of  Siam  and  to  Saigon 

10.  Gulf  of  Slam  to  Sin'japore 

11.  Saigon  to  Singapore 

12.  Eastern  lioute  to  Singapore 

13.  Eastern  Routes  to  China  . 

14.  China  to  the  Bay  of  Bengal 
lo.  Passages  hetween  Australia  and  China 

16.  Between  the  North  Coiist  of  Australia  and  Singapore 

17.  From  China  Homewards 

18.  Currents  and  Passages  against  the  Monsoon  in  the  China  Sea 

19.  Passages  along  the  Coast  of  China  . 

20.  Passages  between  China  and  Japan  .  . 


PART    II. 




Eastern  Coast,  107  ;  Pulo  Penang,  107  ;  Perak,  112  ;  Salangore,  119  ;  Ma- 
lacca, 130  ;  Carimon  Islands,  136  ;  Coast  of  Sumatra,  137  ;  Pulo  Brasae 
Lighthouse,  138. 



The  Java  Coast,  151 ;  First  Point  Lighthouse,  154 ;  Anjer,  162  ;  The  Coast 
of  Sumatra,  165;  Krakaloa,  173;  S.E.  Coast  of  Sumatra,  179;  Direc- 
tions, 179—180. 



Sumatra  Coast,  181  ;  Banka  Strait,  187  ;  Lucipara  Island,  192 ;  Palembang, 
196 ;  Coast  of  Banka,  199  ;  Kalian  Point,  210  ;  Mintok,  210  ;  Stanton 
and  Lucipara  Channels,  215 ;  Directions,  217  ;  Lucipara  Channel,  219  ; 
Northern  Coast  of  Banka,  224. 





Choice  of  Banki,  or  Gaspar  Strait,  227  ;  Dangers  Southward  of  Gaspar 
Strait,  229 ;  Macclesfield  Channel,  234  ;  Directions,  239  ;  Clements 
Channel,  244 ;  Stolze  Channel,  249  ;  North-eust  Coast  of  Banka,  260  ; 
Dangers  North  and  N.W.  of  Gaspar  Strait,  264  ;  Directions,  268. 



South  Coast  of  Billiton,  273  ;  Islands  and  Dangers  in  the  Fairway,   275  ; 
West  Coast  of  Borneo,  281  ;  Directions,  293. 



1.  Detached  Islands  and  Rocks. 

Detached  Islands  and   Rocks,  295 ;    Islands,  &c.,   between    Borneo    and 
(Singapore  Strait,  304. 

2.  Rhio  Strait   312 

General  Description,  312;  West  side  of  the  Strait,  313;  East  side  of  the 
Strait,  319  ;  Directions,  326. 

3.  Varella  and  Durian  Straits   334 

Coast  of  Sumatra,  &c.,  334  ;  Southern  Entrances,  344 ;  Directions  north- 
ward, 350  ;  Directions  southward,  353. 



North  side  of  the  Strait,  358;  Raffles  Lighthouse,  361 ;  South  side  of  the 
Strait,  362 ;  Directions,  364  ;  Singapore,  366  ;  Singapore  New  Harbour, 
374  ;  Singapore  Strait,  Eastern  Part,  381 ;  Horsburgh  Lighthouse,  388; 
Directions,  390 ;  South  side  of  Eastern  part  of  the  Strait,  392 ;  Direc- 
tions, 395. 



East  Coast  of  Malay  Peninsula,  400  ;  East  Coast  of  the  Gulf,  412;  Bang- 
kok, 425. 





1.  Cochin  China,  428 ;  Camhodia  River,  430 ;   Don-nai  or  Saigoa  River, 
432  ;  Saigon,  437  ;  Directions,  438. 

2.  The  Gulf  of  Ton-King,  456  ;  River  Lacht  Huen,  461 ;  Haiphong,  462. 

3.  Coast  of  China  and  Hainan  Island,  468 ;  Pakhoi,  468  ;  Hainan  Island, 
471 ;  Hoihow,  473. 



Tanjong  Datu,  481 ;  Sarawak  or  Kuching,  482  ;  Bruni  River,  490 ;  Lahuan, 
494 ;  Victoria  Harhour,  496  ;  Ambong  Bay,  506. 




Balamhangan,  &c ,  513;  Banguey  South  Channel,  517;  Balabac  Strait, 
522  ;  North  Balabac  Strait,  536  ;  Palawan  West  Coast,  539  ;  North  Coast, 
566 ;  East  Coast  of  Palawan,  567 


Calamianes,  586  ;    Mindoro   West   Coast,  589  ;    Luzon  S.W.  Coast,  594 ; 
Manila,  595  -^  Cape  Bojeador,  605 ;  Pirataa  Island  and  Reef,  606. 



Anamba  Islands,  610 ;  Natuna  Islands,  613  ;  Shoals  on  eastern  side  of  Main 
Route,  621  ;  Islands  and  Dingers  in  the  Fairway  of  the  Main  Route,  631  ; 
Paracel  Islands  and  Reefs,  611 ;  Macclesfield  Bank,  645  ;  Palawan  Pas- 
Ba'j;e,  648 ;  Dangers  on  its  western  side,  654 ;  on  the  eastern  aide,  056  ; 
Shual:*  uoar  the  Main  Route,  062 ;  Shoals  near  the  Palawan  Route,  001. 

CONTENTS.  xiii 




JAVA  AND  THE  JAVA  SEA     670 

Java,  670;  North  Coast,  672  ;  Batavia,  677  ;  Saniarang,  693  ;  Sourabaj'a, 
696  ;  Madura  Island,  705  ;  Madura  Strait,  711 ;  Probolingo,  715  ;  South 
Coaat  of  Java,  718  ;  Tjilatjap,  724. 

The  Java  Sea,  735  ^  Thousand  Islands,  736  ;  South  Coast  of  Borneo,  739. 



Baly  Island,  742 ;  Baly  Strait,  748  ;  Banjoewangie,  751  ;  Lombok  Island, 
754  ;  Alias  Strait,  759  ;  Sumbawa  Island,  761 ;  Sapi  Strait,  766  ;  Man- 
garai  Strait,  769 ;  Floris  Island,  769 ;  Suinba  or  Sandalwood  Island, 
775  ;  Strait  of  Floris,  778  ;  Solor  Strait,  779  ;  Allor  or  Maurissa  Strait, 
780;  Strait  of  Pantar,  781;  Ombay  Passage,  782;  Wetta  Island, 
782  ;  Island  of  Timor,  784  ;  Kotti,  7»7. 



The  Strait  of  Makassar,  793  ;  East  Coast  of  Borneo,  794  ;  Island  of 
Celebes,  801;  Makassar,  803;  North  Coast  of  Celebe.s,  809;  Boeton 
Island  and  Strait,  813;  Salayar  Island,  817;  Postilions  and  Pater- 
nosters, 819. 

Molucca  Islands,  820  ;  Amboina,  825  ;  Banda  Islands,  829  ;  Gunong  Api, 

The  Banda  Sea,  834  ;  Serwatty  Islands,  836  ;  Tenimber  Islands,  840  ; 
Arru  Inlands,  841  ;  Ki  Islands,  846;  Arafura  S-a,  84iS  ;  Ceram  Laut, 
851  ;  Western  part  of  the  Island  of  New  Guinea,  855  ;  Mysole,  858  ; 
Pitt  Strait,  86u  ;  Waigiou,  861;  Dampier  Strait,  S62 ;  Pitt's  Passage, 
865  ;  Gilolo  Passage,  807  ;  Gebi,  869. 

Halmaheira«r  Gilolo,  871  ;  Morti,  873  ;  The  Molucca  Islands,  874  ;  Ter- 
nate,  874  ;  ilolucca  Passage  or  Sea,  879. 





Sangir,  882 ;  The  Sulu  Archipelago,  884  ;  Sulu,  889 ;  Basilan,  892 ; 
The  Strait  of  Basilan,  894. 

The  Philippine  Islands,  895  ;  Mindanao,  896 ;  Samboanga,  896  ;  Samar, 
902  ;  Strait  of  San  Bernardino,  903  :  Ticao,  904  ;  Masbate,  905  ;  Zebu, 
906;  Negros,  908;  Panay,  909 ;  Iloilo,  910 ;  Directions,  913. 

The  Sulu  Sea,  916;  Snndakan  Harbour,  917;  Cac:aj'an  de  Sulu,  918; 
Mindoio,  924  ;  South  Coasts  of  Luzon,  926  ;  East  Coast  of  Luzon,  9^9  ; 
Babuyan  Islands,  930  ;  Bashi  Islands,  93.7. 



Now  Chow,  942  ;  Naraoa,  946 ;  Canton  Pavers,  949 ;  Macao,  952  ;  La- 
drones,  954  ;  Lema  Islands,  960  ;  Hong  Kong,  9G3  ;  Cap-Siug-Mun 
Passage,  969;  Lintin,  970;  Directions  for  Canton  River,  971;  Canton 
River,  9/9 ;  Boca  Tigris,  980 ;  Whampoa,  983  ;  Canton,  988  ;  Si-kiang 
or  West  River,  990. 




Tathong  Channel,  992  ;  Mirs  Bay,  996 ;  Bias  Baj',  999  ;  River  Han,  1010  ; 
Swatow,  1011;  Namoa  Island,  1012;  Chapel  Island  Light,  1017; 
Amoy,  1019;  Quemoy  Island,  1023;  Chiinmo  Bay,  1024;  Ocksou 
Lighthouse,  1027  ;  White  Dog  Islands,  1030. 



Islands  South  of  Formosa,  1033;  East  Coast  of  Formosa,  1034;  West 
Coast  of  Formosa,  1036;  Ta-kau-kon,  1038;  Tamsui,  1043;  Kelung 
Harbour,  1045  ;  Islands  N.E.  of  Formosa,  1047  ;  Meiaco  Sima  Group, 
1048;  Ykima  Island,  1051. 

Pvacadorus,  or  Ponghou  Archipelago,  10-51  ;  Ponghou  Harbour,  1054. 






River  Min,  10.5fi ;  Fuchan,  1060;  Double  Peak  Island,  1064;  Namquan 
Bay,  1066;  Sheipii  Road,  1073;  Kweshan  Islands,  107-5;  Chusan  Ar- 
chipelago, 1077  ;  Chusan  Island,  1083 ;  Tae-shan  Island,  1091 ;  Vol- 
cano Islands,  1092  ;  Gutzlaff  Island,  1096. 

Yung  River,  1098;  Ningpo,  1099;  Chapu,  1102;  Hang-chu.fu,  1103. 

The  Yang-tse  Kiang,  1103;  Main  or  Shawt-ishan  Channel,  1106  ;  South 
Entrance,  1108;  Directions  for  Approaching,  1112;  Wusung  River, 
1117;  Shanghai,  1122;  Wusung  to  Hankow,  1126. 



General  Description,  Winds,  &c.,  11 28  ;  The  Yellow  River,  or  Whang  Ho, 
1131;  Shantung  Peninsula,  1138;  Chifu,  or  Yentai  Harbour,  1142; 
Teng-Chau,  1144;  Strait  of  Pe-chili,  1145;  Tatsing  Ho,  1147;  Pei 
Ho,  1147  ;  Tientsin,  1147. 

Gulf  of  Liau-tung,  11.53;  Great  Wall,  1153;  The  Liau-ho,  1154;  New 
Chwang,  1154;  Bittern  Shallows,  1158  ;  Quang  Tung  Peninsula,  1159; 
The  Korea,  1161 ;  Port  Hamilton,  1162. 



1.  General  Descrittion  1163 

Treaty  Ports,  1165;  Climate,  1165;  The  Japanese  Current,  or  Kuro 
Siwo,  1167. 

2.  South  and  East  Coasts  of  the  Archipelago 1168 

The  Luchu  Islands,  1168;  A^an  Diemen  Strait,  1171;  South  and  East 
Coasts  of  Kiusiu  and  Sikok,  1171  ;  South-Kast  Coast  of  Nipon,  1172; 
The  Bay  of  Yedo,  1182;  Yokohama,  1187;  Volcanic  Islets  S.E.  of 
Japan,  1192  ;     The  East  Coast  of  Nipon,  1195. 

3.  The  Seto  Uchi  or  Inland  Sea 12oi 

The  Boungo  Channel,  1202  ;  The  Kii  Channel,  1202  ;  Lsumi  Strait,  1207  ; 
Hiogo  and  Kobe,  1209;  Harima  Nada,  1211;  Bingo  Nada,  1213; 
Misima  Nada,  1216;  lyo  Nada,  1217;  Suwo  NaJa,  1218;  Simonoseki 
Strait,  1218. 

The  Goto  Islands  and  West  Coasts  of  Kiusiu  and  Nipon 
Goto  Islands,   1224  ;   Meac  Sima  Group,   1229 ;    Kosiki  Islands,  1229 
Kagosima  Gulf,  1231;  Simabara  Gulf,  1233;  Nagasaki,  1239;  Direc 
tions  from  Nagasaki  to  Simonoseki,  1241  ;  West  Coast  of  Nipon,  1244 
Port  Niegata,  1246;  Tsugar  Strait,  1248;  Hakodadi  Harbour,   1250; 
Yezo  Island,    1253. 





Geographic  Terms.— Method  of  Spelling  Oriental  Names,  1255. 

Malay,   Sixgapoue,    Etc.— Malay  Vocabulary,   1256;     Money,    1257;     Weights,   1257; 
Measures,  1258. 

SiAM— Geographic  Tfrms,   1258;    Money,    1259;    Measures  of  Length,    1259;    Capacity, 
1260;  Weights,  1260. 

Cochin  China  (Anam).— Money,  1260;  Measures  and  Weights,  1261,  1262. 

Netherlands'  India.— Money,  Weights,  and  Measures,  1262-1264. 

North- West  Borneo.  — Money  and  Weights,  1264. 

Philippine  Islands.  — Money,  Weights,  and  Measures,  1265. 

China.— Glossary  of  Chinese  Words,   1266;  Money,  1266;  Commercial  Weights,  1268; 
Measures,  1268. 

Japan. — Glossary  of  Japanese  Words,  1269;  Money,  1270;  Weights,   1270;  Measures, 


1.  Magnetic  Variation,  Indian  Archipelago,  with  Index  to  Pages  "j 

2.  „  „  &c. ,  China  and  Japan  „  „        J 

3.  Wind  Systems,  April  to  September 

4.  „  October  to  March 

5.  Passages  in  the  Indian  Archipelago  and  China  Sea 

6.  Striit  of  Sunda 

7.  Straits  of  Singapore,  Durian,  and  Rhio  ... 

8.  Hong  Kong  ........ 

9.  Amoy  Harbour      ....... 

10.  Pescadore  Islands  -         -         -         -         -     .    * 

11.  Yokohama  Anchorage   --..-. 

To  face  Title. 















Eastern  Coast. 

Pulo  Penang ;  Fort  Cornwallis  - 
Binding  Island,  N.W.  Id.  offK.W.  pt. 

„         Anchorage  off  North  end 

„         Anchorage  off  S.  end  - 

„         S.E.  point 

„        Port  Pancore ;  Police  Station 
Pulo  Katta  ... 

One-fathom  Bank  Lighthouse     - 
Malacca,  flagstaff 
Pulo  Pisang,  lighthouse  - 
Little  Carimon  Island,  summit    - 

Coast  of  Sumatra. 

Pulo  Brasse  Lighthouse  - 

Achin  River,  East  entrance  point 

Pulo  Way,  N.AV.  extreme 

Diamond  Point,  North  extreme  - 

Prauhila  Point,  extreme 

Lanksa  Bay,  Ujong  Byan,  N.W.  point 

Ujong  Tannang,  extreme 

Dehli  River,  entrance 

Pulo  Varela,  summit 

Point  Mattie,  outer  point 

Batu  Barra  River,  entrance 

The  Brothers,  Pulo  Pandan 

Assarhan  River,  entrance 

Reccan  River,  Pulo  Lalang  Besar 

Pulo  Roupat,  Ujong  Bantan 

Pulo  Bucalisse,  Tanjong  Jati,  or  N.  pt. 

Siak  River,  entrance 

Campou  River,  entrance 

24  30 
'5  24 
14  35 

11  40 

10  50 

12  40 
9   10 

52     8 

11  30 
29     o 

5  45  o 

5  35  35 

5  54  iS 

5  16  o 

4  53  15 
4  36  30 
4  21  o 
3  48  28 
3  46  20 
3  22  o 
14  o 
25     5 


3  I 
2  12 

8  o 

36  30 
II  30 
43  o 











34  40  1 








37  55  1 

109  59 












































99  47 




















Bruce,  1875. 


Ward  (corrected), 

Netherlands  Go-  133 
vernmeut  Sur-  139 
vey,  1872-1874 

Lieut.  Jackson, 
I.N.,  I860* 



Rose  &  Moresby.  I  146 

I.  ▲. 



Coast  of  Java. 

Cape  Sangian  Sira,  S.W.  extreme 

Java  Head,  extremity 

First  Point,  Lighthouse 

Prince's  Island,  Southern  Carpenter  rock 

„  N.E.  point 

„  S.W.  point     • 

Second  Point,  extremity 
Panter  Reefs,  North  end 
Third  Point,  North  extremity 
Fourth  Point,  Lightho.  &  Signal  Station 
Anjer,  flRgstaff         .  .  . 

Thwart-the-Way,  South  point 
Great  M(  rak  Island,  West  point 
St.  Nicholas  Point,  extreme    - 

Coast  of  Sumatra. 

Flat  Point,  West  extreme 

Little  Fortune  Island,  East  point 

Rada  Point,  East  extreme 

Keyser  Island,  or  Labuan,  S.E.  end 

Borne,  fort  ... 

Kalang  Bayang  Harbour,  Klappa  Island 

Tikoes  Point,  extreme 

Telok  Betong,  Light  column  - 

Lagoendy  Island,  West  extreme 

„  Soengal  Id.,  S.E.  pt.  - 

Krakatoa  Island,  peak  2.623  feet 
Bezee  Island,  peak  2,825  feet  - 
Sebuko  Island,  peak  1,416  ft.  - 
Hog  Point  or  Varkenshoek,  extreme 
Zutphen  Islands,  Hout  Island,  S.E.  pt.  - 
St  room  Rock  -  -  . 

Winsor  Rock,  2f  fathoms 
Pulo  Logok  ... 

North  Island,  centre 


East  Coast  of  Sumatra. 

Jason  Rock 

North  "Watcher  Island,  Liirhthouse 

South  Brother  Island,  South  point 

Swallow  Rock  -  .  . 

Lynn  Bank  .  _  . 

Brfiuwers  Reefs,  North  reef    - 

Clifton  Reef 

Comara  ileef  -  .  . 

Ocean  Mail  Reef     -  .  . 

Arend  Bank,  4|  fathoms 

Boreas  Bank,  6  fathoms 

City  of  Carlisle  Bank,  South  end 

52     o 
46  40 

44  30 
41     o 

30  45 
36  15 




3  10 
59  30 
55  45 
52  33 

58  30 
55  45 
57  30 
51  30 
32  20 
46     8 

49  o 
28    10 

50  45 
50     o 

9     o 

57  40 

53  15 

55  20 

54  20 

56  10 

53  30 
48  o 
42     o 

25     o 

13  30 
10  25 

17  40 

4  45 
56     o 

4  49  30 
4  18     o 

3  45     o 
3  44    o 

3  58  30 
















14  45  1 





































104  53 



















































































Dutch    Surveys 

Dutch  Charts. 




Dutch  Charts. 







Banka  Strait. 

0        ,        * 

0       ,       /, 

Lucipara  Island        .                 .                 - 

3  13     o 

106   13     0 



,.        Point         ... 

3   13  30 

106     3  30 



Eerste  or  First  Point 

2  59     0 

106     2  30 



Tweede  or  Second  Point 

2  41     0 

105  46  20 



Derde  or  Third  Point 

2  23     0 

105  36     0 



Vierde  or  Fourth  Point 

2  20     0 

105   13     0 



Batakarang  Point    -                 .                 - 

2     I     0 

104  50    0 


Baginda  Point          ... 

3     4  40 

106  44    0 

•  ) 


Toboe  All  Fort 

3     0  48 

106  27  23 



Nangka  Islands,  West  Rock   - 

2  22  53 

105  44  50 


Monopin  Hill            ... 

2     I  45 

105  n     0 



Kalian  Point,  Lighthouse 


105     7  50 



Lucipara  Lightve.-sel 

3     7   30 

106     5  40 



Banka,  N.  Coast,  Melalu  Point 

I   30   10 

105  37  50 



„                  Highest   peak   of  Gu- 

nong  Marass 

I  51     0 

105  52     0 



„                 Crassok  Point 

I   28   30 

105  56  30 




Hancock  Shoal        ... 

3  34  20 

107     4    0 

American  Survey 


Hippogriffe  Shoal     ... 

3  33     0 

106  53  40 



Turtle  Shoal 

3  33     0 

107     5  40 



Larabe  Shoal            ... 

3  33     0 

107  10     0 

American  Survey 


Sand  Island               ... 

3  29    0 

107     9  20 



Middle  Reef 

3  27  30 

107   10  20 



Branding  Breakers  ... 

3  26     0 

107     9  30 



Fairlie  Rock              ... 

3  27  15 

106  59     0 



Shoal  Water  Island 

3  19  30 

107   II  45 



Eiiibleton  Rock 

3   17  20 

107   10     0 



Entrance  Point         ... 

3     I  40 

106  53  10 



Pulo  Lepar,  light     .                 .                 - 

5  26  30 

106  55     0 



Pulo  Leat,  Jelaka,  light 

2  50  30 

107     I  30 



Brekat  Point            ... 

2  34     0 

106  50    0 



Akbar  Shoal            ... 

2  39     0 

107   II     0 

Akhar,  1843. 


Tree  Island               ... 

2  27   30 

106  57     0 

American  Survey 


Gaspar  Island,  peak 

2  24  45 

107     3  20 



Low  Island,  centre  .                 -                 - 

3     2  15 

107     7  45 



Saddle  Island,  centre 

3     r  40 

107     9  10 



South  Island,  centre 


107   12  40 



Table  Island,  centre 


107   15     0 



Hewett  Shoal            ... 

2  53  20 

107    10  40 



Pulo  Leat,  S.E.  point 

2  54  30 

107     4     0 



Heroine  Shoal,  douUful 

3  37     0 

107  45  30 



Carnbee  Rocks         .                 .                 - 

3  33  30 

107  39     0 



Selio  Island,  South  point 

3  14     0 

107   30     0 



Six  Islands,  Ross  Island 


107   20     0 



Table  or  Klemar  Island,  summit 


107   15     0 



Hoog  or  High  Island,  centre  - 

2  51     5 

107    19     0 



Tanjong  Bienga,  extreme 

2  34  40 

107  37     0 



N.E.  Coast  of  Banka,  Etc. 

Totawa  Bank,  Pulo  Bocar       -                -  J 

2   14     0 

106  31     0 

J.  Robinson. 




Horse  Eock  .  .  - 

Fathool  Barie  Shoal,  2^  fathoms 
Djederika  ShoaJ,  3  feet 
Palmer  Eeef  .  -  . 

Tanjong  Eiah  ... 

Dangers  North  and  N.W.  of  Gaspar 

Canning  Rock  ... 

Pare  Joie  ... 

Belvedere  Shoals,  S.W.  end   - 

Dutch  Shoal 

Magdalen  Reef         ... 

Laniick  or  Newland  Reef 

Actfeon  Rock  .  „  - 

Scheweningen  Shoal 


Kebatoe  or  Shoe  Island 
"White  Island  .  -  . 

Zephyr  Rock  -  .  . 

Karang  Kawat,  North  Reef    - 
„  South  Reef   - 

Katapang  Island      -  -  . 

Scharvogel  Islands,  East  Island 
Discovery  West  Bank 

,,  Reef        -  .  . 

,,         East  Bank 
Lavender  Bank        .  .  . 

Cirencester  Shoal    -  .  . 

Bower  Shoal  .  .  . 

Osterly  South  Shoal 

Cirencester  Bank     -  -  . 

IMontaran  Islands,  East  Island 
Catherine  or  Evans  Reef 
Ontario  Reef,  centre 
Soruetou  Island,  West  point  - 
Carimata  Island,  peak 
Greig  Shoal,  8  feet  spot 
Columbus  Shoal       .  .  _ 

West  Coast  of  Borneo. 

Sambar  Point  -  -  . 

Mount  Minto  -  .  . 

Succadana,  centre  of  bay 

Pontianak  River,  entranee 

Tanjong  INlampawa,  extreme  - 

Piilo  Sitendang,  centre 

Pulo  Baroe,  centre  -  .  . 

Tanjong  Batoe  Blad,  W.  extr.  of  Borneo 

Sambas  River,  South  point  of  entrance 

Tanjong  Api  ... 

Fox  Shoal,  West  Rock    • 

Ckmencia  lieef        -  .  . 

14  30 
4  o 
59  o 
54  o 
52  o 

2  22  40 
2  14  30 
2  10  40 
I  59  o 
I  50  40 

I  39  48 
I  19  12 

106  34  o 
ro6  27  o 
106  28  o 
106  27  30 
106  14  o 

107  13  o 

107  3  o 

106  59  o 

106  44  o 

106  59  30 

106  59  30 

106  37  58 

106  39  48 

3  47  45 
3  48  50 
3  48  20 

3  42  40 

3  44  10 

3  23  20 

3  17  0 
3  38     0 

3  35  45 

3  34  40 

3  24     5 

3  14  30 

3  28  45 

3  19     0 

3  14  30 

2  29    0 

2  31   30 

2     I  45 

I  42     0 

I  35  40 

0  53  30 

0  51     0 

2  56  30 

2   14    0 

I  12  30 


0  21     0 

0  23     0 

0  36  15 

0  47  35 

I   II     0 

I  56  36 


3   32     0 

3  24     0 


4  o 
3  20 
3  10 

7  30 
08  6  5 

07  55  30 

08  28  o 
08  44  30 

08  49  25 

09  12  35 
09  I  30 
08  59  o 
08  40  30 
08  37  o 
08  59  o 
08  51  40 
08  54  30 
08  39  o 
08  42  o 
08  52  30 
08  28  o 
08  16  o 

110  14  o 

no  3  40 

no  o  10 

109  10  o 

108  54  o 

108  43  o 

108  43  40 

108  50  10 

108  59  o 

109  20  24 

J.  Robinson. 



1 10 
1 10 

7  45 
7  45 

Scheweningen,  1870 

H.M.S.    Nassau, 

Dutch  Survey. 

H.M.S.     Nassau, 

H.M.S.  Stjlvia,\^Ti 
Dufch  Survey. 
H.M.S.      Sylvia, 

Dutch  Surrey 

Croot,  1869. 

Dutch  Survey. 



Sir  E.  Belcher. 




Mankap  Island    -  -  - 

Kumpal  Island,  West  point 
Toekan  Menskoedoe  (Gilbert  Rocks) 
Birds'  Nest  Islands,  Boorong  Island 
Ginting  Island    ... 
Pyramid  Island,  centre  . 
Tallack  Shoal      - 
Maleden  or  filaleidong  Island 
Panambungun  Island,  West  point 
Masien  Tiega  Islands,  West  Island 


Toejoe  Island,  S.E.  point 

Pule  Joe  .  .  -  . 

Docan  Island,  centre 

Totj'  Island,  centre 

Taya  Island,  centre 

Ilchester  Bank,  centre     - 

Pulo  Sinkep,  Boekoe  or  South  point 

Linga  Island,  Diang  or  East  point 

Linga,  Dyak  Town 

East  Domino,  centre 

Kintar  Island,  South  high  bluff. 
Rodong  Island,  peak 
Frederick  iieef,  centre    . 
Gin  or  Great  Islmd,  Pulo  Terobi 
Geldria  Banks,  Boat  Rocks 
Pido  Panjang,  Passage  Rock 
Bintang  Island,  Brakit  point 

Islands  between   Borneo  and  Singa. 
PORE  Strait. 

Dntu  Island,  peak  ... 

Direction  Island  .  -  - 

Si.  Barbe  Island,  N.E.  hill 
Welstead  Shoal  .... 
St.  Esprit  Group,  S.E.  Island     . 
S.W.  Island   . 
„  Head  Island,  S.  point 

,,  Hill  on  South  end  of 

largest  island  .... 
Green  Island,  centre        .  -  - 

Ro  iger  Rock       -  .  .  - 

Tambelan  Island,  highest  peak  - 

„  North    end,    Observa. 

tory  Station      .... 
Europe  Shoal,  3-fathom  patch     - 
Rocky  Islets,  northern    -  -  . 

Gap  Rock,  summit  ... 

St.  Julian  Island,  summit 
Camels  Hump  Island,  summit     - 
Saddle  Island  „  .  . 

Barren  Island  „  -  - 

Victory  Island  ,,  - 

St.  I'ierre  Rock  «  -  - 

4  30 
47  40 
14  20 
43  0 
41  0 
29  30 
21  0 
31  0 
12     0 

0  54  30 

1     9  10 
1  1.5  40 

0  58  0 
0  54  0 
0  43  30 
0  24  30 
0  39  50 
0  14  20 
0  13  40 
0  6  0 
0  2  40 
0  24  12 
0  37  0 
0  42  40 

0  49  40 

1  1  30 
1  14  30 

0  10  G 

0  14  39 

0  8  6 

0  32  0 

0  SO  45 

0  33  1.5 

0  35  44 

0  37  31 
0  44  43 

0  41  15 

1  1  5 

1  0  27 
1  11  19 
1  11  9 
1  12  30 

0  55  40 

1  11  46 
1  19  21 
1  31  50 
1  34  46 
1  51  42 

110  13  0 

110  1  60 

109  57  0 

109  17  30 

109  4 

108  59 

109  6 
109  21 
109  9 

109  12  30 

105  20  0 
105  16  20 
105  38  30 
105  45  45 
104  54  0 
104  57  0 
104  22  0 
104  58  0 
104  33  30 
104  68  20 

104  46  0 

104  26  36 

105  9  0 
104  48  0 
104  56  45 
104  51  30 
104  35  0 

108  35  50 
108  1  53 
107  13  30 
107  63  0 
107  8  30 

106  58  15 

107  4  41 

107  0  50 
107  18  52 
107  31  12 
107  32  22 

107  24  10 
107  25  27 
107  13  0 
107  34  20 
106  43  30 

106  52  58 

107  2  17 
106  25  35 
106  18  40 

108  38  57 

Dutch  Survey. 

M.  D.  Tallack. 
Dutch  Survey. 











West  Side. 

Missana  Island,  North  point 

Niamok,  South  point 

Rodong  Peak       .  -  - 

Binan  Island,  South  point 

Selanga  Islands,  largest  - 

Oedik  Island        ... 

Pulo  Rondo  or  Dumpo    - 

East  Bank,  10-feet  patch 

Little  Gurras  Island,  lighthouse  - 

Moeboet  Island,  East  point 

Sembolang  Point,  extreme 

Little  Tiemara  Island,  N.E.  end 

Sau  Island,  lighthouse  on  East  point 

Malang  Orang  Shoal,  centre 

Pan  Reef  Beacon,  North  end 

Little  Pan  Reef,  centre   - 

East  Side. 

Talang  Island,  West  point 
Siolon  or  Mantang  Island,  S.W.  hill 
Rotterdam  Reef  .  .  - 

Pankel  Island,  South  summit 
Dompa  Island,  West  point 
Rhio,  Fort  Crown  Prince 
Terkolei  Island,  lighthouse 
Isabella  Shoal,  West  end 
Little  Loban  Island,  West  point 
Bintang    Island,  West  point 

„         Subong  Point,  Andying  Id. 


Tanjong  Jaboeng,  or  Cape  Bon,  extreme 
Varella  or  Brahalla  I.,  summit  - 
Pollux  Rock        .  .  .  . 

Sinkep  Island,  Boekoe  or  South  point     - 
Speke  Rock  .  .  .  . 

Atkin  Rock  .... 

Alang  Tiga  Group,  South  Island 
Basso  or  Bakauw  Point,  extreme 

Baroe  or  Date  Point,  extreme     - 

Ponoebo  Island,  West  end 

Leda  Rock  -  -  -  . 

Irene  Rock,  doubtful        ... 
Allor  Island         -  .  .  . 

Great  Abang,  North  end 
Potona:  Island,  South  end 
South  Brother,  centre      ... 
Fiilse  Durian,  East  point 
Little  Durian,  South  point 

0  26  20 
0  20  20 
0  24  15 
0  27  32 
0  30  8 
0  32  10 
0  36  10 
0  40  35 
0  44  30 
0  49  15 
0  51  30 

0  56  45 

1  3  6 
1  8  30 
1  9  45 
1  11  12 

0  43  30 
0  44  45 
0  45  25 
0  49  30 
0  52  40 
0  56  36 
0  57  10 
0  57  30 

0  58  55 

1  4  5 
1  10  55 

0  58  0 
0  48  10 
0  43  10 
0  38  0 
0  33  30 
0  30  0 
0  29  50 
0  19  0 
0  0  45 
0  17  0 
0  12  0 
0  24  5 
0  27  50 
0  36  20 
0  36  10 
0  33  30 
0  37  20 
0  43  25 

104  31  0 
104  33  45 
104  26  35 
104  27  50 
104  21  30 
104  18  20 
104  18  30 
104  21  5 
104  22  18 
104  18  12 
104  16  12 
104  12  25 
104  11  6 
104  9  40 
104  11  25 
104  9  18 

104  36  0 
104  31  0 
104  25  25 
104  21  40 
104  25  0 
104  26  35 
104  20  25 
104  15  15 
104  13  35 
104  13  0 
104  18  36 

104  22  10 
104  24  0 
104  29 
104  22 
104  6 
l(/4  3 
104  2 

103  45  10 

103  47  10 

104  23  10 
















103  45  40 
103  41  50 
103  39  50 

Reed  and  Tizard 

Van     Carnbee, 
Stanton,  &c. 


Polphin  Isl.'tnd,  summit 

Sabon  Island,  Decpwater  Point  - 

Tiittle  Carimon  Island,  N.E.  point 

Pulo  Doncan,  centre 

Tree  Island,  centre  ;  beacon  proposed 


Tanjong  Bolus  or  Baru,  extreme 
Carimon  Islands,  North  Brother 

„         Little  Carimon,  N.E.  point 
Coney  Island,  Raffles  lighthouse  • 
SINGAPORE,  Fort  FuUerton  - 
Bintang  Great  HiU 
Barbukit  Hill,  summit  645'feet  - 
Pedra  Branca,  Horsburgh  lighthouse 


Malay  Peninsula,  East  Coast. 

Pulo  Eu  - 

Pulo  Tingy,  summit        ... 

Pulo  Aor,  South  peak  180.5  feet  - 

Pulo  Pemangil,  South  peak 

Pulo  Varela         .... 

Howard  Shoal     -  .  -  - 

Pulo  Brala  .... 

Pulo  Kapas,  S.W.  point 

Kalantan,  entrance  of  small  river  East  of 

Kalantan  River  ... 

Great  Redang  Island,  Bukit  Mara 

„  peak 

Turtle-back  Island,  South  side    - 
Baltu  Rackil  Rock,  centre 
Cape  Patani,  N.E.  point 
Singora,  S.W.  point  of  Pulo  Ticos 
Koh  Krah,  S.E.  point     - 
Pulo  Obi,  Square  rock  on  S.W.  point     - 
Pulo  Panjang,  N. W.  corner  of  S.W.  bay 
Pulo  Way,  South  extreme  of  sandy  bay, 

near  middle  of  N.E.  side  of  W,  island 
Koh  Tang  or  Koh  Prins,  South  rock  of 

group  -  -  -  -    _        - 

Tanqualah,  North  point  of  middle  island 

of  group  -  -  .  - 

Condor  Reef        .  -  .  . 

False  Pulo  Obi,  West  side 
Teeksou  Island,  N.W.  side 
Pulo  Dama,  Rocky  Island  on  E.  Side     - 
Water  Island  (Tianmoi)  W.  point 
Rockj^  Island,  Kamput,  centre   - 
Kusrovie  Rock,  centre     .  .  - 

0  50     0 

0  47     0 

1  10     0 

0  58     0 

1  8  40 

1  16  10 

1  11  50 

1  10  0 

1  9  50 

I  17  20 

1  4  20 

1  24  20 

1  20  0 

7  0 
18  0 
26  30 
34  30 
18  0 
17  0 
49  0 
13  1 

6  11  53 
6  44  21 
5  48  16 

5  49  40 

6  40  36 

6  58  1 

7  13  54 

8  24  47 

8  25  37 

9  18  14 

9  55  11 

10  21  20 

10  15  24 

10  43  0 

8  56  43 

9  57  12 
9  41  54 

10  24  44 

10  27  58 

11  6  25 

103  38  40 

103  32  20 

103  23  0 

103  43  0 

103  40  0 

103  30  0 
103  20  45 
103  23  0 
103  44  50 

103  51  18 

104  27  20 
104  12  20 
104  24  30 

104  17  0 

104  9  0 

104  34  15 

104  22  0 

103  38  0 

103  38  30 

103  38  0 

103  16  4 

102  20  47 

103  1  39 

103  0  48 

102  37  9 
101  43  56 

101  18  39 
100  36  12 
100  45  27 

104  48  49 

103  29  14 

102  53  29 

102  56  34 

103  8  49 

102  61  0 

104  31  33 
104  49  10 
104  21  29 

103  47  4 

104  11  55 
102  47  49 

Thompson     and 




Lieut.  Veron. 




Ellen  Bangka  Shoal        -  -  - 

Koh    Kong,    South  point   of   river    en- 
trance -  -  -  -  - 
Koh  Chang,  small  island  on  W.  side 
Chentabun  River,  entrance,  Kho  Chula, 
or  Bar  Island  -             -             -  - 
Koh  Samit,  Brown  rock,  off  Lena  Ya     - 
Koh  Luem,  peak              .             -             - 
Cape  Liant,  N.W.  rock  of  Koh  Mesan    - 
Koh  Si-chang,  S.W.  point  of  Koh  Kam 
Bangkok  Kiver,  pile  lighthouse  - 
Bangkok,  Old  British  factory     - 
Maconchisi          .            _            .  - 


Oape  St.  James,  lighthouse 
S  ligon.  Observatory 
Kega  Point  .  .  - 

Cape  Padaxan      .  .  - 

Cape  Varela         .  -  - 

Cape  San-ho        -  -  - 

Pulo  Canton        ... 
Cape  Touron        ... 
Touron  Bay,  Observatory  island 
Cape  Choumay,  extreme 
Eiver  Hue,  extreme 

Gulf  of  Tong  King. 

Cape  Lay             .            .  .  . 

Tseu  or  Goat  Island        -  -  . 
Matt  Island     .    - 

Lacht  Kouenn  -  .  .  - 
Mfe  Island,  centre  .  .  . 
Ne  Island  .  .  .  . 
Lacht  Huen  River,  Houdau  Island  light- 
house -  -  -  .  . 
Haiphong  .  .  .  - 
Gowtow  Island,  South  point 
Cape  Pahklung  .  .  -  - 
Pakhoi  .  .  -  .  - 
Cape  Cami           .            -  -  . 

Hainan  Island, 

Hainan  Head 

Hoi  How  town,  N.W.  end 

Pyramid  Point    - 

Cape  Bastion 

Tinhosa  Island,  South  end 

O         II 

11  11  0 

11  33  0 

12  1  20 

12  27  43 

12  30  32 

12  57  30 

12  35  8 

13  9  56 

13  29  26 

13  44  20 

13  39  0 

10  19  14 

10  46  39 

10  42  0 

11  21  0 

12  §5  0 

13  44  0 

15  24  0 

16  8  0 

16  7  0 

16  21  0 

16  35  30 

17  6  0 

18  8  0 

18  54  30 

19  4  30 

19  21  0 

19  52  0 

20  37  30 

20  49  0 

107  44  30 

21  31  0 

21  28  57 

20  13  0 

20  12  0 

20  4  30 

18  55  0 

18  9  30 

18  39  30 

102  47  0 

102  57  14 

102  15  49 

102  4  19 

101  26  39 

100  38  59 

100  56  52 

100  49  22 

100  35  20 

100  28  42 

100  11  0 

107  5  25 

106  42  31 

107  59  40 

108  58  0 

109  24  80 
109  14  0 
109  6 
108  21 
108  17 
108  3 
107  42 

107  7  30 

106  17  10 

105  56  0 

105  43  9 

105  55  30 

106  0  0 

106  49  30 

106  40  0 

20  50  0 

108  17  0 

109  6  40 
109  55  0 

110  44  30 

110  19  0 

108  21  30 

109  33  0 

110  42  0 

Ellen  BangJca, 



French  charts. 

British  &  French 

partial  surveys 

to  1877. 









Tanjong  Api        .... 

°1  56  36 

109   20  24 



Tanjong  Datu      .... 

2     5  15 

109  39   13 



Sarawak    River,     Santubong    entrance, 

Kra  Island       .... 

1  42     0 

110   18     0 



Cape  Sipang        .... 

1   48     2 

110  20     0 


Po  Point  Light  .... 

1  43   10 

110  31   30 


Tanjong  Barram               ... 

2  36   15 

1'3  58  35 



Gunung  Malu,  summit    ... 

4     5  20 

114  55     8 



Bruni  Bluff,  extreme       ... 

5     3     0 

115     3  20 



Bruni  River,  palace         ... 

4  52  40 

114  55  20 


Labuan  Group,  Victoria  Harbour,  Ram- 

Mean of  Belcher, 

sey  point  flugstaff        ... 

5   16  33 

115  15  15 

Richards,  &Reed. 


Mangalum  Island,  S.W.  point    - 

6   10  40 

116  35  20 



North  Furious  Shoals,  11  fathoms 

7     3  19 

116   18   15 



South  Furious  Shoals,  7  fathoms 

6  48  30 

116  14  45 


Batomande  Rocks           ... 

6  52  42 

116  36  24 




Balambangan  Island,  South  point 

7  12  20 

116  51   40 

Reed,  1868-9. 


„             Tiga  Islet,  centre 

7  21   12 

117     2  50 


Banguey  Peak,  1876  feet 

7  18   10 

117     5  20 


Lit.  MoUeangan  Island,  centre  - 

7     5  25 

117     1  30 


Mallawalle,  South  extreme 

7     1  45 

117  IS  10 


Balabac  Island,  South  point 

7  48  40 

117     1     0 


Calandorang  Bay  Lt.  on  S.  pt.  of  entr.  - 

7  59     0 

117     4  20 



S.  Mangsee  Island,  centre 

7  31     5 

117  18  20 



Lumbucan,  N.W.  extreme 

7  50  20 

117  12  50 


Nasubatta  Island             ... 

8     1  45 

117     9  50 


Secam  Island,  East  end  ... 

8  10  40 

117     1  35 



Palawan  Island — West  Coast. 

Cape  Buliluyan,  S.  extreme  of  Palawan 

8  20  25 

117     9  41 



Capyas  Island     .... 

8  26  25 

117  10  16 



Caneepaan  River,  entrance 

8  34  40 

117  14  41 



Bulanhow  Mountain,  highest  part 

8  36  25 

117  21   11 


Cape  Seeacle       .... 

8  36  30 

117  14     1 


Pagoda  Cliff;  highest  part 

8  43  45 

117  29     6 



Balansungain  Islands,  "West  island 

8  45  35 

117  21  21 



Mantaleengahan  Mountain,  highest  part 

8  49  22 

117  39  26 



Illaan  Hill           .... 

8  55  10 

117  31  41 



Pampangduyang  Point  -             .             - 

8  57  40 

117  31  56 



Gantung  Peak,  highest  part 

8  57  53 

117  47  56 



Eran  Quoin,  highest  part 

9     3  25 

117  38  56 



Bivouac  Islet,  North  extreme     - 

9     4  52 

117  42  28 



Pu-lute  Peak,  highest  part 

9     8     8 

117  56  11 



Malapakkun  Island,  highest  part 

9  14  50 

117  50  11 



Tay-bay-u  Bay,  entr.  of  Malanut  R. 

9  14  50 

117  59  46 



Victoria  Peak,  5,680  ft.,  highest  part     - 

9  22  30 

118  17  26 


Palm  Islet,  highest  part 

9  22  40 

118     1  48 



Long  Point,  West  extreme 

9  38     8 

118  19     6 



Anipahan,  huts  .... 

9  43  50 

118  27  11 



I.   A. 






Thamb  Peak,  highest  part  of  range 


47  45 

118  35  26 



Hen  and  Chickens,  largest  islet  - 


58  23 

118  36  16 



Ulugan  Bay,  Observatory  Head- 


6   11 

118  46  26 



Cleopatra  Needle,  highest  part  of  range  - 


7  38 

118  59  16 



Mount  Peel,  highest  part 


0  10 

118  32  26 



Cape  Sangbowen              ... 


11  45 

118  47  56 



Jib-boom  Bay,  Zoe  islet  - 


20  20 

118  57  11 



May-day  Bay,  watering  place     - 


24  22 

119     1  56 



Port  Barton,  Bubon  point 


29  19 

119     5  37 



Pagdanan  Point               ... 


33     0 

119  13  21 



Bold  Head,  highest  point 


35  10 

119     6  56 


AVedge  Island        „         - 


43  35 

119   11  44 



Mount  Capoas,  highest  p  irt        - 


48  10 

119   16  56 



Cape  Capoas,  extreme     ... 


51  38 

119  12     6 


Malampaya  Pound  entrance.  Round  Islet 


59  25 

119  14   16 



Pirate  Bay,  Look-out  Hill,  highest  part 


56   10 

119  16  26 



Pancol  Village,  Stockade 


52     9 

119  22  56 



Baulao  Village         „       - 


46  15 

119  26     4 



Bacuit  Baj',  Old  Village 


2  30 

119  24  56 



Bacuit  Village,  or  Talan-dac,  Stockade  - 


11     0 

119  22  56 



The  Horn,  Matinloc,  highest  part 


11     0 

119  16  41 



Tapiutan  Island                     „ 


12  50 

119  15  18 



Cadlao,  or  Table  Top  Id.     „ 


13     6 

119  21     1 



High  Table  Range                „ 


14  45 

119  27  50 


North  extreme  of  Palawan,  highest  part 

of  Cabuli  Island           ... 


26  25 

119  29  46 



Palawan— East  Coast. 

Ursula  Island,  West  end 


20  42 

117  29  56 


Rocky  Bay,  Pirate  Inlet 


33     0 

117  32  31 



Tac-bo-lu-bu,  entrance  of  rivulet 


43  21 

117  44  26 


Point  Sir  James  Brook  -             .             . 


46     0 

117  48  46 


Nose  Point          .... 


53     0 

117  59  11 



East  Island,  N.W.  extreme 


53  45 

118  13  56 


Ma-la-nut  Mound            ... 


9  15 

118     2  41 


Casuarina  Point  -             .             .             . 


15     0 

118  24  16 



30th  of  June  Island,  highest  part 


22  30 

118  33  56 



Port    Royalist,    Fresh    Water    Rivulet 

entrance          .... 


34  30 

118  40     6 



„              Tide-pole  Point 


43  43 

118  43     3 



Deep  Bay,  Anchorage  Island,  N.E.  end  - 


56  30 

118  bo  19 



Bold  Point           .... 


1  45 

119     8  56 


Green  Island  Bay,  Relief  Point  - 


9  45 

118  12     1 


Barbacan  Village,  Stockade 


21  45 

119  23     1 



Mount  Baring,  2,100  feet 


24  55 

119  32  56 


Ulan  Village       .... 


25  12 

119  34  31 



Dumaran  Island,  East  extr.  Pirate  Hd.  - 


34  40 

120     0  11 



„        Village,  fort   -            .            . 


32     0 

119  45  51 


Carlandagan  Island,  highest  part 


40     0 

120  14  56 


Barren  Island,  Watering  Bay    - 


42     0 

119  41  36 



Tai-Tai  Village,  fort       - 


50     0 

119  30  56 


Silanga  Village,  Stockade 


1  45 

119  33  46 


Broken  Island,  highest  part 


7  25 

119  44  41 



Santa  Monica  Village,  Stockade 


18     0 

119  33  41 



East  peak,  highest  part  -             - 


17  40 

119  31  31 






Ol)8ervatory  Island,  West  side  - 
Green  Island  ... 
Haycock  Island  .  -  - 

Calarite  Island    -  .  - 

N.W.  Rock 

North  Eock         ... 
Hunter  Shoal      ... 
Merope  Shoal      ... 
Mangarim  Bay,  Sandy  Tongue  - 
Garza  Bay,  Garza  Island 
Appo  Island        ... 
Menor  Island      ... 
Paluan  Bay,  beach 
Cape  Calavite      ... 
Looc  Bay,  Lubang  Island 
Fortun  Island     ... 
Cabra  Island,  S.E.  extreme 
Pulo  Caliallo  lighthouse 
Cavite  Port,  Naval  head  quarters 
MANILA,  N.  pier  lighthouse 

,,         Cathedral 
Capon  es  Point     -  -  - 

Port  Sual 
Dile  Point 
Cape  Bojeador    ... 

Scarborough  Shoal,  S.W.  extreme 
Pratas  Island,  N.E.  end 
„      Reef,  N.E.  point 


AxAMBA  Islands. 

White  Eock 
Repon  Island 
Domar  Island 
Guerite  high  rock    - 

Natuna  Islands. 

Marundum  Island    - 

South  Haycock  Island 

Serai  or  West  Island 

Low  Island 

Jackson  Eeef 

North  Haycock  Island 

Selu:in  Island 

I'yramidal  Rocks 

Success  Reef 

Si.mione  or  Saddle  Island 


30  16 

3  0 

10  0 

21  30 
24  15 
28  0 
40  0 
43  30 
20  0 
12  26 

39  10 

40  0 
23  30 
26  0 
43  48 

2  45 
52  30 

22  30 

23  55 
36  24 
36  3 
54  0 

7  20 
34  30 
30  0 

1.5  6  44 
20  42  30 
20  47  0 

2  20 
2  25 

2  45 

3  29 

119  39  33 
119  47  0 
119  48  0 
119  53  30 

119  52  0 

120  1  30 
120  13  10 

120  17  0 

121  2  8 
121  10  50 
120  26  10 
120  28  0 
120  29  18 
120  18  0 
120  16  0 
120  28  34 
120  2  30 
120  36  0 
120  54  54 
120  57  20 
120  58  8 
120  3  0 
120  2  44 

Spanish  Surveys 
to  1871. 







120  20  30 

120  34  0 

117  44  3 

116  43  22 

116  53  0 

105  34 
105  52 

105  25  0 

106  12  20 


„  598 


K.'M.S.Mafficienne,   603 

Various.        604 


Wilds&Stanley.  '  606 
Richards.  ■  606 


2  4 


109  7  20 

2  17 


108  55   15 

2  40 


108  35  0 

3  0 


107  48  0 

2  56 


107  55  0 

3  17 


107  34  30 

4  9 


107  50  0 

4  3 


107  21  45 

4  22 


107  55  0 

4  31 


lf7  42  30 






Eastern  Side  of  Main  Route. 

Vanguard  Bank,  S.W.  extreme 
Grainger  Bank,  centre 
Prince  Consort  Bank,  S.W.  extreme 
Prince  of  Wales  Bank,  centre 
Alexandra  Bank,  3-fathoms  patch 
]iifleman  Bank,  11 -feet  patch,  N.E.  end 
Ladd  Beef,  East  extreme 
Spratlj'  Island,  centre 
West  London  Reef,  Sandy  cay 
Central  London  Reef,  centre    - 
East  London  Reef,  East  end    - 
Cuarteron  Reef,  East  extreme 
Fiery  Cross  or  X.W.  Invcbtigator  Reef, 
S.W.  end  -  -  - 

Discovery  Great  Reef,  South  end 

„         Small  Reef 
Western  or  Flora  Temple  Reef,  centre  - 
Tizard  Bank,  Outer  edge  of  West  Reef  - 
Itu  Aba  Island         ... 
,,         Eldad  Reef,  N.  extreme 
„         S.W.  extreme,  Gaven  Reefs    - 
Loai-ta  or  South  Island,  K.W.  extreme  - 
Soubie  Reef,  S.W.  end 
Thi-tu  Island,  tree  on  S.W.  end 
Trident  Shoal,  centre  of  patch  at  North 
extreme  ... 

Lys  Shoal,  17-feet  patch 
J^orth  Danger  Reef,  tree  on  N.E.  cay     - 

Main  Route. 

Charlotte  Bank,  8  fathoms 
Scawfell  Shoal  .  .  - 

Banda  Shoal  ... 

Jjarge  Island  of  Pulo    Condure   Group, 

Landing-place  in  Great  Bay 
Brothers  Islands,  West  Island 
Royal  Bi.'.hop  Bank,  10  fathoms 
Raglan  Bank  ... 

Pulo  Sapatu,  summit 
Julia  Shoal  ... 

Great  Catwick  Island 
Little  Cat  wick  Island,  summit 
Yusun  Shoal  ... 

Pulo  Cticer  de  Mer,  S.W.  hill 
Holland  Bank,  centre  patch    - 

Paracel  Islands  and  Reefs — 

Triton  Island        ... 
Bombay  Shoal,  S.W.  extreme 
l*yraniid  Rock      .  .  _ 

Lincoln  Island,  S.E.  point   - 
Passoo  Keah  Island 
Discovery  Shoal,  West  extreme 
Vuliddore  Shoal,  centre 
()b.«ervation  Bank 

Amphitrite  I.slands,  E.  extreme  of  reef 
Woody  Island  ... 
Rocky  Island        -  .  . 

Korth  Shoal,  East  extreme  - 

7  16  30 
7  47  4.5 

7  46     0 

8  8  30 
8     I  30 

7  55  20 

8  40  15 
8  38  0 
8  52  0 
8  55  30 
8  49  38 

8  50  54 

9  32  0 
10  0  42 
10  I  30 
10  15  0 
10  13  20 
10  22  25 
10  23  0 
10  13  20 
10  40  45 

10  53  30 

11  3     9 

11  31  30 
11  19  40 
11  28     0 

7     7  15 

7  19  0 

8  0  0 

8  40  57 

8  34  0 

9  40  0 
24  0 

58  23 
56  30 

2  56 

59  30 
10  16  0 
10  32  36 
10  39  0 

15  46  0 

15  59  0 

16  34  0 
16  39  34 
16  6  0 
16  11  40 
16  18  0 
16  36  0 
16  54  0 
16  50  30 

16  52  0 

17  6  30 

109  26  0 

110  29  0 

109  55  0 

110  32  30 

110  36  45 

111  42  0 
111  41  0 

111  54  30 

112  14  45 
112  20  0 
112  37  26 
112  49  34 

112  53 

113  51 

114  1 

113  37 

114  13 
114  21 
114  42 
114  13 
114  24  54 
114  4  0 
114  16  25 

114  39  15 
114  34  24 
114  20  45 

107  37  15 

106  51  0 

107  0  0 

106  36 

106  11 

108  14 

109  26 






108  56  30 
108  43  0 

111  11 

112  26 
112  36 
112  44 
111  46 

111  33 

112  2 

111  40  30 

112  22  0 
112  19  0 
112  19  30 
111   32  30 





Banda,  1871. 

Wilds  k  Reed. 

Jaclmel,  1875. 






SI.  Esprit  Shoal,  centre 
Helen  Shoal,  centre 

Shoals  in  Palawan  Passage. 

South  Lugonia  Shoals,  Luconia  Breakers 
North  „  Seahorse  Breakers 

„  „  N.  part  of  Friend- 

ship Shoal  .  .  . 

Louisa  Shoal,  S.W.  rock 
Vernon  Bank,  centre  of  Fuiy  Rocks 

„  2|-fathom8  patch 

Samarans:  Bank,  centre 
Saracen  Bank,  centre 
Koj'al  Charlotte  Shoal 
Viper  Shoal,  doubtful 
North  Viper  Shoal,  South  end 
Commodore  Reef,  centre 

On  the  Western  Side. 

Half-Moon  Shoal,  Inclined  rock  on  East 
side       -  -  .  . 

Ro3-al  Captain  Shoal,  Observation  Rock, 
at  North  extreme 

Bombay  Shoal,  Madagascar  Rock,  on 
N.E.  extreme        ... 

Carnatic  Shoal,  centre 

On  the  Eastern  Side. 

Herefordshire  Shoal,  centre     - 
Scaleby  Castle  Shoal,  centre    - 
York  I3reakers,  centre 
Crescent  Reef,  centre 

Shoals  West  of  Palawan  Route. 

Owen  Shoal 

Amboyna  Cay 

Lizzie  Webber  Shoal 

Stags  Shoal,  doubtful 

Pearson  Reef 

Swallow  Reef,  eastern  high  rock 

Dallas  Breakers 

Ardasier,  South  Breakers 

Gloucester  Breakers 

Ardasier  Breakers 

Investigator  Shoal,  West  point 

Cay  Marino  (?) 

Amy  Douglas  Shoal 

Fairy  Queen  Shoal  - 

Coral  Bank,  12  fathoms 

Routh  Shoal,  North  extreme  - 

Seahorse,  North  extreme 

Saudy  Shoal 

Templer  Bank,  centre 

19  33 
19  12 

5     3  24 
5  31     o 

59  30 
19  45 
43  30 
49  20 

35  15 

7  30 
57  o 
30    o 

59     o 

8  20  30 

8  51  45 

9  I  45 

9  26     7 
[o     6     o 

8  35     o 

9  53  30 
10  40    o 


7  51  45 

8  24    o 
8  56     o 

23  o 

38  o 

34  o 

50  o 

56  o 


8  30     o 

10  52     o 

10  39     o 

11  26     o 
10  50     o 

10  50     o 

11  2      O 

II     7     o 

133       2      O 

"3  53  39 

tI2  41  36 

112  34      O 

112  31  30 

113  18  30 

"5  2  15 

"5  5  50 

"4  53  45 

115  20  30 

"3  35  15 

115  o  o 

115  23  o 

115  25  o 

116  16  45 

116  39  36 

116  56     4 

117  21     o 

116  59  19 

117  17  II 

118  8  26 
118  42  26 

I"  59 
"2  55 
113  12 

"2    57 

"3  44 

113  50 

"3  54 

114  9 

114  15 
114  2 
114  31 
114  21 

116  25 

"7  38 
"6  53 

117  46 
117  46 

"7  37 
117   13 



















..  (•) 









JAVA,  NoETH  Coast. 

!St.  Nicholas  Point,  extreme    - 

Pulo  Panjang,  N.W.  Point     - 

Ponlang  Point,  North  extreme 

Pulo  Babi,  centre     -  -  - 

Bantam,  flagstaff  of  fort 

Menschen-eter  Id.,  Lighthouse  proposed 

Ontong  Java,  extreme  of  point 

Onrust  Island,  flagstaff 

Great  Kombuvs,  bright  It.  on  N.W.  pt.- 

BATAVIA,  Observatory  and  Timeball  - 

Krawang  Point,  extreme 

Pamanoekan  Point,  extreme   - 

Indramayoe  Point,  North  extreme 

Eackit  or  Boompjes  Island,  lighthouse  - 

Cape  Tanna  -  -  - 

Cheribon,  lighthouse 

Cheribon  Peak,  summit  10,323  ft. 

Tegal  Peak,  summit  1 1 ,300  ft. 

Tegal,  flagstaff  of  fort 

Pekalongan,  lighthouse  West  of  entrance 

Samarang,  flagstaff - 

lapara  Koad,  anchorage 

Karimon    Java    Island,    settlement    on 
Great  Karimon    .  -  - 

Kembang,  flagstaff  -  -  - 

Panka  Point,  flagstaff 
Soerabaya  Strait,  Lightvessel  at  N.  end 
Kresik,  light  on  pier-head 
Soerabay;i  Strait,  Fort  Krfprins 
Soerabaya,  Marine  Establishment,  time- 
ball        .  .  -  . 
Madura  Island,  Wodon  or  N.W.  point  - 

„  East  point 

Bawean  or  Lubeck  Island,  Alang  Alang, 
or  S.W.  point       .  .  - 

Milton  Rock 

Hastings  Rock  .  .  - 

Nahmen's  or  Osterling  Rock  - 
Arrogant  Reef  .  -  . 

Giliang  or  Pondi  Island,  East  point 
iSapoedie  Island,  West  point    - 
Gili  Lawak,  or  Turtle  Island,  centre 
Sumanap,  flagstaff  -  -  - 

Kangeang  Island,  Katapan  or  N.W.  pt. 
Kamirian  or  Urk  Island,  centre 
Karang  Takat  Bank,  N.W.  dry  Bank    - 
Kambing  or  Bukken  Island,  centre 
Koko  Reef,  Lighthouse 
Katapang  or  Krabbrn  Island,  centre 
Proliolingo,  flai;staff 
Mount  Lamoiigan  or  Belierang,  6,824  ft. 
Bezoekie,  flagstaff    -  -  - 

Mount  Ringit  .  .  - 

Panarukan,  flagstaff 
Cape  Tjina,  North  extreme 
Capo  Sedano,  N.E.  Point  of  Java 
Meinders  Droogte,  Lighthouse 

52  33 

55  30 

56  50 
48  45 

1  39 

57  42 
3  2 

2  20 

55  30 

8  o 

57  o 
12  o 

12  30 
54  o 
30  o 

45  30 

54  o 

13  30 
54  o 
54  30 
57  20 
32  30 

53  30 
40  30 

54  o 
57  o 

9  30 


7  15  20 

6  55  40 
6  59  o 

54  o 

44  o 

7  o 

33  o 

12  o 

59  o 

5  20 

12  20 

2  30 

50  30 

4  15 

o  o 

19  36 

28  o 

41  o 

43  30 
o  30 

43  45 

44  20 

43  30 
38  o 

49  o 
41  30 

06  2  10 
06  7  32 
06  16  o 
06  16  o 
06  8  48 
06  30  25 
06  40  20 
06  43  40 
06  34  30 

06  48  7 

07  I  7 

07  45  30 

08  17  37 
08  20  o 
08  31  30 
08  34  30 

08  24  30 

09  13  3 

09  8  7 

09  39  o 

o  24  37 

o  37  30 

0  28  o 

1  29  o 

2  33  o 
2  40  o 
2  39  15 
2  36  9 

2  43  30 
2  48  39 

4  7  33 

2  39  10 

2  33  o 

2  32  o 

2  28  o 

2  55  o 




5  12 
5  " 
4  57 

>7  30 

3  o 

55  o 

12  40 
7  30 
16  10 
12  36 
20  o 
38  o 
51  o 
53  32 
I  30 
26  53 
22  30 


Escher,  &c. 

MelviU  V.  Cambee 

Escher,  &c. 





Staring,  &c. 




S  S.  Milton,  18751  705 



Osterling.  I 

H.IM.S.  Arrogant 

















Java,  South  Coast. 

o            ,           „ 

•      ,      // 

South  Point,  extreme 

8  47     o 

"4  25   13 



Barung  Island,  L;ibuan  or  South  point  - 

8  32     o 

"3   15     0 



Dampar  Bay,  South  point 

8   18     0 

113   11     0 



Sempoe  Island,  West  point     - 

8  28  30 

112  39     0 



Boemhoen  Bay,  Pakis  Point   - 

8   18     0 

I"  53  30 



Gemah  Bay,  Popoh  villaoje 

8  15  4c 

1 1 1  48     0 


Soemhreng  Bay,  Sroyoe  Island 

8  20     0 

111  34     0 



Pangoel  Bay,  Government  storehouse     - 

8   15     0 

III   31     0 



Paijitan  Bay,  c<:^ntie 

8   15     0 

III     3     0 



Wedie  Hombo  Bay,  South  Point 

8   12     0 

119  39     0 


Baglen  or  Mee;anties  Point,  centre  head 

7  45  40 

109  24     0 



Kambangan  Island,  Karang  Bollong  or 

East  point,  Li<?tithouae 

7  44  40 

109     I   35 



Tjilatjap,  Bollong  Rock 

7  44  40 

109     I  35 



Kambangan  Island,  Bessek  or  S.W.  pt.  - 

7  41  45 

108  49     0 



Penaniong  Bay,  Cape  Mandararie 

7  46  50 

108  33     0 


Boemie  Point,' Islet  oflF            - 

7  47   30 

108  17     0 



Cape  Anjol,  extreme 

7  25     0 

106  24  30 



Wynkoops  Bay,  storehouses   - 

6  59  30 

106  35     0 



Zand  Bay,  Mandra  Island,  N.W.  point 

7   II     7 

106     5     0 



Cape  Sangian  Sira,  S.W.  extreme 

6  51  55 

105  13  15 



Java  Sea,  Etc. 

Thousand  Ids.,  Peblakan  or  West  Island 

5  28  45 

106  23     0 



„              Doea  or  North  Island     - 

5  24  30 

106  28     0 



Arnemuiden  Rock   -                 -                 - 

5  12  30 

106  42     0 



Jlolenwerf  Shoal  (?) 

5  13     0 

106  50     0 



Etna  Shoal                ... 

5  17  18 

106  55     0 



Brouwers  Shoal        ... 

5  17  30 

107     0  20 

Dutch  Charts. 


South  Watcher,  centre 

5  42  47 

106  42  17 



Nassau  Bank,  centre 

5  49     0 

106  49     0 



Maria  Elise  Shoal,  7  fathoms  - 

5  50  15 

107  35  30 



Solombo  Islands,  Great  Solombo,  hill  on 

South  end              ... 

5  35     0 

114  27     0 

Chart,  1878. 


„                 Little  Solombo,  centre 

5  28     0 

114  28     0 



,,                 Arentes  Island,  centre 

5     ^     0 

114  36  30 



Rosalie  Rock            ... 

5  57     0 

114  14    0 



Borneo,  South  Coast. 

Tanjong  Sambar,  S.E.  point    - 

2  57     0 

no  15     0 



Dieley  River,  East  entrance  point 

2  sz  30 

no  44     0 



Point  Malataiyo       ... 

3  30     0 

113  30     0 



Cape  Salatan,  South  point  of  Borneo 

4  10     0 

114  41     0 



Little  Pulo  Laut  Ids.,  S.AV.  Id.,  centre  - 

4  51   30 

"5  43  30 



JMoesa  Siri,  highest  islet 

4  23     0 

115  50     0 




B.\Li  Island. 

Bali  Peak,  11,326  ft. 

8  21     0 

115  28     0 

Eietveld,   &c.,  to 


Cape  Passier,  N.W.  point 

8     6  10 

114  26     0 



Minjangan  Island,  East  point  - 

8     6  50 

114  32  30 



Mount  Goendel 

8   II     0 

114  47     0 



Tpbonkos,  Road       .                 .                 - 

8   10     0 

114  58     0 



Beliling,  entrance  of  river 

8     6  30 

»i5     4  45 





Sansrsit  Eoad,  liffht  -  -  - 

KarHDg  Assem  Cape,  East  point  of  Bali 
Padang  Cove  ... 

Pandita  Isles,  peak  .  -  . 

Tafelhoek,  Boekit  or  West  point 
Bali  Badong  Bay,  Kotta  village 
Djembrana,  bay        -  -  . 

Manok  Bay,  entrance 

Bali  Strait. 

Cape  Sedano,  N.E.  point  of  Java 
Meindeis  Droogfe  and  Lighthouse 
Duiven  Island,  Lighthouse 
Banjoewangie,  Fort  Utrecht,  light 
Mount  Ikan,  extreme  of  point 
Cape  SlokkOj  East  point  of  Java 

LoMBOK  Island  and  Strait. 

Eindjrinie  Peak,  12,379  feet.    - 
Eoembek,  or  N.W.  point,  extreme 
Tweelings,  or  Twins  Islands,  E.  point    - 
Lombok,  village       -  .  . 

Labuan  Hadji,  Mouth  of  stream 
Pedioe,  Cape  Louar,  flagstaff  - 
Cape  Ringit,  S.E.  point 
Cape  Bangko,  S.W.  point 
Labuan  Tring,  entrance  of  cove 
Ampanam  Baj',  anchorage 
Trawangan,  Island  off  N.W.  point 

Allas  Strait  and  Sumbawa. 

South-west  Point  of  Table  Hill 
Taliwang  Bay,  Knoop  Island - 
Madang  or  Flat  Island,  West  end 
Majo  Island,  Setonda  Island,  off  N.E.  pt, 
Tambora  Volcano,  summit  on  East  side 
of  crater  ... 

Dompo  Bay,  East  side,  Kila  Eoad 
Bima  Bay,  Kambing  Island    - 
Sangeang,  highest  peak 
Sapie  Bay,  Doembia  Point 
Tempie  Bay,  entrance 

Sapi  Strait. 

Banta  Island,  peak  -  .  . 

Setan  Island,  peak  -  -  . 

Chii:,ney  or  Schoorsteen  Island,  W.  pt.  - 
Comodo  Island,  South  point    - 

„  N.W.  point    - 

„  N.E.  point 

Floris  or  Mangarai  Island,  Etc. 

Badiak  Cove  -                .                . 

Bodo  Island  ... 

Eeo  Bay,  village  -                 .                . 

Potta,  roadstead  -                 .                 . 

4  o 

23  o 

31  20 

45  o 

48  o 

42  15 

23  o 

10  5 

7  47  12 

7  41  30 

8  2  30 
8  12  20 
8  27  o 
8  42  o 

8  23  o 

8  24  30 

8  17  o 

8  30  o 

8  42  o 

8  47  o 

8  54  o 

8  44  o 

8  42  o 

8  32  o 

8  20  o 

8  49  o 
8  8  40 
8  6  30 

8  12  30 
8  18  o 
S  26  45 
8  12  o 
8  32  30 
8  52  o 

22  30 
31  o 

46  o 

47  o 
26  30 

23  o 














































































































































Eietveld,  &c. 

Melvillv.  Cambee 
Smits,  &c. 

Dutch  charts. 



Diederika  Reef 
Piiloweh  Island,  peak 
LJDguett''  or  Sukur  Island,  peak 
DofiFer  Islands,  East  islet 
Bastaard  Islands,  centre  of  East  island 
Larantiika  Road 

Floris  Head,  or  Iron  Cape,  N.  extreme  - 
An;<elica  Reef 

Kauna  or  Post  Horse  Island   - 
Topa  or  Kilatoa  Island,  Cornelia  Road  ■ 
JIadu  or  Pondian":  Islan'i,  East  point    ■ 
Kalao  Island,  West  point 
Boneratoe  Island,  South  point 
Djampea  Island,  Kanibarraghie  Bay,  E 
point     -  .  .  . 

„  East  point 

„  Bimbe  Island,  off  "West 

point     -  .  .  . 

Kajoewaddie,  peak  on  West  end 
Mamalak  [sland,  centre 
Alligator  Bay  .  .  . 

Flor-'S  Island,  S.W.  point  (C.  Sosa) 
Toren  or  Tower  Island,  peak  - 
South  Point,  Mount  Rokka     - 
Rumba  Volcano,  sun)mit 
Ende  Bay,  West  point 
Amboq;a<ra  Road       -  -  - 

Api  Volcano  .  .  - 

Lofty  peak  on  S.  coast 
Lobetobie  Volcano,  Siiy^irloaf  peak 
Sandalwood  IslanI,  il  indieli  or  E.  point 
,,  Cape  Atta,  extreme 

„  Nangamessie  Har.,  entrance 

„  Palmedo  Road 

„  Reef  or  West  Point 

,,  Cape  Blackwood,  or  S.  point 

Savu  Island,  Seba  Bay  on  X.W.  side     - 
Dana  or  Ho'kie  Islai.d,  hill    - 
Floris  Strait,  Kambing  Island 

„         Larantaka,  Portuguese  Settle- 
ment    -  -  - 
„         Serbette  Island 
Komba  Island,  volcanic  peak  - 
Solor  Island,  Lamarkwera  or  E  point     - 

,,  Lawang  on  X.  coast 

Adenara  Island,  Mount  Woka,  summit  - 
Lombata  or  Lomblen  Island,  Mount  La- 
mararap  ... 

„         Soangie  Island,  off  S.W.  pt.  - 
Lobetolle  p'-ak  -  -  - 

Pantar  Island,  South  peak  of  Saddle  on 
South  point  .  .  - 

„  S.W.  point 

,,  Pandai  on  N.  end 

Pantar  Strait,  North  or  Panjang  Island  - 
„  Hi^h  or  Pura  II..  peak    - 

,,  South  or  Twerin  Island  - 

Ombay  Island,  D<>lolo  anchorage 
,,  S.W.  point      .   - 

„  S.E.  point,  white  rock 

"Wetter  Island,  Honden  Island  ofl  X.W. 
point      -  -  -  - 

8  21   o 

;  I2J  9  30 



8  19  30 

1  121  42  0 

Dutch  Charts. 



IJ2   8   0 



8  19  25 

122  19  30 



8  23  0 

122  30  0 



8  20  0 

122  59  0 



8  4  45 

'  122  52  0 



7  48  39 

122  17  0 



7  25  0 

122  30 



7  24  0 

'2  1  45   0 



7  27  40 

12  1  43  30 



7  16  0 

120  48   0 



7  20  13 

121   2  20 



7  5  0 

120  57  30 



1   7  S  0 

120  48  20 



7  2  30 

120  3r  30 



6  46  0 

120  47  30 



6  40  0 

120  12  30 



8  45  0 

119  49  0 



1   8  49  0 

"9  55  0 



8  52  30 

120  12  10 



8  54  0 

121  0  0 



8  50  0 

121  12  0 



8  56  0 

121  20  0 



8  52  0 

121  39  0 



8  55  0 

121  41  0 



8  48  0 

122  4  0 



8  32  0 

122  46  0 



10  6  0 

120  51  0 



9  35  0 

120  30  0 


9  36  0 

120  16  0 



9  21  0 

"9  45  0 



9  40  0 

118  59  0 



10  19  0 

120  30  0 



j  10  29  0 

121  46  0 



10  49  0 

121  16   0 



8  40  0 

122  51   0 



8  19  30 

122  58  30 



8  8  3c 

123  I  0  ; 



7  48  0 

123  33  0 



8  26  0 

123  8  30 



8  27  0 

123  3  30 



8  20  30 

123  15  0 



1   8  33  0 

123  22  0 



8  35  0 

133  13  0 



8  11  30 

123  43  30 



8  34  0 

124  6  0 



8  25  0 

123  55  0 



8  I  r  30 

124  12  0 




124  17  30 



8  16  0 

124  16  30 



8  29  0  ' 

124  13  30  { 



8  12  0  i 

.'24  23  01 



8  25  0 

124  18  0  j 



8  21   0 

125  14  0  1 



7  41  0 

126  0  0 








Wetter  Island,  East  point 

"7  45 


126  47      0 

Dutch  Charts. 


„             Sauw  village  on  S.  coast  - 

7  56 


126   24     0 



Liban  Island,  stimmit 

8     5 


125  46   30 



Kamliing  Island,  S.W.  point  - 

8   19 


125  33     0 


Kissa  Island,  anch.  on  \V.  side 

8     6 


127     9     0 



Roma  or  Teralta  Island,  West  point 

7  38 


127   19     0 


Timor.     Oijsma  or  S.W.  point 

10  20 


123  26     0 

De  Vrieze. 


„         Samao  Island,  West  point 

10  14 


123   16  30 



„         Koepang,  Fort  Concordia  flag- 

staff     .... 

ID    10 


123  35     0 



„         Pakoela  Point,  low  extreme 

10       2 


123  34  30 



,,         Selama  peak,  summit 

9  57 


123  39  30 



Rotti  Island,  W.  point 

10  46 


122  52     0 



„           Cj'rus  Harbour    - 

10  53 


123     5  15 



„           Baa  Koad 

10  43 


123     I  40 

Dutch  charts. 


Timor  Xorth  Coast,  Gomok  Point 

9  27 


123  46  30 



„     Gula  or  Goela  Island    - 

9  15 


124     0     0 


„     Liefou,  Portuguese  settlement 

9  " 


124  25     0 



„     Atapopa,,  Dutch  settlement 

9    0 


124  50     0 



„     Gedeh,  Portuguese  settl;ment 

8  57 


124  55     0 



„     Dielli,  Portuguese  settlement  flag- 


8  34 


125  37     0 



„     Mantotte,  village 

8  30 


125  58     0 

Dutch  chart. 


,,     Cape  Jackee,  N.E.  point 

8  20 


127   II     0 



,,     Nusa  Besie  or  Jackee  Island 

8  25 


127   18    0 



Gunong  Api,  summit  of  volcano 

6  43 


126  43    0 





Strait  of  Makassak. 

Two  Brothers           -                 .                 . 

4  19 


116  12  30 



Bira  Birakan  Islands,  N.  extreme 

4     6 


1 16  16    0 



Pulo  Sebuku,  North  end 

3    ^2 


116  27     0 



Paniantyngan  Point 

3   12 


116  15    0 


Pulo  Laut,  Pulo  Kungit  off  South  point 

4     6 


116    40 

Dutch  chart. 


Dwaalder  Island,  E.  side 

4   15 


116  10  30 


I'hree  Alike  Islands,  centre     - 

3  39 


116  39  30 


Sibbald  Bank,  5  fathoms 

5  46 


117     30 

Forbes,  &g. 


Aurora  Bank,  4£  fathoms 

5  25 


116  58     0 



Nusa  Komba,  centre 

5  14 


117     4    0 



Pudsc-y  Dawson,  4i  fathoms    - 

4  42 


117     40 


Laurel  Reef,  2\  fathoms  patch 

4  30 


117     8     0 


Martaban  Shoal        -                  .                 . 

4  " 


117   10    0 


Sea  Serpent  Shoal    -                 -                 . 

3  56 


117  28     0 
117  29  40 


Bank,  dries                ... 

3  31 




Bank         -                 -                 .                 . 

3  34 


"7  37  30 



Bank         -                 -                  .                 . 
Twee  Vrienden  Reef 

3  38 
3  40 


"7  35     0 
ii7     8     0 

Vrienden,  1876. 


Franklin  Bank          -                  .                 . 

3     2 


117  33     0 



Triangles,  southern 

3     5 
6     2 


117  50     0 

118  14    0 


Laars  Bank,  S.  end  -                 -                 . 




Saflana  or  Dewakan  Island     - 

5  26 


118  25     0 

118  35     0 

1   118  53     0 

1 16  32     0 



Tonyn  Island  or  Benkoeloean- 

5  31 

6  8 

2  32 




Brill  Shoal 

Shoal  Point  or  Tanjong  Iklirra 











Eairged  Point  or  Tanjons;:  Aris 

2    'S   30 

0       ,       « 
116   37      0 



Little  Paternosters,  X.E.  isle - 

2    10     0 

117   48   30 



N.W.  isle 


i'7  33    0 



Hannah  Shoal          .                 .                 . 

2    18     0 

117      0     0 



Pasir  or  Passier  River,  entrance 

I   51      0 



Jason  Reefs,  S.E.  end 

I   51      0 

116  57      0 



N.W.  end 

I   48   30 

116  52      0 



Kiver  Koetei,  S.W.  entrance  - 

I      0     0 

117    20     0 



„             Tanjong  Bayor,  E.  point  of 

delta     .... 

0  45     0 

"7  37     0 



Bontheim,  on  South  coast  of  Celehes 

5   32     0 

119  54    0 


Klambang  Point,  Cape  Bulo  Bulo 

5  42     0 

119  41     0 


Point  Laykan,  S.W.  point  of  Celebes     - 

5  36     0 

119  26     0 

Sir  E.  Belcher. 


Makas-sar,  Ft.  Rotterdam,  North  angle 

5     8     9 

119  21   18 



Spermonde  Archipelago,    Kapo   Posang 

Island  or  West  Island 

4  43     0 

"8  55     0 



Teignmouth  Bank    -                 -                 - 

4  56     0 

118  35  30 



Pareh  Pareh  Ba}-,  village 


119  34    0 


Balanipa,  village      .                  .                 - 

3  29     0 

119     2  30 



Cape  Mandhar,  West  extreme 

3  34    0 

118  54     0 


Penamhoeang,  village 

3  28     0 

118  52  30 


Cape  William           .                 .                 - 

2  40     0 

1 1 8  47     0 



Palos  Bay,  village  at  the  head 

0  57     0 

119  47   30 

Van  Loo,  &c. 


Cape  Temoel  or  Samsa 


1^9  35  30 



Seven  Islands,  North  Watcher 

0  34    0 

119  43  30 



Cape  Donda              ... 

0  58  30 

120  13  30 



Cape  Kaniongan,  E.  point  of  Borneo 


118  56     0 



Island  of  Celebes. 

Cape  Rivers,  N.E.  Cape,  Slime  Islet 

I   20     0 

120  43  30 

Sir  E.  Belcher. 


Cape  Kandi  -             - 

I  20     0 

121  25     0 



Bwool,  anchorage     ... 

I    10     0 

121  24    0 



Kwandang  Bay,  village  in  S.E.  part 

0  52     0 

122  44  30 


Lombok  Bay,  Maririe  Point    - 

I      I     0 

124    9     0 



Manado,  Fort  Amsterdam 

I   29  25 

124  46  30 



Mount  Klobat,  summit  631.T  feet 

I   27     9 

125     0     0 


North  Cape  or  Papalumpongang 

I  46     0 

124  56     0 



Limbe  Island,  North  point 

I   35     0 

125  15     0 



Kema,  Fort                ... 

I   21     0 

125     I  30 



Cape  Flesko,  extreme 

0  27     0 

124  26     0 

Jlelvill  V.  Cambee 


Cape  Tolo,  extreme 

0   15     0 

123  50     0 



Gorontalo,  entrance  of  river    - 

0  25     0 

122  50    0 



Togean  Isles,  Great  Wallah,  N.  point    - 

0  14     0 

122  13     0 



Cape  Talabo,  East  end 

0  46     0 

123  27     0 



Cape  Nederburg       ... 

2  53     0 

122   16     0 



Wowoni  or  Weywon^i  Island,  N.  point 

3  58     0 

123     0     0 



Kendari  or  Vosraaer  Baj',  entrance 

3  57     0 

122  32     0 



Boeton  or  Bulon  Island,  North  point     - 

4  23  30 

123     4    0 



„                     „               East  point 

5   15     0 

123  16     0 



„       Siumpu  or  South  Id,  S.W.  point 

5  41  20 

122  26  30 



„       Bolio  or  Boeton 

5  28     0 

122  36     0 



Moena    or    iluna    Island,    C.  Willa,  or 

S.W.  point 

5  23     0 

122  15     0 



Kabeina  Island,  peak  4,000  feet 

5   19  30 

121  53     0 



Cape  Lassa  or  Berak,  extreme 

5   35     0 

120  29     0 

Sir  J.  Brooke. 


Point  Patiro,  extreme 

4  38     0 

120  27     0 



Cape  Marasauga  or  Siw  i 

3  4S     0 

120  26     0 




Beraoe  or  Burn,  head  of  Gulf  of  Boni     - 
Cape  Bunffiiifi;  Kaito 
Mansfield  Shoal,  centre  3  fathoms 
Salayar  Island,  North  point    - 
„  South  pi  lint     - 

Tiger  Islands,  Ptrch  Islaml  at  E,  end     - 
Postilion  Island,  Noitli  Island 
„  S.K.  Island  - 

„  S.W.    Islands,    Maria 

Reiiiersbergen  Islands 
Pulo  Tenga  or  Paternoster  Ids.,  South 
Ids.  or  Maria  Heinersberuen  Ids. 
„     Ardassier  Islands,  South  one 
.„     N.E.  Paternosters,  North  one 

Molucca  Islani>s. 

Xulla  Isles— Taliabo,  N."W.  point  - 
„  Mangola,  S.E.  point 

„  Lisainatula,  E   point 

„  Besi,  S.E  point 

,,  ,,      Sannana  Bay,  fort 

Bouro  Island,  Bulatetio  or  N.W.  Cape  - 
„  Cayeli  Bay,  Fort  Dei'ansie 

,,  P."la  or  Ea-t  point 

„  Arnblau  Island,  E.  point  - 

„  Pekka  or  South  point 

Manipa  Island,  centre 
Amboina  Island,  Wawolle  or  W.  point  - 
,,  Amboina,  Fort  Victoria 

Haruku,  S."W.  point 
Saparoea,  Melano  Id.,  off  S.W.  point     - 

„  Fort  Duurstede 

Banda  Ids.,  Gunong  Api  summit  2200  ft. 
„  Great  Banda,  N.E.  point     - 

,,  Neira,  Fort  Nassau 

„  Rosengain  or  Kozagin,  centr 

„  Way  or  Ai,  centre 

,,  Khun  or  Rung,  S.  point 

Token  Bessi  Ids.,  Wangi- Wangi,  N.W. 
point     -  -  -  - 

„  Binongko,  South  point 

„  St.  Matthew  Id.,  centre     - 

,,  Veldhoen,  centre 

Hegadis  Island,  Lagu  Rocks,  off  S.  pt.  - 
Lucipara  Islands,  North  iglet 
Gunong  Api  ... 

Roma  Island,  West  point 

„  Serussa  anchorage 

Letti  Island,  West  point 

,,  Anch(;ra!ie  on  N.  side 

Moa  Island,  Buflalo  Peak,  4,100  feet       - 
Strraatta  Island,  N.E.  point  - 
Damma    Island,    Kulewatta    Harbour, 
JSorih  point  .  -  - 

Nila  Island,  centre  -  -  . 

Maiio  or  Bird  Island,  centre    - 
Tenimher  Islands,    Timor  Laut,  Oliliet 
on  East  coast        -  .  . 

)j  tt  S.  point 

7   3° 

7  5° 
1  35 
6  35 

I  44     o 

I   55  3° 

1  50     o 

2  28     o 

7     ° 
22  49 

23     o 

52  o 

53  o 

17     o 

3  44  30 
3  41   30 

39  o 

40  o 

35  50 
3>  o 
30  30 

32     o 

34  o 
32     o 

36  o 

15  o 

17  o 

20  o 

58  o 

9     ° 

28  30 

43  o 
38  o 
42     o 

5  14   20 

8  10  15 
8   14     o 


6  44    o 

5  33     o 

7  55     o 

8  18  45 

120  40  30 

121  45  O 

120   13  O 

120  30  o 

120  28  30 

J22  15  Q 

118  43  O 

119  10  O 

107  56  o 

117  5  o 

117  22  o 

118  17  o 

122  20 
126  14 
126  29 
126   I 

125  57 

126  4 

127  6 
127   17  o 
127   17  o 

126  39  o 

127  34  o 

127  54  30 

128  10  18 
128  25  o 
128  36  o 

128  38  18 

129  53  o 
129  56  30 

129  52  50 

130  2  30 
129  46  20 
129  43  o 


Sir  J.  Brooke. 




Sir  E.  Belcher. 


Sir  E.  Belcher. 


Melvill  V.  Carnbee 

123  32  o 

123  59  o 

124  14  o 
124  46  o 

122  38  O 

127  30  O 

126  43  30 

127  19  O 
127  39  O 
127  36  o 

127  41  o 

128  I  o 

129  o  o 

128  28  o 

129  29  o 

130  20  o 

131  23  30    Owen  Stanley,  &c, 
I30  43 

Dutch  chart. 


Owen  Stanley. 





■  Tenimber  Islands,  Laarat,  E.  point 
„  Voniate,  8.  point 

„  Mulu,  N.  point 

„  Serra,  8.W.  point 

Arru  Islands,  N^or  or  S.  Island 

,,  Dobbo  Harbour,  point 

,,  North  point 

Ki  Islands,  Great  Ki,  South  point 
„  ,,  North  point 

„  Little  Ki,  Doulan  Har.  pier 

Victoria  Shoal  ?        - 
Lyne'ioch  Bank,  7  fathoms     - 
IMoney  Shoal  -  -  . 

Tionfolokker  Group,  S.W.  island 
Three  Brothers.  Ta  or  South  Brother     - 
Tello  Islands,  KanalurorS.  Id  ,  summit 
,,  Bun  or  N.  Id.,  summit    - 

Tebor  Island,  N.E.  point 
Matabella  Islands,  Kukur 

„  IngHT 

Goram  Isles,  Monovolko,  E.  point 

„  Goram,  tS.E.  point 

Ceram  Laut  Isles,  high  tree  on  western 
isle        .... 
„  Kilwari  Island,  town  Isles,  E.  point 
Ceram  Island,  Rozaket  or  N.E.  point     - 
,,,  Waroe  or  Wharu  anch.    - 

„  CapeTalanuru,  N.W.  ext. 

„  Bonoa  Island,  N.E.  point 

,,  Seal  orSial  Pt.,  S.W.  ext. 

„  Piero  Bay,  Kassara  Id.    - 

„  Amahai  i3ay,  Dutch  fort  - 

New  Guinea,  Cape  Valsche     - 
,,  Triton  Bank 

„  Providential  Bank 

„  False  Ulanata  River 

„  Cape   Chanipel   or    Steen- 

boom    -  -  .  . 

„  Cape  Buru 

,,  Lakahia  Mount 

„  Cape  Perier 

„  Chasot  Island,  centre 

„  Aidutnea  Island,  centre 

„  Triton  Bay,  Port  du  Bus  - 

,,  Namatotte  I.^land 

„  Wessel  Island,   S.E.  point 

„  Ariiuna  Bay,  C.  Boucher  - 

„  Cape  Kaffoera    - 

,,  Cape  Sapey 

„  Gudin  Island,  N.W.  end  - 

„  Drei  Cap  Pen'a,  Wass  Id. 

„  McCluer  Inlet,   village  at 

bead     -  -  .  . 

Sabuda  Island,  S.  point 
Mysole  Islami,  Efbe  Harbour 
Canary  Islands,  -western  extreme 
Popa  Island,  S.E.  point 
Salawati  Island,  Van  Dady  or  N.W.  pt. 
Batanta  Island,  Cape  Mubo  or  W.  pt.    - 
Waigiu  Island,  Piapis  Harbour 


45  18 
20  0 
56  0 
16  30 
34  42 
13  0 

10  19 
5  47 



2  56 

3  33 
3  16 

3  19 
8  22 
6  0 
6  35 

4  45 

45  0 

28  0 
12  0 
8  30 
2  0 


27  30 
44  0 

2  23 
2  40 
2  4 
1  50 
1  12 
0  59 
0  56 
0  5 

132  1 
131  55 

131  40 

130  44 
134  24 
134  13  35 
134  40  0 

132  54  0 

133  10  0 
132  45  11 

131  22  0 

130  40 

132  47 
132  9 

131  54 
131  58 
131  58 
131  47 
131  50 
131  34 
131  29 
131  30 

131  0  0 

130  68  0 

13J  53  0 

130  56  0 

130  43  0 

128  11  0 

127  59  0 

127  55  0 

128  10  0 
128  56  7 

137  40  0 

138  4  0 
137  55  0 
136  18  0 

136  20  30 

135  9  0 

134  50  0 

134  31  30 

134  17  30 

134  0  0 

134  4  0 

133  57  0 
133  34 
133  20 
132  47 
132  37 
132  33 
132  4 

134  7  0 

131  36  0 

130  12  0 

129  35  0 

129  50  0 

130  36  0 
130  25  0 
130  12  0 

Owen  Stanlej' 

Owen  Stanley, 


Owen  Stanley, 

Tiza'rd,  1874, 



Dutch  Chart. 

KoJff,  &c. 










856  ^ 














Waigiu  Island,  Offak  Harbour,  entrance 

,,  Rawak  Harbour 

„  Cape  Lamarche,  N.E.  pt. 

„  Chabrol  Bay,  Port  BIos- 

seville  .  -  -  - 

Dampier  Island,  Bucclench  Shoal 

„  King   William    Island, 

West  point 

,,  Pigeon  Island,  centre  - 

,,  Fowl  Isle,  centre 

Obi  Major,  Pocky  or  W.  point 

Gomona  Island,  centre 

Lukieong  or  Loyang  Island,  S.  end 

Gasses  Island,  S.E.  end 

Kekik  Island,  East  end 

Boe  or  Bu  Islands,  W.  end     - 

Gebi  or  Gebeh  Islands,  N".W.  point 

„  Fowld.,   - 

Gagy  Island,  South  point 

Syang  Island,  S.E.  point 

Wyang  or  Vayag  Island,  West  end 

Ormsbee  Shoal,  12  fathoms 

Halmaheira  or  Gillolo,  South  point 

„  Cape  Tabo,  E.  extr.  - 

„  Canton  Packet  Reef  - 

„  Ardasier  Rock 

„  Bitjoli     or      Wassa, 

Dutch  settlement 

„  Cape  Salaway,  N.E. 

point     -  -  -  . 

„  Tanjong  Batu  Bessao 

„  Talendang  Ids.,  Dili 

„  Gillolo  village 

„  Dodingo,  village 

Molucca  Islands,  Ternata,  Fort  Oranje  - 
„  Tidore,  summit  of  volcano 

„  „      N.E.  end 

„  Mareh,  W.  point 

„  Motir,  summit 

„  Makkian,  Fort  Reeburgh 

Wolf  Rock 
„  Batjan  or  Batchian,  Fort 

Barneveld  -  .  . 

,,  S.E.  point 

Bahia  Reef,  coral      -  .  . 

Mayor  or  Mej's  Island,  North  point 
Tifore  Island,  N.W.  point 


Bajaren  Island,  summit 
Tagiilanda  Island,  peak 

0     5 
0  13 

0  34  0 
0  39  0 
,0  43     0 

30  0 
42  30 
42  0 
38  0 
30  0 

0     2     2 
0     8     0 
0  25     0 

0  18  0 
0  11  0 
0  41  0 
0  50  0 
0  11  0 
0  36  30 
0  45     0 

0  38  0 

1  26 

2  14 
2  17 
1  10 
0  52 
0  47 
0  39 
0  46 
0  34 
0  28 
0  24 
0  13 

0  37  0 

0  47  0 

1  10  0 

1  22  30 
1  1  0 

130  43 

130  57 

131  14 

130  41 

131  21 

130  29  0 

130  34  0 

130  42  30 

127  18  0 

127  30  0 

128  2  0 
128  14  0 
128  37  0 

129  11  30 

129  17  30 

129  30  0 

129  54  0 

129  53  0 

129  57  0 

130  0  0 

128  23  0 

128  52  0 

128  56  30 

129  0  0 

128  20  0 

128  37 


127  33 


127  33 


127  28 


127  46 


127  21 


127  22 


127  25 


127  21 


127  23 


127  21 


126  50 


127  25  30 
127  52  30 
126  50  0 

126  22 
126     8 





Dutch  Chart. 


2     7     0     125  22    0   Spanish  charts,  &c     881 
2  22     0      125  24  30  j         „  «82 



Seao  Island,  conical  peak 

Sangir  Island,  S.  poiut,  Cape  Palumbatu 

Talaut  Islands,  Kalnuansr,  S.E.  point     - 

,,  Karkelansi:,  N.  point 

Tulur  Islands,  Kanian  village 
Meangis  Inlands,  southern 

SuLU  Archipelago. 

Tapnl,  centre  hill     -  .  - 

Bulipons;pong,  centre  hill 

Cuad  Basang,  S.W.  point 

Bubuan,  Lagoon  entrance 

Ketnapoussan  Island,  centre  - 

Boiijialao,  S'uith  point 

Simonor,  N.W.  point 

Manuc  iManca,  M'est  point 

8ibutu,  hill,  East  coast 

Borneo,  Unsang  anchorage 

Omapiii,  N.W.  extreme 

Talantam  Bank,  5  fathoms 

Pearl  Bank,  western  Island    - 

„         East  Islet 
Doc-can,  West  extreme 
Sulu   Island,  Dalrymple  Harbour,  well 

on  S.E.  coast  Tulyan  Island 
Pansjituran,  S.W.  point 
Basilan  Id.,  Passanhan  or  Isabela 

,,       Island,  Malusa 
Sibago  Isles  ... 

Teinga  Island,  centre 
Sta.  Cruz  Island,  S.E.  one 

Philippine  Islands. 

Mindanao,  Cape  Panguitan  or  S.  point  - 
„  lUana  Bay,  Rio  Grande,  Co- 

tabatu  fort  ... 

„  Port  Dumanquilas,  entrance 

,,  Samboanga,  pier    - 

„  La  Caldera,  fort     - 

,,  Santa  Cruz  Islands,  S.  point 

,,  Port   Sta.    Maria,   village  at 

head     .... 
„  Murcielagos  Islets,  W.  point 

„  Point  Taglo,  N.^V.  point 

,,  Laguna  de  Panguil,  Misamis, 

at  entrance  ... 

„  Macajalar  Bay,  Barra  de  Ca- 

gayan   -  - 

„  Camiguin  Island,  \Y.  point  - 

„  Point  Banajan  or  Bilaan 

,,  Surinao,  landing'  place 

Surigao  Islands,  Siargao,  N.E.  point 

„  Dinigat,  N.  point 

Panaon  Island,  S.  point 

„  Puerto  Liloan,  E.  entr.  - 

Leyte  Island,  S.W.  point 
„       Tacloban 
„       Carigara  on  N.  coast 
Samar  Island,  Punta  Saugui,  r  Samar  - 

2  44 

3  21 

3  49 

4  29 

3  49 

4  39 

44  30 

41  30 
27  10 
25  15 
13  0 

0  30 
55  30 
49  30 

49  30 
16  30 
54  10 

42  0 

50  45 
50  45 
52  30 

6  2  30 
6  15  15 
6  42  45 
6  32  50 
6  45  0 
6  54  0 
6  52  15 

5  36  0 

7  46  0 

8  8  0 
8  43  0 

8  10  0 

8  31  10 

9  12  30 
9  50  0 
9  48  30 

10  4  0 
10  28 
9  55 
10  10 

10  0 

11  16 
11  19 

10  55  30 

125  26  0  Spanish  charts, &c 

125  39  0 

127  2  30 

15fi  52  0 

127  2  0  Chart. 

127  7  0 

120  55  0 
120  49  45 
120  11  30 
120  35  0 

120  40  45 
119  44  15 
119  46  45 
119  48  0 
119  24  0 
119  16  0 
119  22  45 
119  26  30 
119  37  30 
119  44  0 

119  Ob   45 

121  18  20 

120  29  30 

121  58  0 

121  52  43 

122  24  0 

121  38  0 

122  4  0 

125  21  0 

124  14  30 

123  4  0 

122  4  0 

121  58  0 

122  4  30 

122  7  30 

122  26  0 

123  22  30 

123  49  0 

124  45 

124  37 

125  25 

125  29 

126  3 
125  38 
125  17 
125  8 
125  1 
124  59 

124  41 

125  52 

Chimmo,  1871-2 

Spanish  charts. 
La  Sabine,  1844. 
Spanish  charts. 
Wild  Rover,  1870 
Spanish  charts. 

Spanish  charts. 










Samar  Island,  Point  Binusfayan 









,,              C.Espiritu  Santo,  N.E. end 









„             Puerto  de  Palapa,  S.E.  pt. 

of  Batag  Island    -                  -                  - 









„             Bulicuatro  Isles,  N.W.  pt. 

of  Viri  -                 -                 -                 - 









St.  Bernardino  Island,  East  entrance  of 

Strait    -                 -                  -                  - 









Capul  Island,  N.  point 









Ticao  Island,  Puerto  San  Jacinto,  fort    - 








ilasbate.  Point  Ciduljuan  or  S. K.  point 









„        Put-rto  Barreras,  Point  Lanan 









,,        Point  Bugui  or  N.W.  point 








Zebu  or  Oebu  Island,  Point,Bulalaqu  e  or 

N.  point                ... 









„                  Port  Zebu,  lighthouse 

on  Bacacay  Point 









,,                 Naga  coal  mines 









„                  Point  Tanon  or  S.  pt. 









Bohul  Island,  N.W.  point 









Siquijor  Island,  N.  point 









Negros  Island,  Bombonon  or  S.  point    - 









„             Himamajlan,  on  VV.  coast 








,,             Bacolot,  village 









Bnrias,  Busin  Harbour,  San  Jose  Id.     - 









Panaj',  Punta  Bulacaue  or  N.E.  point    - 









„       Silanga  Islands,  North  Gigante, 

N.  point                ... 









„       Pan  de  Azucar,  summit 









„       Ilo  Ilo,  fort 








„       Nugas  Island,  off  S.W.  pt. 









,,       San  Jose_de.  Buenaventura 









„       Point  Naisog,  or  N.W.  point 









SuLU  Sea. 

Sandakan  Harbour,  Bahalatolis  Island  - 









Cagayan  de  Sulu,  entrance  of  basin 









,,       Sulu,  observation  spot,  middle 

West  coast             ... 







Chimmo,  1871. 


San  Miguel  Isles,  East  point  of  Manuk 

ISIanukan                ... 







Spanish  charts. 


Ca-ayancs  Islands,  Observatory  between 

the  islands             ... 









Caueli  or  Cavilli,  N.W.  point 









Sombrero  Rock         ... 









Pi^dra  Blanca          ... 









MinUoro  Island,  Cape  Calavite,  N.W.  pt. 









,,             Abra  lie  Hog    - 









„             Calapan 








,,             Punta  Buruncan  or  S.  pt. 









Sibuyan  Island,  South  point  - 









„              West  point    - 









Rombloii  Island,  light  on  N.E.  point 









Marinduque  Island,  Ele'ante,i^off  S.  pt.  - 








Luzon,  S.,  E.,  and  N.  Coasts,  Cape  San- 

tiago    .... 







Montero,  Spanish 


„       Balayan       ... 







Surveys,  &c. 


,,       Batanufaa     ... 









,,       Veide  Island,  N.W.  point 








„       Point  Bantigui 













Luzon,  L.ig-iimmanoc,  entrance 
„       Bondog  Head 
„       Tamba  Point 

„       Sorsogon     -  -  . 

„       Calintan  Island 
„       Ungay  Point 

„       Catanduanes  Island,  S.E.  point  - 
j»  „  N.  point 

„       Matandumaten  Island 
„       Calagnas   Isles,  Cacbalisay  Id., 
East  end  .  .  . 

,,       Lamon  Bay,  Gumaca 
,,       Polillo  Island,  peak    - 
„       Cape  San  Ildefonso     - 
„       Paranan  Bay,  South  pt. 
„       Yligan  Point 
„       Cape  Engano 
„       Pt.  San  Vincente,  entrance 
„       River  Cagayan,  entrance 
„       Pamplona  Bar 
„       Pt.  Djalao  -  -  - 

„       Cape  Bojeador 
Babuyan  Islands,  Dalupiri  Id.,  N.  point 

„  Calayan  Island,  N.E.  pt. 

„  Claro  Island,  W.  point    - 

,,  Camiguin     Island,     Port 

Pio  v.,  entrance  -  -  - 

„  Bashi  or   Batan  Islands, 

Balintang  Island  (P.D.) 

,,  Batan  Island,  Mt.  Irada, 

3,806  ft. 
Kosa  - 

Ibayat  Island,  Mt.  Santa 
Y'Ami  Island,    islet    off 


Hainan  to  Hong  Kong. 

Now  Chow  Island,  West  point 

Ty-fung-kyoh  Island 

Pauk  Pyah  Rock     - 

Song-yui  Point         .  .  . 

Mamee-chow  Islets,  S.W.  pt.  of  W.  islet 

Tyoa  Point  ... 

Mandarins  Cap         ... 

Hawcheim  Island,  S.W.  point 

Namoa  Harbour,  entrance 

Wycaup  Island,  S.E.  part 

Cou-cok  Island,  Sail  Rock  off  S.  point  . 

Canton  Rivers. 

San  Chow  Island,  Stragglers  off  S.E.  pt. 
Montanha  Id.,  Water  Ii^lands  off  S.  pt.  - 
Macao,  Fort  Guia,  lighthouse 
Great  Ladrorie  Island,  S.W.  point 

Hong  Kong  to  River  Min. 

Hong  Kong,  Wellington  Battery 
„  Cathedral 

I.  A. 

13  53  0 
13  10  0 
13  0  30 
13     0  30 

12  31   20 

13  10  40 

13  31   40 

14  8  10 
14  18     0 





14  25  40 

13  57   45 

14  56 

16  4 

17  9 

18  20 
18  34  30 
18  30  0 
18  23  0 
18  30  0 
18  37  40 

18  29  30 

19  9  30 
19  22  0 
19  30  0 

18  53  0 

19  58  30 

20  28  30 

20  48  0 

21  4  56 

20  59  0 

21  24  30 
21  24  15 
21  32 
21  34 
21  44 
21  29 
21  35 
21  36 
21  34 
21  50 

22  0  0 
22  3  30 
22  12  0 
21  55  25 

22  16  23 
22  16  23 

121  49  0 

122  36  0 

123  19  0 

123  59  30 

124  5  0 
124  9  20 
124  21  0 
124  13  40 
123  5  30 

122  57  30 
121  54  45 
121  58  0 

121  46  0 

122  28  0 
122  18  0 
122  5  40 
122  6  0 
121  35  0 
121  22  0 
120  48  0 

120  34  20 

121  13  0 
121  32  0 
121  52  0 

121  48  0 

122  14  0 
122  1  20 

Montero,  Spanish 
surveys,  etc. 

121  52 


121  58 


110  38 


111  10 


111  15 


111  38 


111  47 


112  14 


112  21 


112  33 


112  35 


112  54 


113  7 


113  24 


113  30 


113  33 


113  42 


114  10 


114  9 




Belcher,  1841. 





Ninppin  Rock  .  .  - 

Single  Island,  East  summit     - 

Tuni-ang  Island,  summit 

Mendoza  Island,  summit 

Pedro  Blanco  Rock,  summit    - 

Pauk  Piah  Rock,  summit 

Chino  Peak,  summit 

Cupchi  Point,  hill  on  it 

Breaker  Point  ... 

Cape  of  Good  Hope 

Swatow,  Double  Island 

Brothers  Islets,  S.E.  islet 

Tongsang  Harbour,  Fall  Peak 

Chapel  Island,  light 

Tsing  Seu  Island,  lighthouse  - 

Amoy,  Hanseu  Island  Pagoda 

High  Laniock,  light 

Chin-chu  Harbour,  Pisai  Lsland 

P3'ramid  Point         .  .  . 

Sorrel  Rock  .  .  - 

Ockseu  Islands,  western  island,  lightho. 

Lam-yit  Island,  high  cone  peak 

Hungwha  Channel,  Sentry  Island 

Hai-tan  Island,  Kiangshan  Peak 

Turnabout  Island,  summit,  light 

Middle  Dog  Island,  light 

Formosa,  Pescadores,  Etc. 

Gadd  Rock 

Yele  Rete  Rocks      -         "        - 

Botel  Tobago  sima.  South  extreme 

Little  Tobago  sima  ... 

Formosa  Island,  South  cape   - 

„  Sau-o  Bay,  Obs.  spot   - 

„  Samasana  Island 

.,,  Takau,  Saracen  Head  - 

„  Port  Heonffsan 

„  Tam-sui    Har.,    "White 

fort       .... 
,,  Foki  Point    - 

„  Ke-lung  Harbour,  Ob- 

servation spot       ... 
Hoa-pin-su  Island,  North  face 
Raleigh  Rock  ... 

Meiaco-sima  Group,  Kumi  Id.,  N.  beach 
„         Broughton  Bay,  landing  place 
„         Port    Haddington,   Hamilton 
Point    .  .  -  - 

.,         Tai-pin-san,  S.W.  Bay 
Pescadores  Islands,   Makung    Harbour, 
2nd  point  on  N.  side  of  harbour 

„  Fisher  Id.,  light     - 

River  Mix  to  Shaxghai. 

River  Min,  Temple  Point 
Alligator  Island,  summit 
Tung-ying  Island,  peak 
Cony  Lsland,  summit 
Double  Peak  Island,  highest  peak 
Pih-seang  Islands,  Town  Island 
Dangerous  Rock,  summit 
Tae  Islands,  easternmost 

22  15  45 
22  24  6 
22  27  6 
22  30  42 
22  18  30 
22  32  54 
22  44  24 
22  48     7 

22  56     0 

23  14  0 
23  20  0 
23  32  30 

23  47  15 

24  10  18 
24  22  15 
24  28  20 

23  15     0 

24  49 

24  52 

25  2 

24  59 

25  12 
25  16  30 
25  36  18 
25  26  0 
25  58  20 

21  43  10 

21  45  30 

22  1  40 
21  57  30 

21  55  0 
24  35  28 

22  41     0 

22  36   14 

24  46     0 

25  10  24 
25  19     0 

25  8  25 
25  47  7 
25  35  0 
24  26  0 
24  21   30 

24  25  0 
24  43  35 

23  32  54 
23  33     0 

26  8  26 
26  9  0 
26  23  12 
26  30  0 
26  36  6 
26  42  30 
26  53  0 
26  59  12 

o     ,     /, 

114  22  7 

114  39  12 

114  36  45 

114  50  0 

115  6  54 

115  I  0 

115  46  50 

116  4  26 

llfi  27  45 

116  47  0 

116  43  20 

117  42  0 

117  36  48 

118  13  30 

118  7  0 

118  3  0 

117  17  30 

118  41  0 

118  58  0 

119  10  36 

119  27  30 

119  35  0 

119  45  0 

119  50  42 

119  58  42 

120  2  30 

121  37  0 

120  48  40 

121  39  45 

121  40  30 

120  50  30 

121  49  27 

121  28  0 

120  16  33 

120  55  0 

121  25  0 

121  37  0 

121  45  30 

123  30  31 

124  35  0 

122  56  0 

124  17  40 

124  6  40 

125  17  49 

119  30  12 

119  28  0 

119  37  42 

120  26  0 

120  31  0 

120  10  0 

120  U  12 

120  22  42 

120  34  18 

120  43  48 

CoUinson,  1845, 

Ross,  1817,  and 
Brooker,  1866. 
Beechy,  1826. 

Wilda,  1865. 
Brooker,  1867. 
Collinson,  1845. 
Richards,  1855. 
Biooker,  1866. 

Brooker,  1867. 
Colhnson,  1845. 

Belcher,  1845. 
Bullock,  1866. 
Belcher,  1845. 

Collinson,  1845. 

Richards,  1854. 
Collinson,  1845. 



Ping-fong  Island,  summit 
Pih-quan  Peak,  summit 
Nam-quam  Harbour.  Bate  Island 
Port  Isamki,  eastern  horn 
Pih-ki-shan  Island,  summit     - 
ToDg--wbang  Group,  Coin  Island 
Pe-shan  Island,  summit 
Soudan  Islet,  summit 
Chikkok  Island,  summit 
Tai-chau  Group,  Hea-chu  Islet 
Chuh-seu  Island,  summit 
Tung-chuh  Island,  summit     - 
Hieshan  Islands,  southernmost 
Montagu  Island,  X.E.  point    - 
Kweshan  Islands,  Patahecock 
Mouse  Kock,  summit 
Buffidoes  Nose  Island,  high  part 
Nimrod  Sound,  Middle  Island 
Chukea  Island,  peak 
Tongting  Islet,  summit 
Chusan  Id.,  Obs.  spot,  Tinghai 
West  Volcano  Island,  light  on  summit  - 
Just-in-the-way  Islet,  summit 
Yung  Paver,  Chin-hai  citadel 

„  Square  Island  light 

„  Pas-yew  light     - 

Video  Island,  summit 
Barren  Isles,  centre 
Saddle  Group,  North  island  light 
Cairnsmore  hock     .  -  . 

Gutzlaff  Island,  light  on  summit 
Chapu,  battery         .  .  . 

Shaweishan  Island,  light  on  summit 
Entrance  of  river,  Tungsha  bank  light- 
vessel    -  -  -  . 
"Wusung  River,  Fort  A.  at  entrance 
Shanghai,  British  consulate  flagstaff     - 
Hankow,  Mouth  of  Han  river. 

Shanghai  to  the  Liautung  Gulf. 

Yellow  River,  southern  entrance 
"Wang-kia-tai  Bay,  Lung-wang  temple  - 
Shan  tung    promontory,    lighthouse    on 
N.  E.  extrem3        .  .  . 

Miau-tau  Group,  peak  of  northern  island 
,,  Hope  Sound,  Obs.  spot 

Pei  Ho,  S.  Taku  Fort,  S.  Cavalier 

,,         Tientsin,  Observation  spot 
Shaluitien  Island,  Joss  house  - 
Great  Wall,  sea  end 
Liau  Ho,  Yingtze  pagoda 

„         New  Chwang  Lightvessel 
Hulu  Shan  Bay,  Obs.  place  (N.  side) 
Port  Adams,  Entry  island 
Thornton  Haven,  Observation  spot 
Liau-ti-shan  Promontorj-,  S.W.  point 
Round  Island,  summit 
Blonde  Group,  Shi-siau  Rock 
Tayang  Ho,  entrance 
Qiielpart  Island,  Mount  Auckland 
Port  Ilaiiiihon 

9  42 

18  48 

9  20 






27  26 
27  37 

27  50 

28  .5 
28  15  54 
28  22  24 
28  23  18 
28  40  30 
28  42  12 

28  50  48 

29  10  30 
29  21  54 
29  32  42 
29  36  12 
29  34  20 
29  54  0 

29  51  42 

30  0  25 
30  20  25 
29  57  42 
29  57  8 
29  59  22 

29  57  43 

30  8  0 
30  43  0 
30  50  20 
30  42  10 
30  47  38 

30  36  0 

31  24  30 

31  7  40 
31  23  30 
31  14  42 
30  32  61 

34  2  0 

35  39  0 

37  24 


38  23 


37  56 


38  8 


39  9 


38  53 


39  58 


40  43 


40  35 


39  40 


39  16 


39  4 


3S  43 


38  40 


38  56 


39  46 


33  26 


34  1 


120  32  42 
120  28  42 

120  25  50 

121  6  36 
121  12  18 
121  15  0 
121  31  48 
121  44  36 
121  44  12 
121  65  12 
121  47  24 

121  55  6 

122  14  24 
122  6  0 
122  13  42 
122  13  36 
122  1  24 

121  43  15 

122  25  18 
122  35  48 
122  5  18 
121  51  45 
121  54  12 
121  43  6 
121  45  0 

121  43  50 

122  46  0 

123  7  14 
122  40  0 
122  34  40 
122  10  0 

121  3  0 

122  14  15 

122  1  0 

121  30  11 

121  28  55 

114  19  55 

120  10  0 
119  51  30 

122  42 
120  55 

120  40 
117  42 

117  11 

118  32 

119  49 
122  14 

122  0 

121  17 
121  35 

123  10 

121  8 

122  11 

122  55 

123  41 

126  35 

127  18 

Collinson,  1845. 

Collinson,  1845. 

Ward,  1858. 
Wilds,  1864. 
Collinson,  1845. 
Wilds,  1864. 

Shanghai,  1873. 
Ward,  1859. 
Shadwell,  1850-8. 
Ward,  1859. 

Admiralty  Chart 
Bullock,  1861. 

Ward,  1860. 

Bullock,  1860. 
Ward,  1860. 
BuUock,  1860. 

Richards,  1855. 








































South  and  East  Coasts. 

Linschoten  Ids.,  Yoko  sima,  summit 
„        Kutsino  sima 
,,       Kuro  sima,  centre     - 

Satnno  Misaki,  or  Ca^o  ChichakoflF  Lt.  - 

Ciipe  Isa  -  -  -  - 

Cape  Muroto  .  .  . 

Oo  Sima  Light         .  -  . 

Matoya  I..ight  .  -  . 

Omae  Saki  Light     -  .  - 

Eock  Island  Lighthouse 

Yedo  Bay. 

Cape  Sagami,  litjhthousi 

„  Katioa  saki,  lighthouse     - 

„  Yokohama,     Naval    sick 

quarters  (square) 
,,  Nosima  Point,  lighthouse 

Fatsizio  Island,  S.E.  end 

Vries  Island,  S.E.  point 

Inaboye  Saki,  lighthouse 

Kingkasan  Island,  lisjhthouse 

Yamada  Harbour,  Ko  Sima    - 

Siriya  Saki,  lighthouse 

Seto  Uchi,  or  Inland  Sea 

Boungo  Channel,  Euryalus  Rock 
Kii  Channel  I.,  Sima,  N.  end 

„     Naruto  Passage,  Su  Saki 

„  „  Tobi  Sima 

„     Okino  Sima,  W.  end 

,,     Hino  Misaki,  extreme    - 

„     Siwo  Misaki,  light 

„     Isumi  Strait,  Tomangai  light 
Osaka,  Temposan  Fort 
Kobe,  landing-place 
Akashi  Strait,  Maiko  Fort 
Nabaa  Sima,  lighthouse 
Tsura  Sima,  light    -  -  . 

Simoneski  Strait,  Isaki,  light  - 
„         Shirasu,  lighthouse- 

West  Coast. 

Goto  Islands,  Ose  Saki 

Meae  Sima,  Ears  Peak 

Kagosima  Gulf,  Yama  Gawa  - 
„         Iwo  Sima,  lighthouse 

Nagasaki,  Minage  Point  Sima,  light  -  -  . 

Kado  Sima,  lighthouse 

Oki  Islands,  N.  point 

Cape  Roiven  -  _  . 

Port  Niegat I,  lighthouse 

Hakodadi,  Kamida  creek,  entrance 

Yezo,  Akishi  Bay   -  .  . 

„       Nemoro,  Benten  Sima  - 
„       Iwani  Bay     -  .  . 

°     ,     II 

28  47  30 

29  59  0 

30  50  0 

30  58  45 

32  44  0 

33  14  0 

33  28  0 

34  22  0 

34  36  30 

34  34  20 

35  8  0 

34  14  45 

35  26  30 

34  53  20 

33  4  24 

34  39  30 

35  43  30 

38  19  0 

39  27  17 

41  26  10 

33  2  0 

33  51  45 

34  14  56 

34  13  50 

34  6  50 

33  52  45 

33  26  0 

34  16  40 

34  39  45 

34  41  3 

34  38  29 

34  23  15 

33  53  SO 

33  58  10 

33  59  30 

£2  39  30 

32  3  0 

31  12  40 

32  43  0 

32  44  28 

33  41  30 

34  21  30 

36  30  0 

37  28  0 

37  56  30 

41  47  8 

43  2  22 

43  20  24 

43  1  0 

129  1  30 

122  55  0 

129  57  0 

130  40  15 

133  2  0 

134  11  30 

135  52  0 

136  54  30 
138  15  10 
138  57  10 

139  41  0 

139  44  17 

139  39  24 

139  51  23 

139  50  24 

139  28  0 

140  53  30 

141  36  0 
141  59  0 
141  29  25 

132  11  30 
134  50  45 
134  42  51 

134  39  0 

135  5  10 
135  4  15 
135  46  30 
135  0  30 
135  26  35 
135  12  15 
135  1  59 

133  48  45 
132  38  0 
131  2  0 
130  48  20 

128  35  30 

128  25  0 
130  38  43 

129  46  0 
129  51  30 

129  58  50 

130  50  0 
133  23  0 
137  22  0 

139  4  0 

140  43  44 

144  51  50 

145  34  57 
140  4  0 

Various  autho 


Japan  Lt. -house 

Jap.  It. -ho.  Bd. 
Ward,  1861. 

Various  author. 
Jap.  It. -ho.  Bd. 
Ward,  1860. 

Jap.  It. -ho.  Bd. 

St.  John,  1871, 
Jap.  It.-ho.  Bd. 



Jap.  lt,-ho.  Bd. 

St.  John. 
Jap.  It. -ho.  Bd. 

Brooker,  1868. 
Richards,  1855. 
Jap.  It.-ho.   Bd. 
Brooker,  1868. 

Jap.  It.-ho.  hd. 
Richards,  1855. 


St.  John,  1872. 

St,  John,  1871. 


Po^^.  I 







The  Great  Archipelago,  which  lies  between  Asia  and  Australia,  by  far  the 
largest  of  the  insular  regions  of  the  world,  covering,  as  it  does,  an  area  of 
about  six  millions  of  square  British  miles,  has  been  vaguely  termed,  by 
various  authorities,  the  East  India  Islands — the  Asiatic,  or  Eastern,  or 
Oriental  Archipelago,  or  the  Malay  Archipelago  ;  but,  following  its  great 
historian,  Mr.  John  Crawfurd,  we  prefer  to  designate  it  as  the  Indian 
Archipelago,  a  name,  also,  by  which  it  is  generally  recognised. 

The  Equator  passes  nearly  through  its  centre,  and  thus  much  of  it  lies  on 
the  division  between  the  metorological  systems  of  the  North  and  South 
hemispheres,  the  general  particulars  of  which  have  been  recounted  and  de- 
scribed in  our  former  works.  This  peculiar  physical  condition  renders  the 
attempt  to  define  the  characteristics  of  its  climatology  somewhat  complicated 
and  difficult. 

It  might  be  supposed  that  along  this  neutral  line  of  separation,  under  the 
great  cloud-ring,  as  it  has  been  termed  by  Captain  Maury,  that  there  would 
be  some  uniformity  of  wind  and  weather.  Not  so,  however,  for  the  relative 
influences  of  the  vast  land  of  Australia,  on  the  one  hand  ;  those  of  the  con- 
tinent of  Asia  on  the  other  ;  the  direction  of  the  evaporating  winds  blowing 
over  the  Indian  Ocean  to  the  West,  or  over  the  Pacific  Ocean  on  the  eastern 
side,  cause  the  climate  and  characteristic  weather  of  the  eastern  or  western 
portions  of  the  Archipelago  to  be  very  difi'erent  from  each  other. 

For  these  reasons  the  changes  in  the  monsoons,  the  alternation  of  the 
wet  and  dry  seasons,  in  some  parts,  are  very  puzzling  and  difficult  of  expla- 
nation ;  a  fact,  also,  due  in  some  degree  to  the  want  of  long  series  of  accurate 
observations  which  would  be  required  to  elucidate  them. 


A  large  portion  of  the  islands  thus  lies  in  what  has  been  termed  the 
"  doldrums  "  of  mid-ocean,  and  on  the  line  of  the  maximum  rain  fall.  This 
latter  arises  from  the  trade-winds  in  passing  over  the  ocean,  evaporating  so 
much  from  the  surface,  that  on  their  reaching  this  central  line,  or  before  that 
occurs,  the  winds  become  surcharged,  and  great  deposition  follows.  It  will 
be  manifest  that  the  case  is  altered  when  the  wind  has  to  pass  over  great 
breadths  of  arid  land,  and  thus  arises  the  complication  caused  by  the  reversed 

The  disturbing  e£Pect  of  land  influences  on  the  great  aerial  currents,  is 
more  apparent  in  the  Indian  Seas  than  in  any  other  part  of  the  world.  The 
result  is  a  complete  reversal  of  the  N.E.  trade,  and  in  a  minor  degree  of  the 
S.E.  trade  wind,  producing  the  well-known  phenomena  of  the  monsoons — 
winds  which  blow  one-half  the  year  in  one  direction,  and  in  the  other  half  ia 
the  opposite. 

In  the  northern  winter,  when  the  sun  is  South  of  the  Equator,  and  the 
great  Asiatic  continent  is  cool,  the  regular  N.E.  trade-wmd  prevails  over 
the  whole  region  North  of  the  Equatorial  calms,  and  is  generally  known  as 
the  North-east  Monsoon,  which  is  only  liable  to  local  deflection  consequent  on 
the  direction  of  the  land,  its  mountains,  or  the  channels  which  separate  the 
islands.  To  the  South  of  the  equatorial  calms,  the  S.E.  trade  prevails 
throughout  the  season  of  October  to  April,  when  the  sun  is  in  southern 
signs  ;  and  therefore,  in  the  western  portion  of  the  area  now  under  consi- 
sideration,  the  winds  pursue  their  ordinary  courses. 

But  when  the  sun  enters  into  North  latitude,  or  in  the  northern  summer, 
and  especially  about  the  northern  solstice,  it  is  vertical  over  an  immense 
area  of  land  South  of  the  Himalaya  Mountains,  the  desert  regions  of  Arabia, 
the  burning  plains  of  Western  India,  countries  where  the  earth  is  fire,  and 
the  wind  flame ;  and  when  this  intense  heat  is  extended  to  the  southern  por- 
tions of  China,  the  S.E.  trade-wind,  receiving  a  northern  impulse,  follows  up 
the  retreating  N.E.  trade  to  the  foot  of  the  Himalayas,  towards  the  northern 
tropic,  drawn  thither  by  the  intense  heat  of  the  vertical  sun,  receiving  this 
northern  impulse,  and  that  impulse  carrying  it  into  a  region  of  less  rotatory 
velocity  than  that  which  it  has  left,  it  assumes  a  relative  S.  W.  direction,  and 
is  called  the  South-west  Monsoon. 

The  features  and  seasons  of  this  wonderful  wind  have  been  recounted  in 
our  volume  on  the  Indian  Ocean,  pages  32 — 58  ;  and  it  is  there  shown  that 
it  has  a  progressive  course  northward,  in  its  greatest  strength,  along  the 
African  coast,  reaching  Bombay  nearly  a  month  later  than  it  sets  in  in  the 

The  effects  of  this  S.W.  monsoon  are  felt  very  far  beyond  the  coasts,  upon 
which  its  first  furies  fall  in  the  burst  of  their  commencement.  The  high 
temperature  it  brings  advances  so  far  to  the  North,  that  over  ground  per- 


petually  frozen  at  the  depth  of  a  few  feet,   the  limit  of  arboreal  vegetation 
extends  in  Siberia,  even  to  72°  N.  latitude. 

While  this  deflected  S.E.  trade-wind,  in  the  form  of  the  S.W.  monsoon, 
North  of  the  Equator,  is  blowing  between  May  and  October,  the  S.E.  trade 
proper  prevails  over  all  that  part  of  the  Indian  Ocean  which  is  not  skirted 
to  the  South  by  large  tracts  of  land.  Where  this  is  the  case,  as  in  the 
Java  Seas  as  far  as  New  Guinea,  which  lie  North  of  the  great  Australian 
continent,  there  is  again  a  double  maximum  temperature  in  the  sea  and  the 
land,  and  the  phenomenon  of  a  N.W.  monsoon  taking  the  place  of  the  S.E. 

The  monsoons,  therefore,  of  the  Indian  Archipelago  are  not  two  in  number, 
but  are  four — the  N.E.  and  S.W.  to  the  North  of  the  equator,  and  the  S.E. 
and  N.W.  to  the  South  of  the  line.  To  the  two  first  the  northern  parts  of 
Sumatra,  Borneo,  and  Celebes,  the  Philippine  Islands,  and  the  Malay  Pe- 
ninsula, as  well  as  the  whole  of  the  China  Sea,  are  subject.  To  the  two 
latter  the  southern  parts  of  the  above-named  islands,  with  the  range  between 
Java  and  New  Gruinea,  and  the  northern  part  of  Australia,  are  subjected. 

There  is  one  natural  indication  of  this  superabundant  rainfall  in  the  ex- 
uberant vegetation  manifest  in  most  parts  of  the  Archipelago.  The  greater 
portion  is  covered  with  one  vast  ever-verdant  forest,  clothing  the  land  and 
the  mountains  from  the  shore  to  the  summits  of  their  loftiest  peaks.  In 
some  parts  this  dense  and  gloomy  jungle  is  not  seen,  and  in  its  place  are 
arid  hills  and  plains,  scantily  covered  with  shrubs  and  trees. 

The  naturalist,  Mr.  Wallace,  has  well  defined  these  and  other  characteris- 
tics, which  need  not  be  detailed  here.  A  few  words  will  suflB.ce.  Sumatra, 
New  Guinea,  Borneo,  the  Philippines,  and  the  Moluccas,  are  all  forest 
countries,  except  a  few  small  and  unimportant  tracts.  To  this  there  is  one 
important  exception  in  the  island  of  Timor,  and  all  the  smaller  islands 
opposite,  in  which  there  is  absolutely  no  forest,  such  as  exists  in  the  other 
islands,  and  their  character  extends  in  a  lesser  degree  to  Flores,  Sumbawa, 
Lombok,  and  Bali.  f 

In  Timor  and  the  islands  between  it  and  Java  the  vegetation  is  of  the 
same  character  as  that  of  Australia.  This  peculiar  character  is  most  pro- 
bably owing  to  their  proximity  to  that  great  continent.  The  S.E.  monsoon 
which  lasts  for  about  two-thirds  of  the  year  (from  March  to  November) 
blowing  over  the  northern  parts  of  that  country,  produces  a  degree  of  heat 
and  dryness  which  assimilates  the  vegetation  and  general  aspect  of  the  adja- 
cent islands  to  its  own.  A  liitle  farther  eastward,  in  Timorlaut  and  the  Ki 
Islands,  a  moister  climate  prevails,  the  S.E.  winds  blowing  from  the  Pacific 
through  Torres  Straits  ;  and,  as  a  consequence,  every  rocky  islet  is  clothed 
with  verdure  to  its  very  summit.  Farther  West,  again,  as  the  same  winds 
blow  over  a  wider  and  wider  expanse  of  ocean,  they  have  time  to  absorb 
fresh  moisture,  and  we  accordingly  find  the  island  of  Java  posaessiug  a  less 


and  less  arid  climate  in  the  dry  season,  till  on  the  extreme  West,  near 
Batavia,  rain  occurs  more  or  less  all  the  year  round,  and  the  mountains  are 
everywhere  clothed  with  forests  of  unexampled  luxuriance. 

Mr.  Wallace  continues — Speaking  generally,  the  whole  south-western 
part  of  the  Archipelago,  including  the  whole  range  of  islands  from  Sumatra 
to  Timor,  with  the  larger  half  of  Borneo,  and  the  southern  peninsula  of 
Celebes,  have  a  dry  season  from  April  to  November,  with  the  S.E.  monsoon. 
This  same  wind,  however,  bends  round  Borneo,  becoming  the  S.W.  monsoon 
in  the  China  Sea,  and  bringing  the  rainy  season  to  northern  Borneo  and  the 

In  the  Moluccas  and  New  Guinea  the  seasons  are  most  uncertain.  In  the 
S.E.  monsoon,  from  April  to  November,  it  is  often  stormy  at  sea,  while  on 
the  islands  it  is  very  fine  weather.  There  is  generally  not  more  than  two  or 
three  months  of  dry,  hot  weather,  about  August  and  September.  This  is 
the  case  in  the  northern  extremity  of  Celebes  and  in  Boruru ;  whereas,  in 
Amboyna,  July  and  August  are  the  worst  months  in  the  year.  In  Ternate 
it  is  difficult  to  find  out  which  is  the  dry  and  which  the  wet  season.  The 
same  is  the  case  at  Banda,  and  a  similar  uncertainty  prevails  in  Menado, 
showing,  perhaps,  that  the  proximity  of  active  volcanoes  has  a  great  dis- 
turbing meteorological  influence.  In  New  Guinea  a  great  amount  of  rain 
falls  more  or  less  all  the  year  round.  On  the  whole,  the  only  statement  that 
can  be  made  seems  to  be  that  the  countries  within  about  3°  on  each  side  the 
equator  have  much  rain,  and  not  very  strongly  contrasted  seasons,  while 
those  more  South  or  North  in  latitude  have  daily  rains  during  about  four 
months  in  the  year,  while  for  five  or  six  months  there  is  almost  a  cloudless 
sky  and  a  continual  drought. 

There  is  one  evidence  of  the  uncertain  nature  of  the  aerial  currents,  and 
of  their  varying  direction  and  intensity  in  the  frequent  occurrence  of  water- 
spouts in  some  localities,  as  in  the  Malacca  Straits.  These  columns  of 
vapour  or  water,  formed  by  a  small  vortex,  are  described  at  length  here- 
after, as  seen  in  that  strait,  and  are  probably  in  some  measure  due  to  the 
peculiar  configuration  of  the  transverse  line  mountains  crossing  the  normal 
line  of  direction  of  the  prevalent  winds. 

These  brief,  general  remarks  will  suffice  to  give  a  notion  of  the  meteorology 
of  the  central  or  equatorial  portion  of  the  Indian  Archipelago  North  and 
South  of  these  limits.  The  remarks  that  have  been  given  in  the  introduc- 
tory chapter  of  our  Indian  Ocean  Directory,  will  be  equally  applicable  to 
this  portion  of  the  world. 

Storms  are  of  rare  occurrence,  and  typhoons  are  unknown.  They  only 
occur  beyond  the  limits  of  the  equatorial  calms,  and  are  seldom  felt  so  far 
South  as  the  northern  part  of  the  Philippine  Islands.  On  the  coast  of 
China  they  are  experienced  in  both  monsoons,  as  further  alluded  to  here- 


In  the  Gulf  of  Siam,  in  the  China  Sea,  and  on  the  coast  of  China,  the 
alternating  monsoons  prevail.  In  the  Gulf  of  Siam  they  are  comparatively- 
feeble  and  of  short  duration.  Farther  to  the  East  and  N.E.  they  are  more 
decided.  The  S.W.  monsoon  commences  about  the  middle  or  end  of  April 
in  the  China  Sea,  a  little  after  it  is  felt  in  the  Gulf  of  Siam  and  Tongking, 
and  before  it  reaches  the  northern  part  of  its  area  It  also  lasts  longer  in 
the  southern  part  of  its  course  than  it  does  in  the  northern.  It  is  at  its 
height  in  June,  July,  and  August.  The  N.E.  monsoon  or  the  bad  weather 
season,  sets  in  in  the  northern  part  of  the  China  Sea  about  the  end  of  Sep- 
tember or  early  in  October,  and  lasts  till  February  or  March.  It  sets  in 
"with  a  burst  of  stormy  weather,  lasting  about  a  week  or  ten  days,  and  is  in 
its  strength  in  November,  bringing  much  rain  and  a  turbulent  sea.  In  a 
subsequent  page  a  further  notice  of  the  monsoons  will  be  found. 

The  ensuing  remarks  on  this  branch  of  our  work,  derived  from  various 
sources,  is  arranged  in  a  geographical  order,  as  being  most  convenient  for 
reference.  The  foregoing  introductory  portion  being  sufficient  to  elucidate 
the  general  subject.  In  them  there  is  necessarily  some  repetitions.  The 
same  topics  having  to  be  discussed  in  each  case,  necessarily  involves  this 
repeated  allusion  to  one  subject. 

MALACCA  STRAIT.— Although  the  Malacca  Strait  is  within  the  region 
of  the  N.E.  and  S.W.  monsoons,  yet  the  winds  are  very  variable  within  its 
limits.  There  are  various  reasons  for  this  ;  the  one  is,  that  it  lies  almost 
within  the  limits  of  the  equatorial  calms,  and  therefore  the  monsoons  reach 
it  with  diminished  force  ;  another  is  the  high  land  of  Sumatra,  which  im- 
pedes the  course  of  the  S.W.  monsoon,  and  the  N.E.  monsoon  being  the 
fine  season  here,  the  wind  is  never  very  strong. 

The  land  and  sea  breezes  are  regular  on  the  West  coast  of  Malacca,  and 
also  on  the  N.E.  coast  of  Sumatra  which  limit  the  Strait.  The  monsoons 
are  not  always  regular,  except  when  they  are  at  their  height  in  the  sur- 
rounding seas,  and  at  the  same  time  the  winds  are  only  moderate  in  the 
channel,  and  only  last  a  part  of  the  day. 

The  north-east  monsoon,  which,  as  before  stated,  is  the  fine  season,  lasts 
from  November  to  May  ;  the  S.W.  monsoon,  bringing  rain  and  thunder, 
generally  commences  at  the  end  of  April  or  the  beginning  of  May,  and 
ceases  in  October.  In  November  the  winds  often  come  from  the  West,  and 
during  this  monsoon  the  weather  is  in  general  cloudy  and  rainy,  especially 
during  the  period  that  it  is  strongest.  In  October  and  November,  at  the 
end  of  the  S.W.  monsoon,  the  winds  often  vary  from  N.W.  to  W.,  but 
when  the  monsoon  sets  in  from  the  N.E.  they  are  regular  in  November. 
The  winds  are  very  strong  till  the  month  of  March,  but  principally  during 
December  and  January.  Sometimes  they  vary  to  N.  or  N.W.,  and  always 
during  the  months  of  the  N.E.  monsoon  the  breezes  from  the  West  last 
during  one  or  two  days.     During  the  season  of  the  N.E.  monsoon  the  winds 


vary  between  the  N.N.E.  and  E.N.E.  Towards  the  end  of  February  and 
March,  and  sometimes  also  in  the  beginning  of  April,  the  breezes  from  the 
N.E.  veer  towards  the  North,  and  are  light  and  variable.  It  is  found  also 
that  the  breezes  are  interrupted  by  calms  during  the  middle  of  the  day,  but 
during  the  night  and  at  sunrise  they  are  fresh.  The  coast  of  Malacca  is 
much  less  subject  to  calms  during  this  monsoon  than  that  of  Sumatra. 

The  south-icest  monsoon  is  at  its  height  in  June  and  July.  During  the 
four  months  from  May  to  September  the  winds  in  the  Strait  blow  principally 
from  S.W.  to  S.,  that  is,  when  the  S.W.  monsoon  is  at  its  greatest  height  in 
the  open  sea.  During  this  monsoon  calms  occur  on  the  N.E.  coast  of  Su- 
matra, but  less  frequently  there  than  on  the  coast  of  Malacca,  and  they  are 
rarely  of  long  duration.  In  general  it  is  calm  in  the  middle  of  the  day,  and 
fresh  breezes  in  the  night  and  at  sunrise.  It  is  only  in  the  northern  part  of 
the  Strait  of  Malacca  that  the  monsoons  are  regular. 

During  the  S.W.  monsoon  sudden  and  heavy  squalls  come  off  the  Sumatra 
coast,  generally  during  the  early  part  of  the  night.  From  their  direction 
they  are  called  Sumatras,  and  are  accompanied  by  loud  thunder  and  heavy 
rain.  They  are  probably  occasioned  by  the  mountains  on  the  Pedir  coast, 
and  blow  sometimes  for  six  or  eight  hours  at  a  time,  strongest  at  their 
commencement.  In  Malacca  Eoad  they  generally  set  in  at  7  or  8  p.m.,  and 
are  at  their  height  at  midnight,  and  have  caused  many  ships  to  part  their 

The  wind  does  not  often  come  from  the  N.W.,  but  at  times  it  blows  right 
through  to  Singapore.  They  come  on  very  suddenly  and  violently,  but  do 
not  last  long.  They  are  generally  preceded  by  a  black  cloudy  arch,  rising 
rapidly  from  the  horizon  toward  the  zenith,  which  only  allows  sufficient 
monition  to  reduce  sail  as  quickly  as  possible,  and  should  a  ship  be  at  an- 
chor, she  should  immediately  weigh,  or  the  burst  of  the  storm  will  not  allow 
her  to  do  so. 

Water  Spouts. — In  the  very  excellent  and  graphic  account  of  the  Horsburgh 
Lighthouse  and  its  erection  in  the  Strait  of  Malacca,  by  J.  T.  Thomson,  Esq., 
F.R.Gr.S.,  are  some  interesting  remarks  on  this  curious  phenomenon,  which, 
as  before  stated,  is  somewhat  fi-equent  in  these  seas.  The  opportunities 
afforded  during  the  progress  of  the  works  in  1847  —  1851  gave  many  unusu- 
allv  good  opportunities  for  observing  the  peculiarities  of  their  action,  of 
which  the  following  good  account  is  given  : — 

The  curious  phenomenon,  popularly  known  as  the  water-spout,  was  fre- 
quently seen  in  the  Straits,  and  on  two  occasions  I  was  fortunate  enough  to 
observe  them  in  full  action,  at  a  distance  of  little  less  than  half  a  mile.  On 
the  first  occasion,  when  on  board  the  gun-boat  Charlotte,  off  Barbukit  Point, 
at  4  p.m.  on  the  29th  May,  a  heavy  cloud,  with  rain  about  to  fall  from  it, 
was  observed  to  be  approuchiug,  driven  by  the  S.W.  breeze  then  blowing. 


To  the  southward  the  atmosphere  was  observed  to  be  damp  and  hazy,  while 
to  the  North  it  was  clear  and  dry.  On  the  rain  reaching  the  sea  a  vapour 
tube  was  seen  to  protrude  in  the  midst  from  the  cloud  downwards,  gradually 
lessening  in  its  diameter  till  it  reached  two-thirds  of  the  distance  between 
the  cloud  and  the  sea,  and  below  which  point  the  tube  did  not  descend.  The 
altitude  of  the  cloud  was  judged  to  be  about  1,000  feet  above  the  surface. 
A  small  attenuated  column  of  white  vapour  was  now  noticed  to  rise  out  of 
the  sea  with  a  hissing  noise,  and  which  was  soon  surrounded  by  white 
vapour  disengaged  therefrom. 

This  column  quickly  effected  a  junction  with  the  large  and  heavy  vapour 
tube  depending  from  above,  into  the  centre  of  which  it  seemed  to  be  re- 
ceived. The  water-spout  played  for  about  five  minutes,  during  which  time 
the  depending  tube  appeared  alternately  elongated  and  shortened,  and  the 
vapour  surrounding  it  maintained  a  spiral  motion.     The  day  was  hot. 

Again,  on  the  1st  of  July  another  was  seen  from  Pedra  Branca,  bearing 
S.W.,  and  approaching  the  rock.  This  was  at  4.15  p.m.  The  height  of  the 
spout  seemed  to  be  nearly  1,000  feet,  and  its  diameter  halfway  up  50.  The 
depending  tube  revolved  with  the  hands  of  a  watch,  or  from  West  by  the 
North  to  East,  &c.  In  this  one,  which  was  of  very  large  diameter,  two 
columns  or  tubes  of  vapour  seemed  to  be  in  action,  one  within  the  other. 
The  depending  one,  whose  massive  and  opaque  vapour  was  derived  from  the 
cloud,  enveloped  the  other,  which  was  thin  and  attenuated  and  rose  from  the 
sea,  with  the  noise  above  described,  and  entered  the  lower  end  of  the  de- 
pending tube,  through  which  it  seemed  to  ascend  up  to  the  cloud. 

The  ascending  column,  as  usual,  disengaged  much  white  vapour  from  the 
surface  of  the  sea,  and  with  which  its  lower  end  was  surrounded.  This 
water-spout  depended  from  a  nimbus,  and  rain  was  falling  all  round  it. 
The  nimbus  was  travelling  N.E.,  and  the  water-spout  was  on  the  advanced 
edge  of  it.  At  4.25  the  depending  tube  gradually  wasted  away,  until  it 
vanished,  when  the  white  vapour  of  the  ascending  column  parted  from  the 
surface  of  the  sea  and  ascended,  like  the  curling  of  smoke,  up  towards  the 
cloud,  at  the  same  time  the  hissing  noise  ceased,  and  the  surrounding  minute 
spray  entirely  disappeared.*  The  atmosphere  was  clear  and  dry  to  the  N.E., 
but  rainy  and  threatening  to  the  S.W.,  from  whence  the  nimbus  travelled. 
Probably  twenty  others  were  seen  during  the  season,  but  at  too  great  dis- 
tances for  satisfactory  observations. 

It  was  invariably  remarked  that  water-spouts  formed  themselves  in  rain- 
clouds,  or  nimbi,  at  a  time  when  the  rain  was  about  to  fall  or  had  fallen  for 
a  short  time  ;   the  state  of  the  atmosphere  favourable  to  their  formation 

*  In  this  one  I  observed  what  was  entirely  new  to  me,  viz.,  that  the  particles  of  vapour 
contained  in  the  outer  and  dependent  tube,  besides  being  driven  in  the  helical  curve  round 
the  inner  or  ascending  column,  revolved  also  round  the  threads  of  the  helix. 


would  therefore  appear  to  be  just  when  the  capability  of  the  air  to  support 
the  cloud  was  in  a  balanced  state. 

Squalls. — The  larger  atmospherical  disturbances  of  squalls  formed  also  in- 
teresting objects  of  observation,  the  frequency  of  their  occurrence  in  the 
Straits  of  Malacca,  and  the  force  with  which  they  sometimes  press  on  the 
sail,  render  them  of  too  much  consequence  to  the  frequenter  of  these  seas  to 
be  lightly  considered. 

The  squalls  may  be  divided  into  local  and  general,  the  first  forming  in  the 
isolated  hills,  and  influencing  the  immediate  districts  only,  and  the  latter 
termed  the  "  Sumatras,"  as  they  invariably  come  from  that  island,  affecting 
hundreds  of  miles  on  the  same  day. 

The  local  squalls  were  observed  to  form  on  the  only  high  hills  within 
view  from  Pedra  Branca,  viz.,  Bintang  and  Barbukit.  During  the  calm 
months  of  May  and  June,  should  the  day  be  more  than  usually  hot,  by  noon 
the  moisture  of  the  atmosphere  was  invariably  seen  to  condense  on  the  cool 
tops  of  these  eminences,  and  form  into  high  accumulated  masses  of  vapour, 
by  one  or  two  o'clock  the  atmosphere  being  refrigerated  and  rendered  dense 
in  the  process  would  rush  down  from  the  summits,  displacing  the  hot  and 
rarified  air  of  the  plains,  and  cooling  with  its  accompanying  showers  the 
parched  soil.  At  the  change  of  the  monsoons,  before  either  had  set  in  to 
blow  regularly,  the  local  squalls  would  be  seen  to  spread  themselves  out 
from  the  locality  of  their  formation  equally  in  all  directions,  upon  the  sur- 
rounding plains.  But  when  either  monsoon  was  blowing,  they  would  be 
carried  in  the  direction  of  the  prevailing  wind, — during  the  S.W.  monsoon 
towards  the  N.  and  N.E.,  and  during  the  N.E.  monsoon  towards  the  S.  and 
S.W.  Even  during  the  height  of  the  N.E.  monsoon,  which  blows  more 
steadily  than  the  S.W.  one,  at  night  its  under  current  of  air  would  always 
moderate,  if  not  cease,  though,  as  might  be  seen  by  the  travelling  clouds 
above,  the  upper  current  was  not  arrested  in  its  progress.  At  the  latter  end 
of  the  monsoon  it  has  not  power  to  overcome  the  density  of  the  air  over- 
spreading the  peninsula,  created  during  the  cool  of  the  night,  until  10  and 
12  and  even  4  o'clock  of  the  following  day.  On  such  occasions,  if  the 
weather  be  fair  and  hot,  the  atmosphere  will  have  condensed  its  vapour  on 
Barbukit  Hill,  and  from  whence  heavy  squalls  will  proceed  across  the  Straits 
of  Singapore,  assisted  by  the  monsoon.  Of  this  we  had  many  instances, 
heavy  N.E.  squalls  having  taken  the  gun-boats  inside  of  the  Straits,  while 
at  the  same  moment,  10  miles  distant,  an  agreeable  and  permanent  N.E. 
breeze  has  been  experienced  out  at  Pedra  Branca. 

The  laws  that  have  been  observed  to  generate  and  direct  the  local  squalls 
may  be  safely  assumed  to  operate  in  the  same  manner,  with  regard  to  the 
general  squalls  or  "  Sumatras"  that  in  the  Straits  come  from  the  direction 
of  that  island  during  the  S.W.  monsoon.  In  Sumatra  the  regular  prevailing 
wind  may  be  supposed  to  meet  obstruction  in  the  high  range  of  mountains. 


that  intersect  the  island  in  a  longitudinal  direction,  and  not  having  strength 
at  all  times  to  overcome  the  barrier,  is  curbed,  until,  as  has  been  seen  to  be 
the  case  with  the  local  squalls,  condensed  air  has  been  formed  on  the  high- 
lands, which,  with  its  accompanying  vapours,  rushes  down  to  displace  the 
heated  and  rarified  atmosphere  of  the  valleys  and  plains  on  the  lee,  and 
being  at  the  same  time  urged  on  by  the  pent  up  force  of  the  monsoon  now 
let  loose,  stretches  itself  far  and  wide  over  the  Malacca  Straits  and  the 
generally  low-lying  surface  of  the  Malayan  Peninsula. 

These  **  Sumatras  "  were  found  to  arrive  at  Pedra  Branca  between  the 
hours  of  3  and  8  a.m.,  and  if  we  be  allowed  to  infer  with  regard  to  their 
time  of  origin  that  it  is  the  same  as  obtains  in  local  squalls,  viz.  from  1 1  a.m. 
to  4  p.m.,  assuming  the  distance  travelled  to  be  300  miles,  their  rate  of 
progression  will  be  19  to  20  miles  an  hour.  This  was  corroborated  by 
watching  their  arrival  at  distant  high  points  of  land  seen  from  the  rock,  and 
noting  the  interval  of  time  consumed  in  their  coming  to  the  rock.  A  storm 
or  gale  is  generally  estimated  to  travel  at  the  rate  of  32  miles  an  hour ;  but 
it  is  only  for  the  first  few  minutes  that  a  "  Sumatra  "  assumes  this  character, 
and  this  only  in  sudden  puffs;  they  soon  decrease  in  force  to  a  high  wind, 
which  is  said  to  travel  at  the  rate  of  16  or  17  miles  an  hour.  The  approach. 
of  a  "  Sumatra  "  has  much  to  attract  the  attention  of  the  student  of  nature. 
The  most  imposing  characteristic  is  in  the  immense  arch  that  it  forms, 
stretching  from  the  zenith  to  opposite  points  of  the  horizon  and  below  the 
arch,  which  is  of  the  darkest  hue,  there  are  suspended  dark  grey  vapours, 
about  to  descend  on  the  surface  of  the  earth.  Above  the  dark  arch  will  be 
seen  light  grey  fog  banks,  over  which  a  slighter  arch  will  be  spanning,  and 
which  is  again  crowned  by  white  fleecy  clouds,  contrasting,  if  the  squall 
approach  at  daylight,  strongly  with  the  blue  sky  above  and  the  dark  masses 

SINGAPORE. — The  following  remarks  on  the  climate,  &c.,  of  Singapore 
are  by  Dr.  E.  Little,  derived  from  tables  furnished  him  by  Captain  Elliott, 
M.E.  They  are  very  important,  being  based  on  adequate  and  well  digested 
data.     They  are  therefore  given  more  at  length  than  in  other  cases  : — 

Singapore,  though  within  80  miles  of  the  equator,  through  its  abundancr> 
of  moisture,  either  deposited  by  the  dews  or  gentle  refreshing  showers,  keepf 
its  atmosphere  cool,  prevents  the  parching  effect  of  the  sun,  and  promotes 
continual  verdure.  It  never  experiences  furious  gales.  If  more  than  ordi- 
nary heat  has  accumulated  moisture  and  electricity,  a  squall  generally  sets 
in,  followed  by  a  heavy  shower  of  rain ;  these  squalls  never  exceed  one  or 
two  hours  in  duration.  According  as  the  monsoon  blows,  you  will  have 
them  rising  in  that  direction.  In  1841,  during  the  N.E.  monsoon,  there 
were  four  squalls  from  that  direction  ;  but  the  most  severe  and  numerous 
are  from  the  S.W.,  which  are  called  Sumatras,  and  they  most  frequently 
occur  between  1  and  5  in  the  morning.  The  N.E.  monsoon  blows  from 
I.  A.  0 



November  to  March,  and  after  which  the  wind  veers  round  to  S.E.,  and 
gradually  sets  into  the  S.W.,  between  which  points  it  continues  in  May, 
June,  July,  and  September.  The  N.E.  monsoon  blows  more  steadily  than 
the  S.W.  one.  The  temperature  of  Singapore  is  one  or  two  degrees  cooler 
during  the  former  than  the  latter,  which  also  brings  more  rain.  It  is  further 
remarked  that  the  wind  always  lulls  at  night,  during  the  height  of  either 
monsoon.  Daring  the  S.W.  monsoon  a  wind  from  the  South  prevails  at 
times,  which  is  termed  by  the  natives  Angin  Jawa,  or  Java  winds,  because 
it  comes  from  the  direction  of  that  island.  This  especially  exists  in  Septem- 
ber, which  is  attributed  to  the  usual  cooling  land  breeze  being  replaced  in 
the  mornings  during  that  month  by  the  hotter  breeze  from  the  sea ;  as  we 
advance  into  the  interior  this  hot  breeze  is  not  felt. 



January  . , 
March  .... 
April    .... 


June     .  • , , 


August  . . 
October  . . 


Number  of  Hours  in  which  the  Wind 
is  in  each  Quarter. 
























































These  observations 
}  were   taken    during 
five  years. 

Four  years. 

Three  years. 
Four  years. 

How  beautiful  an  illustration,  exclaims  the  writer,  of  the  little  variation 
we  find  in  the  general  laws  of  nature  ;  though  how  often  do  we  remark  how 
changeable  is  the  weather.  From  these  observations,  carried  on  nearly  five 
years,  the  wind  blows  from  the  N.E.  during  474  days  9  hours,  from  the 
opposite  direction,  S.W.,  during  the  contrary  monsoon,  470  days  13  hours; 
another  deduction  is  made,  that  during  the  months  of  December,  January, 



February,  and  March,  the  wind  blows  more  continuously  from  the  N.E. 
than  any  other  direction  ;  while  in  the  months  of  June,  July,  August,  and 
September,  the  wind  is  principally  to  the  S.W.  During  November  the  pre- 
vailing wind  is  N.W.,  while  its  antagonist,  S.E.,  blows  in  the  month  of 
June.  Another  fact  is  elicited,  viz.,  that  in  April  we  have  the  winds  blow- 
ing from  the  direction  of  N.W.  and  N.E.  1,852  hours  ;  and  from  the  S.W. 
and  S.E.  1,868  hours.  In  October  we  have  them  blowing  from  the  N.W. 
and  N.E.  1,567  hours;  and  from  the  S.W.  and  S.E.  1,'395  hours  :  thus  the 
wind,  in  changing  from  the  N.E.  monsoon  to  the  S.W.,  seems  to  do  so 
gradually  from  N.E.  to  N.N.E.,  then  N.W.  to  West,  then  S.W.  ;  and,  in 
changing  from  the  S.W.  to  the  N.E.,  retraces  its  progress  by  retaining:  its 
westerly  direction,  and  not  reaching  the  N.E.  by  S.,  then  S.E.  and  E.,  but 
adopting  the  same  direction,  by  which  it  reached  the  S.W.  from  N.E.,  viz., 
a  westerly. 

In  the  same  paper  the  following  facts'  are  announced  with  regard  to  the 
fall  of  rain  and  quantity  of  moisture  in  the  atmosphere.  In  1820,  rain  fell  on 
229  days;  in  1821,  on  203  days;  in  1824,  on  136  days;  and  in  1825,  on  171 
days  ;  giving  an  average  on  4  years  of  185  rainy  days,  and  180  dry  in  ayear. 
The  quantity  of  rain  that  falls  is  well  illustrated  in  the  following  table  : — 








Total  of 
4  years. 

Average  of 
1  year. 



















































































It  will  be  observed,  from  the  above,  that  the  greatest  fall  of  rain  during 
these  four  years  occui'red  in  January,  1842,  and  the  least  in  June,  1843. 
The  year  1841  was  unusually  dry,  73  inches  only  having  fallen,  while  the  suc- 
ceeding was  unusually  wet,  116  inches  having  fallen.  This  was  caused  by 
the  unusual  drj^ness  of  January  and  October,  in  the  former  year ;  and  the 
unusual  wetness  of  both  in  the  latter.  By  examining  the  average  for  each 
month,  the  seasons  will  be  found  to  be  very  equable,  the  least  average  being 
for  September  and  June,  which  respectively  have  4.400  and  5.526  inches, 
and  the  greatest  being,  for  January  and  October  respectively,  13.656  and 
11.855  innhes.  During  the  other  months  the  rain  averages  from  6  to  9  in- 
ches. The  annual  average  fall  is  92.697  inches,  a  quantity  which  is  about  2 
inches  less  than  the  average  fall  for  the  latitude  of  Singapore,  as  stated  by 
Humboldt,  who  gives  96  inches  as  the  average  fall  at  the  equator. 

With  regard  to  the  temperature  of  the  atmosphere,  in  1841  to  1845,  the 
mean  was  81°. 247,  the  lowest  mean  of  a  month  being,  for  January,  72°. 55, 
the  temperature  increases  to  May,  June,  and  July,  which  have  82°. 30,  82°.29, 
and  82°. 24  respectively.  It  is  concluded,  from  the  above,  that  the  tempera- 
ture of  Singapore  is  2°.  90  less  than  other  localities  in  similar  latitudes,  and 
that  the  range  between  the  mean  temperature  of  May  and  January  extends 
over  2°.76,  and  adding  up  the  mean  temperature  of  each  month  of  each  year, 
we  have  the  mean  temperature  as  follows : — 

Of  1841     1842       1843       1844    and    1845 
As  81.28    81.6     81.09      80.82  and   81.66 
From  which  this  inference  is  drawn,  that  in  five  successive  years  the  mean 
temperature  did  not  vary  one  degree. 

Deduction  made  from  other  tables  gave  the  maximum  temperature  for  five 
years  at  87°. 5,  and  the  extreme  minimum  7  4°. 7  ;  the  former  occurred  in  June, 
1842,  and  the  latter  in  January,  1843,  giving  the  greatest  range  as  9°. 8.  To 
this  I  may  add,  that  I  have  seen  the  thermometer  down  to  68°.5  in  January 
of  the  present  year,  at  Bonny  Grass,  the  residence  of  Dr.  Little,  where  the 
thermometer  was  hung  iu  a  building,  well  protected  from  the  sun,  but  open 
on  all  sides. 

From  observations  taken  by  Captain  Davis  during  six  years,  the  mean 
temperat;ire  was — 

In    1820       1821       1822       1823       1824    and    1825 
As    79.5       79.5       80.2       79.8       81.0    and    81.4 

These  observations  were  taken  at  6  a.m.  and  noon,  and  the  following  taken 
at  Singapore  Observatory,  during  the  same  hours,  gives — 

In    1841       1842       1843       1844    and    1845 
As    82.0      82.08     81.58      83.7     and    84.©4 

Thus  showing  that,  in  20  years,  the  temperature  of  Singapore  Town  has  in- 
creased 2°.48.     The  cause  of  this  advance  of  the  temperature  is  assigned  to 


the  country,  within  3  miles  of  the  town,  being  now  clear  of  jungle,  and  cul- 
tivated, which  formerly  was  covered  with  primeval  forest. 

Dr.  Little  concludes  his  remarks  by  stating  the  mean  annual  solar  radia- 
tion to  be  12r.50,  the  mean  terrestrial  66°.  10,  and  the  hourly  mean  reading 
of  the  barometer  29.884  inches,  which  never  varies  more  than  the  twentieth 
of  an  inch. 

Thunder  showers  frequently  occur,  particularly  at  the  breaking  up  of  the 
monsoons.  That  interesting  and  wonderful  atmospherical  phenumenon, 
called  a  water  spout,  is  often  to  be  seen  in  the  seas  and  straits  adjacent ; 
they  would  more  properly  be  called  whirlwinds  charged  with  vapour.  They 
occur  generally  in  the  morning,  between  eight  and  twelve  o'clock,  and  rise 
to  the  height  of  half  a  mile,  in  the  distance  appearing  like  large  columns, 
supporting  the  heavy  masses  of  Cumuli  above  them.  I  noticed,  in  October, 
1841,  six  of  these  attached  to  one  cloud,  under  action  at  the  same  time.  In 
August,  1838,  one  passed  over  the  town  and  harbour  of  Singapore,  dismast- 
ing one  ship,  and  sinking  another,  and  carrying  off  the  comer  of  the  roof  of 
a  house  in  its  passage  landward.  No  other  atmospherical  disturbances  of 
any  moment  occur.  The  typhoons  of  the  China  Sea,  or  Bay  of  Bengal,  do 
not  reach  these  parts,  nor  are  there  hot  winds  to  parch  the  land.  The 
equable  and  quiet  state  of  the  atmosphere  and  seasons  of  these  regions  con- 
sequently create  analogous  properties  in  the  face  of  indiginous  vegetation. 
Evergreens  abound,  few  trees  shed  all  their  leaves  at  one  time,  and  many  of 
fruit  trees  produce  all  the  year  round ;  such  that  have  their  seasons  of 
fruit  will  frequently  produce  their  crops  out  of  season,  having  small  irregular 
ones  at  intervening  times.  This  continual  verdure  is  perhaps  more  grateful 
to  the  eye  of  the  stranger  than  to  those  who  have  been  accustomed  to  it ;  to 
the  former  it  bears  the  pleasant  appearance  of  exuberance  and  fecundity, 
where  the  lofty  forest  not  only  hangs  over  the  beach,  but  clothes  the  moun- 
tains to  their  tops,  so  unlike  the  sterile  bareness  of  higher  latitudes ;  while 
to  the  other,  the  continued  sameness  palls  the  senses,  which  lack  variety  and 
call  for  a  sterile  winter  only  that  they  may  renew,  with  doubly  keen  concep- 
tion by  the  contrast,  their  acquaintance  with  the  beauties  of  returning 
summer  that  here  always  reigns. 

STEAIT  of  BANKA,  &c.— The  winds  in  Banka  Strait  follow  the  direction 
of  the  coasts,  though  with  slight  variations  from  the  influence  of  the  land  and 
sea  breezes ;  and  fresh  breezes  may  always  be  expected  when  working  against 
the  monsoon. 

During  the  shifting  months  of  the  S.E.  monsoon,  sailing  vessels  are  often 
five  and  six  weeks  in  making  the  passage  from  Singapore  to  Banka  Strait. 
In  the  month  of  September  H.M.S.  Saracen  had  the  S.E.  monsoon  strong, 
with  much  rain  ;  about  the  equinox  there  were  several  heavy  squalls.  This 
monsoon  is  generally  supposed  to  shift  about  the  beginning  of  October,  but 
during  the  whole  of  this  month  the  wind  was  only  4  hours  from  the  north- 


ward,  there  being  a  succession  of  calms,  light  southerly  airs,  a  close  muggy 
atmosphere  surcharged  with  electricity,  and  frequent  heavy  Sumatra  squalls 
or  south-westers.  On  the  9th  of  November  the  monsoon  shifted  with  furious 

These  squalls  at  this  season  generally  take  place  at  night,  accompanied 
with  heavy  rain,  thunder,  and  lightning.  They  are  of  short  duration,  and 
it  was  noticed  that  when  one  occurs  about  the  time  of  full  and  change, 
another  may  be  expected  an  hour  later  every  night  till  the  next  change  of 
the  moon. 

In  the  Strait  of  Sunda  the  winds  vary  between  S.S.E.  and  E.S.E.  from 
April  to  October,  and  are  then  called  the  eastern  monsoon.  They  are  gene- 
rally W.N.  W.  and  N.W.  during  the  western  monsoon,  which  succeeds  the 
preceding  one.  This  monsoon  comes  in  November,  and  brings  bad  weather. 
There  are  alternate  breezes  in  this  strait ;  they  blow  from  the  South  before 
noon,  and  from  the  North  in  the  afternoon,  and  are  separated  by  an  interval 
of  calm. 

On  the  South  Coast  of  Java  the  wind  blows  from  the  N.W.,  while  the  N.E. 
monsoon  is  blowing  to  the  North  of  the  line,  from  October  to  April :  it  ceases 
in  March.  In  April  the  winds  are  variable ;  and  in  May  are  settled  in  the 
East.  The  weather  is  fine,  and  the  winds  are  strongest  from  June  to 
August.  In  October  the  S.E.  monsoon  becomes  weaker;  and,  till  the  re- 
turn of  the  N.W.  monsoon,  the  winds  are  variable.  In  May  and  November 
a  great  deal  ctf  rain  falls  on  this  coast.  In  February  and  the  first  part  of 
the  month  of  March,  as  well  as  in  October,  that  is  when  the  monsoon  changes, 
the  land  and  sea  breezes  are  alternately  regular  ;  they  are  weaker  in  October, 
February,  and  March.  In  these  two  last  months,  and  also  in  April,  the  land 
breezes  commense  with  squalls,  or  at  times  with  a  heavy  storm.  After  tins 
has  passed,  the  breezes  from  the  land  are  moderate  till  the  return  of  the  sea 
breeze.  In  April  and  May,  on  this  coast,  the  sea  breeze  commences  with  a 
heavy  squall,  or  a  storm,  which  does  not  last  long. 

JAVA  SEA. — The  following  summary  is  by  Captain  Jansen,  as  quoted 
by  M.  Krecke:  — 

During  the  month  of  February  the  westerly  monsoon  is  still  strong  and 
steady  :  in  March  it  is  interrupted  by  calms  and  squalls,  which  become  less 
frequent  and  less  violent  in  April.  Now  the  easterly  winds  burst  in  suddenly  ; 
clouds  Collect  and  darken  the  sky,  while  there  are  incessant  thunderstorms 
by  day  and  night,  and  waterspouts  are  very  common. 

If  the  wind  changes  again  to  West  or  North,  the  sky  clears  again  ;  but  this 
wind  does  not  last,  and  the  clouds  soon  re-appear.  The  rain  gradually  ceases 
during  the  day  time,  and  the  S.E.  winds  prevail  throughout  the  mouth  of 
May.  At  the  time  of  the  reverse  change  of  the  East  to  the  West  monsoon, 
the  calms  last  for  a  shorter  period,  as  the  wind  assumes  a  decided  N.W. 
direction  at  once,  and  the  showers  of  rain,  accompanied  by  violent  squalls, 

JAVA  SEA.  15 

are  felt  only  for  a  short  time.  Thunder  storms  are  abundant,  but  only  on 
land,  or  close  to  the  coast.  Toward  the  end  of  November  the  N.W.  mon- 
soon is  again  permanent. 

On  the  North  Coast  of  Java,  from  May  to  July,  the  winds  blow  from  the 
S.E.  with  a  return  of  the  opposite  winds,  which  vary  to  the  N.E.  near  the 
West  point  of  the  island.  During  the  S.E.  monsoon,  the  winds  are  S.S.E., 
varying  to  E.S.E.,  and  it  is  fine  weather.  In  October  the  winds  are  light, 
weak,  and  variable.  The  N.W.  monsoon  generally  commences  in  October, 
but  sometimes  it  occurs  in  September,  or  is  retarded  till  November,  and  ends 
in  March.  This  is  the  season  of  the  heavy  rains.  In  the  month  of  Decem- 
ber the  West  winds  predominate.  Towards  the  middle  of  February  squalls 
and  tempests  occur,  accompanied  by  rain.  At  Batavia,  from  April  to  No- 
vember, the  weather  is  tolerably  fine  ;  but,  after  that,  rain  ensues  till  the  end 
of  the  year. 

On  the  Southern  Coast  of  Borneo,  from  thePulo-Laut  to  the  Strait  of  Sunda, 
the  S.E.  monsoon  prevails  from  May  to  September,  like  the  West  of  Java. 
At  the  same  time,  in  the  Indian  Ocean,  the  S.W.  monsoon  is  found  to  the 
North  of  the  line.  From  September  to  April  the  West  winds  blow  on  this 
coast,  the  rams  are  constant,  and  the  weather  often  very  bad.  During  the 
S.E.  monsoon  the  weather,  though  still  humid,  is  less  rainy  than  during  the 
N.W.  monsoon. 

Observations  carried  on  for  a  series  of  years  (1850 — 1856)  at  Palemhang, 
on  the  N.W.  coast  of  the  south-eastern  part  of  Sumatra,  have  led  to  the 
foUowing  results: — From  November  to  March  the  prevalent  winds  are 
westerly  and  north-westerly.  This  is  the  regular  rainy  season  during  the 
West  monsoon.  April  is  the  month  of  the  change  of  the  monsoons,  when 
thunderstorms  are  most  frequent.  From  May  till  September,  easterly  and 
south-easterly  winds  (of  the  East  monsoon)  are  permanent,  and  the  change 
comes  in  September  or  October. 

From  this  it  appears  that  the  wind  shifts  pretty  regularly  round  the  com- 
pass, for  its  mean  direction  for  each  month  in  rotation,  counting  from  South 
to  West,  is — 

Jan.  Feb.  March.  April.  Slay.  June. 

S.  7°  W.     I     S.  20°  W.     I     S.  30°  W.     |     W.  2a°  N.     |      W.  79^  N.      |     W.  ^b"  N. 

July.  Augn.'st.  Sept.  Oct.  Nov.  Dec. 

K.  6°  E.     I     N.  21°  E.      I     N.  lt>°  E.      ]      N.  2o°  E.      |      E.  30°  S.       |      S.  4°  W. 

At  Banjermassing,  on  the  South  coast  of  Borneo,  the  S.W.  monsoon  prevails 
from  December  to  March ;  the  S.E.  monsoon  from  April  to  October.  The 
change  seems  to  be  of  short  duration.  Rain  is  most  abundant  from  July  to 
October,  while  thunderstorms  are  more  frequent  in  the  months  of  November, 
December,  and  May,  at  times  consequently  later  than  the  changes  of  the 
monsoons.     There  is,  ho  wever,  in  this  respect,  a  considerable  variation  be- 


tween  individual  years.     In  1851,  eighteen  thunderstorms  were  observed, 
while  eighty-three  took  place  in  1857. 

A  close  examination  of  the  direction  of  the  wind  leads  to  the  following 
results  : — The  predominant  direction  of  the  wind  in  December  is  S.W.  and 
W.S.W.,  and  it  becomes  more  westerly  in  January  and  February.  In 
March  the  direction  during  the  day  is  less  constant.  In  April  the  S.E.  wind 
becomes  prevalent,  and  increases  in  steadiness  up  to  August  and  September. 
In  October  it  gets  round  to  the  southward.  In  November  this  is  the  case, 
in  the  morning  hours,  in  a  still  higher  degree  ;  in  fact,  in  the  afternoon  the 
wind  goes  somewhat  past  the  South  towards  the  West.  At  last,  in  Decem- 
ber, the  S.W.  monsoon  is  definitely  established. — {Kreclce.) 

GTJLF  of  SIAM. — The  following  account  of  the  winds  and  weather  is  by 
Lieutenant  John  Eichards,  E..N.,  who  surveyed  the  guK  in  H.M.S.  Saracen, 
in  1855-8.  The  N.E.  monsoon  in  the  Gulf  of  Siam  sets  in  early  in  Novem- 
ber. It  is  usually  preceded  by  a  month  of  squally,  variable,  and  uncertain 

In  the  months  of  November,  December,  and  January,  the  wind  blows  be- 
tween N.N.E.  and  East ;  generally  strong  breezes,  with  the  temperature 
occasionally  as  low  as  65°.  Along  the  eastern  shore  of  the  gulf  at  this  time 
the  sky  is  frequently  unclouded  for  a  week  together,  but  on  the  opposite 
coast  the  weather  is  wet  and  stormy. 

In  November  and  December,  strong  squalls,  with  heavy  thunder  and  light- 
ning, are  occasionally  met  with  near  Pulo  Panjang. 

Towards  the  end  of  January  the  wind  blows  more  from  the  eastward,  is 
steadier,  and  abates  in  strength. 

In  February  the  wind  is  more  constant  from  E.S.E.  than  from  any  other 
point;  it  veers  between  S.E.  and  N.E.,  with  occasional  calms  and  squalls. 
Fine  weather  and  smooth  water  now  prevail  all  over  the  gulf. 

In  March  the  monsoon  cannot  be  depended  on.  In  the  middle  of  the 
gulf  calms  prevail ;  with  southerly  winds  near  the  shore,  and  occasional  land 
and  sea  breezes.  Towards  the  end  of  the  month  the  weather  becomes  hot 
and  sultry. 

April  is  the  hottest  month  of  the  year ;  calms  may  be  expected  near  the 
middle  of  the  gulf ;  land  and  sea  breezes  near  the  shore,  and  occasional 
slight  squalls.  From  the  2nd  of  April  until  the  15th  of  May,  1856,  the 
Saracen  remained  at  anchor  off  the  Bangkok  Bar,  during  which  interval  the 
river  was  siirveyed,  and  the  four-mile  boundary  line  round  the  town  of 
Bangkok  defined.  Towards  the  middle  of  April  the  weather  changed,  and 
became  gloomy  and  threatening ;  at  the  latter  end  of  the  month  there  were 
several  days  continuous  and  heavy  rain,  after  which  the  weather  became 
snowery,  and  continued  so  during  the  remainder  of  the  above  period.  On 
the  15th  the  Saracen  sailed  for  Singapore,  and  in  the  upper  part  of  the 
gulf  had  calms  and  light  winds  from  the  eastward,  drawing  round  to  the 

CAMBODIA.  •■  17 

sontliward  as  the  Itedang-  Islands  were  neared.  A  southerly  current  was 
experienced  the  whole  way  down  to  Pulo  Aor. 

S.  TV,  Monxoon. — In  May  clouds  begin  to  bank  up,  and  an  occasional  shower 
relieves  the  intensity  of  a  vertical  sun.  The  S.W.  monsoon  sets  in  about 
the  middle  of  the  month,  sometimes  preceded  by  light  flaws  of  wind  and  fine 
weather,  but  usually  with  squally  weather,  and  occasional  heavy  falls  of  rain. 
In  June,  July,  and  August  the  S.W.  monsoon  blows  strong,  with  occasional 
showers,  but  generally  very  fine  weather  along  the  western  shore  of  the 
Gulf;  oxit  in  the  middle  a  rough  sea,  and  along  the  eastern  shore  strong 
breezes  with  much  rain,  and  occasionally  a  fresh  gale. 

In  September  the  wind  is  very  unsteady,  veering  between  S.W.  and 
W.N.W.  in  strong  gusts.  Heavy  and  continuous  rain  may  be  expected  in 
this  month. 

In  October  the  wind  veers  between  West  and  North,  and  abates  consi- 
derably in  strength  ;  the  rain  squalls  are  less  frequent.  Towards  the  end  of 
the  month  the  wind  settles  in  the  North,  and  the  cold  weather  and  fine  sea- 
son set  in.  Vessels  bound  to  the  Gulf  from  Hong  Kong  will  not  profit  much 
by  leaving  China  earlier  than  the  middle  of  this  month. 

At  the  bar  of  Bangkok  Eiver  land  and  sea  breezes  generally  prevail, 
veering  by  the  East  or  West  according  to  the  monsoon. 

The  S.W.  monsoon  is  scarcely  felt  close  in  shore,  between  Cape  Patani 
and  the  Eedang  Islands,  its  course  being  inten-upted  by  the  high  land  in 
that  neighbourhood.  To  the  southward  of  Pulo  Kapas  it  takes  the  direction 
of  the  coast,  veering  a  few  points  on  or  off  shore  by  day  or  night,  under  the 
influence,  alternately,  of  the  sea  and  land  breezes. 

White  squalls  are  said  to  prevail  in  the  Gulf,  particularly  in  the  month 
of  May. 

Black  squalls  are  frequent  in  the  S.W.  monsooh  ;  they  rise  in  the  west- 
ward, accompanied  by  a  heavy  bank  of  clouds,  and  blow  with  great  violence 
for  a  short  time,  and  are  frequently  accompanied  by  heavy  rain. 

Heavy  gales  are  unknown  in  the  Gulf. 

Cambodia. — On  the  coast  of  Cambodia,  in  June,  July,  and  August,  there 
are  heavy  rains,  accompanied  by  S.W.  winds.  The  monsoons  are  not  regular 
on  this  coast,  and  land  and  sea  breezes  are  met  with  when  the  prevailing 
monsoon  is  weak.  The  breezes  do  not  last  more  than  five  or  six  hours 
during  the  S.W.  monsoon,  and  are  not  so  Iresh  as  those  which  prevail  at 
the  end  of  the  N.E.  monsoon.  In  Pulo  Timoan  and  Pulo  Condore  the  N.E. 
monsoon  is  established  towards  the  15th  of  October  with  fine  weather.  The 
S.W.  monsoon  brings  rain,  and  lasts  during  eight  months.  Near  these 
islands,  in  November,  there  are  alternately  calms,  storms,  accompanied  by 
rain,  and  typhoons.  At  Pulo  Condore  the  rains  last  for  a  month  after  the 
N.E.  monsoon  is  established,  and  at  Pulo  Timoan  the  wind  becomes  un- 
settled in  September,   and  the  change  of  monsoon  brings  bad  weather.     In 

I.  A.  i> 


November  the  weather  is  fine.  On  the  coast  which  extends  between  the 
Gulf  of  Siam  and  Cape  Padaran  the  S.W.  monsoon  blows  along  the  shore. 
Sometimes,  near  the  land,  during  the  night,  a  light  land  breeze  is  found 
succeeded  by  an  interval  of  calm,  which  is  followed  by  the  wind  <if  the  mon- 
soim,  wliich  blows  fresh  during  the  rest  of  the  day.  On  the  same  coast  the 
N.E.  monsoon  is  established  from  the  end  of  September  or  beginning  of 
October  to  the  middle  of  April. 

Cochin  China. — On  the  coast  of  Cochin  China  wintry  weather  is  found 
with  cold  northerly  winds  and  rain,  which  prevail  from  December  to  Febru- 
ary. Heavy  rains  occur  in  the  months  of  September,  October,  and  Novem- 
ber. During  the  N.E.  monsoon  easterly  winds  are  frequent.  Between  the 
Paracels  and  the  coast  the  same  wind  is  found  as  far  as  Cape  Varela ;  and 
in  this  channel  calms  are  frequent,  while  on  the  offing  from  this  bank  the 
monsoon  blows  fresh  and  regularly.  During  the  S.W.  monsoon,  on  this 
coabt,  the  land  and  sea  breezes  are  tolerably  regular,  the  sea  breeze  being 
replaced  by  a  land  breeze  every  evening,  which  blows  every  night,  followed 
by  a  calm  light  wind,  although  not  always  commencing  at  the  same  time. 
This  wind  generally  lasts  till  noon,  when  the  S.E.  wind  again  sets  in.  On 
the  coast  of  Cochin  China  the  winds  are  variable  during  the  whole  year,  and 
the  monsoons  generally  light.  The  leeward  coast  is  not  dangerous  with  the 
N.E.  monsoon. 

The  EASTERN  PASSAGES.— The  foregoing  reuarks  refer  to  the  great 
highways  which  lead  directly  into  the  China  Sea  from  the  Indian  Ocean, 
and  are  taken  by  most  ships  during  the  favourable  monsoon. 

The  following  will  describe  the  winds  and  weather  of  that  part  of  the 
Indian  Archipelago  to  the  eastward  of  Java,  among  the  islands  and  channels 
which  are  sometimes  called  the  eastern  passages,  those  used  during  the  ad- 
verse monsoon.  Some  of  these  remarks  are  extracted  from  the  late  Captain 
de  Kerhallet's  work  on  the  meteorology,  &c.,  of  this  region. 

Around  the  islands  East  of  the  Strait  of  Sunda,  as  far  as  Timor,  the  mon- 
soons are  the  same  as  have  been  described  before  ;  that  from  the  East  com- 
mences in  May,  and  tlie  winds  vary  from  East  to  S.S.E.  These  winds  are 
strongest  in  June  and  July.  This  monsoon  is  finer  than  that  from  the  West, 
which  brings  bad  weather  during  November  and  December.  The  rains 
commence  in  this  month,  accompanied  by  squalls  and  winds.  The  western 
monsoon  commences  in  November,  and  attains  its  greatest  force  in  January. 
The  rains  tall  from  December  to  the  middle  of  February,  accompanied  by 
storms  and  tempests.  Then  the  monsoon  gradually  weakens  till  March  ;  in 
April  the  winds  are  variable,  and  the  weather  is  fine. 

Among  the  Archipelago  and  the  intervening  seas  to  the  South  and  East  of 
Borneo  there  are  usually  two  monsoons,  generally  called  the  North  or  West 
monsoon,  and  the  South  or  easterly  monsoon,  some  saying  that  the  wind 
hangs  more  to  North  than  to  West  in  the  former  and  mi>re  South  than  East 


in  the  latter.  The  first  corresponds  with  the  N.E.  monsoon  North  of  the 
equator,  and  the  second  with  the  S.W.  monsoon.  But  from  the  configuration 
of  the  islands,  the  direction  of  their  mountain  chains,  and  the  efi'ect  these 
have  in  causing  the  rain  clouds  to  deposit  their  moisture,  these  alternating 
monsoons  are  much  less  regular  than  they  are  in  the  open  ocean,  far  from 
these  disturbing  causes.  In  general,  it  may  be  remarked  that  to  the  South 
of  the  equator,  as  far  as  the  parallels  of  10°  or  12°  S.,  the  direction  of  the 
wind  differs  ten  or  twelve  points  from  that  prevailing  to  the  North  of  the 
equator  at  the  same  period  ;  that  is,  to  the  North  of  the  equator  if  the  wind 
or  monsoon  is  from  Narth,  that  to  the  South  of  the  line  will  be  N.N.W.  ; 
and  if  the  southerly  monsoon  is  blowing  North  of  the  equator,  in  the  Eastern 
Passages,  it  will  be  from  E.S.E.  or  East, 

In  the  Strait  of  Bali  the  wind  often  blows  from  the  North  with  much 
violence,  and  in  that  of  Sapy  there  are  alternate  breezes  from  land  and  sea. 
They  blow  from  the  South  in  the  morning,  and  from  the  North  about  two 
hours  after  noon.  There  is  often  an  interval  of  calm  between  them.  In  the 
other  straits,  to  the  East  of  Java,  the  winds  are  of  a  singular  nature,  and 
also  very  variable. 

In  the  Java  Sea,  as  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Moluccas,  the  N.W. 
monsoon  commences  in  the  first  part  of  November,  but  does  not  attain  its 
greatest  force  till  near  the  end  of  December.  It  lasts  till  the  end  of  March, 
when  the  intervals  of  calm  commence,  with  variable  winds,  squalls,  and 
rain.  The  S.E.  monsoon  commences  in  April,  and  gets  gradually  stronger 
till  May  ;  it  ends  in  October,  during  which  month  the  winds  are  variable. 
This  is  the  law  generally  observed  in  these  two  seas,  except  that  it  must  be 
remembered  that  there  are  variations  in  the  direction  ;  it  draws  sometimes 
to  the  North  and  West,  and  sometimes  to  the  South  and  East.  Besides  this, 
the  changes  of  the  monsoons  do  not  take  place  at  settled  times  ;  that  of  the 
S.E.  is  subject  to  calms,  and  the  wind  is  less  stormy,  while  it  lasts,  than 
during  that  of  the  N.W.  monsoon. 

Arafura  Sea.— In  the  sea  lying  between  New  Guinea  and  Timor,  the 
easterly  monsoon  commences  in  April,  and  continues  until  the  beginning  of 
October,  when,  after  a  few  weeks  of  variable  winds,  the  westerly  monsoon 
sets  in,  and  continues  without  intermission  until  the  beginning  of  March. 
In  the  southern  part  of  the  Indian  Archipelago  generally,  the  easterly  mon- 
soon is  attended  with  fine  weather,  but  on  the  S.W.  coast  of  New  Guinea, 
and  among  the  islands  to  the  westward,  as  far  as  the  East  coast  of  Celebes, 
frequently  squalls,  with  heavy  rain,  are  experienced  at  this  season,  often  ac- 
companied with  considerable  swell  from  the  southward,  while,  during  the 
remainder  of  the  year,  the  weather  is  fine.  This  rule,  however,  does  not 
extend  farther  to  the  westward,  for  from  Celebes  to  the  western  extremity  of 
the  Archipelago,  and  also  on  the  North  coast  of  Australia,  the  westerly  is 
the  rainy  monsoon.     The  monsoons,   when  at  their  height,  usually  blow  in 


an  E.S.E.  and  W.N.W.  direction  ;  but  towards  the  change  they  draw  round 
more  to  the  southward,  sometimes  continuing  several  days  at  S.W. 

The  easterly  monsoon  brings  rain,  on  the  eastern  part  of  the  Archipelago, 
as  far  as  Celebes ;  beyond  this,  to  the  westward,  the  westerly  monsoon  is  the 
rainy  season.  The  effect  of  this  on  the  vegetation  of  the  different  islands 
has  been. before  alluded  to.  It  would  seem  to  be  only  accounted  for  by  the 
fact  that  the  monsoons  are  deprived  of  their  rain-cloud  soon  after  encounter- 
ing the  land.  The  easterly  monsoon,  blowing  over  the  Pacific,  breaks  over 
New  Guinea,  the  Moluccas,  and  the  eastern  side  of  Celebes,  the  high  moun- 
tains of  the  first-named  keeping  the  rainfall  off  the  North  coast  of  Australia 
and  Timor.  The  southern  part  of  the  latter  and  northern  Australia  are  open 
to  the  westerly  rain-bearing  winds  of  the  Indian  Ocean. 

On  the  West  Coast  of  New  Guinea  two  monsoons  occur,  one  from  the  S.E., 
which  lasts  from  April  to  October ;  and  the  other  from  the  N.W.,  which 
commences  at  the  end  of  October,  and  terminates  towards  the  end  of  April. 
In  January  the  wind  near  this  island  varies  from  N.N.W.  to  N.E.  ;  in  the 
spring  the  weather  often  changes ;  and  in  March,  April,  and  May,  the 
weather  is  squally.  From  June  to  September  a  great  quantity  of  rain  falls  ; 
and  from  October  to  May  the  weather  is  fine  and  calm,  without  clouds 
or  fogs. 

To  the  North  of  Bourou  and  Ceram  the  S.E.  monsoon  varies  between 
S.S.E.  and  S.S.W.,  and  at  the  Isle  of  Amboyna  from  East  to  S.E.  In  the 
same  isles  the  N."W.  monsoon  varies  from  W.S.W.  to  N.W.  This  last, 
which  is  often  called  the  westerly  monsoon,  is  during  the  stormy  season  in 
these  isles,  and  ends  in  April.  The  S.E.  monsoon  commences  in  March,  and 
lasts  till  November,  and  is  the  rainy  season.  During  this  monsoon  violent 
storms  occur  in  the  Moluccas,  and  rain  falls  abundantly  over  the  largest 
islands  of  the  Archipelago.  This  monsoon  ceases  in  November.  The  North 
and  N."W.  monsoon  does  not  set  in  till  some  time  after;  for,  during  two 
months,  the  winds  are  alway  variable  in  these  seas  towards  the  end  of  the 
monsoons.     From  October  to  April  the  weather  is  moderately  fine. 

In  the  Moluccas,  which  occupy  a  space  between  5°  North  of  the  equator, 
and  1°  South  latitude,  the  winds  are  much  less  regular,  because  there  is  a 
great  difference  between  the  monsoons  which  exist  in  the  two  hemispheres 
at  the  same  time. 

In  that  part  of  the  Arafura  Sea  between  New  Gruinea  and  Australia, 
during  the  month  of  January  and  the  commencement  of  the  western  mon- 
soon, the  winds  are  generally  from  the  N.E.  to  North,  occasionally  drawing 
to  the  westward.  Near  the  N.E.  coast  of  Australia,  as  far  as  the  parallel  of 
14"  S.,  winds  which  vary  from  N.E.  to  W.N.W.  prevail,  and  more  to  the 
South  they  come  from  East  and  E.S.E. 

Between  these  two  monsoons  there  are  frequent  calms  of  long  duration, 
and  tlie  time  of  the  change  from  the  S.E.  to  the  N.W.  monsoon  is  the  period 

TIMOE.  21 

■when  these  long  calms  mostly  prevail.  When  the  monsoon  is  about  to  be 
established,  westerly  winds  blow  for  five  or  six  days  ;  then  they  cease,  and 
are  sometimes  succeeded  by  light  variable  winds  for  a  month.  Then,  at  the 
following  syzygy,  the  monsoon  becomes  established,  accompanied  by  gloomy 
rainy  weather,  and  sometimes  squalls,  for  two  or  three  days.  The  weather 
then  clears,  and  there  is  a  moderate  breeze  for  some  time,  producing  clearer 
and  finer  -weather  than  is  felt  during  the  S.E.  monsoon.  Two  or  three  days 
•wet  weather  is  to  be  expected  at  the  time  of  the  syzygies,  although  sometimes 
for  five  or  six  weeks  continual  fine  weather  may  have  prevailed.  Near  the 
land  the  weather  is  always  more  stormy  and  rainy  than  it  is  farther  out  at 
sea,  although  at  the  limit  of  the  monsoon  in  the  parallel  of  15^  S.  latitude 
the  weather  is  generally  wet  and  stormy.  The  mean  direction  of  the  wind 
is  nearly  W.N.W.,  varying  to  N.W.  and  S.W.  at  the  time  of  the  syzygies  ; 
during  these  periods  it  is  often  "W.S.W. 

In  the  Timor  Sea,  and  that  part  of  the  sea  situated  between  the  Arru 
Isles  and  the  North  coast  of  Australia,  as  well  as  in  the  vicinity  of  Torres 
Strait,  the  S.E.  monsoon  blows  with  much  regularity.  Towards  the  middle 
of  it,  from  May  to  August,  it  varies  from  E.S.E.  to  S.E.,  and  is  then  very 
strong.  The  Malays  call  this  the  white  season.  In  the  beginning  and  near 
the  end  of  this  monsoon  the  wind  is  due  East,  sometimes  veering  to  E.N.E. 
During  this  munsoon  the  breeze  is  generally  fresh  and  steady  when  the 
moon  quarters,  and  we  find  calms  and  unsettled  wea';her  at  the  time  of  the 
syzygies.  This  fact  has  also  been  remarked  in  the  trade  wind  of  the  eastern 
coast  of  Australia.  In  Torres  Strait  easterly  winds  prevail.  The  westerly 
monsoon  does  not  blow  steadil}',  but  is  often  modified  by  the  East  wind, 
which  is  then  light  and  variable,  lasting  several  days,  till  it  strengthens  to 
a  fresh  breeze. 

On  the  North-west  Coast  of  Timor,  in  September  and  March,  the  N.W. 
monsoon,  varying  to  N.N.W.,  is  in  force.  In  April  or  May  it  is  followed  by 
that  from  S.E.,  varying  to  S.S.E.,  which  ends  in  October.  The  N.W.  mon- 
soon, as  before  stated,  is  the  bad  weather  season,  and  the  winds  in  December 
are  very  violent.  This  monsoon  is  only  well  established  at  the  end  of 
November  or  December,  and  heavy  winds,  accompanied  by  rain,  blowing 
between  West  and  North,  continue  till  February.  At  the  end  of  April,  or 
beginning  of  May,  the  wind  returns  to  East,  varying  to  South  ;  they  are 
very  strong  on  the  North  coast  of  the  island,  where  it  is  then  the  fine  season. 
The  strongest  winds  vary  West  by  South  and  N.N.E.  On  the  opposite  coast 
of  this  island  there  is  a  great  diflference  between  the  winds.  The  S.E.  mon- 
soon is  very  feeble  on  the  South  coast,  and  strong  on  the  North.  On  the 
South  coast  there  are  storms  during  the  part  of  October  ;  while  on  the 
North  these  are  only  felt  in  December.  During  the  fine  season  the  land  and 
sea  breezes  are  strong  on  both  coasts.  On  the  South  the  land  breeze  varies 
from  N.E.  to  North,  the  sea  breeze  from  S.S.E.  to  S.S.W. 


The  Island  of  Celebes,  like  that  of  Borneo,  is  divided  into  two  parts  by  the 
equator,  and  the  same  remarks  given  previous! j'  for  the  monsoons  at  Bnrneo, 
are  appliacable  here.  On  the  South  coast  the  S.E.  monsoon  is  established 
from  May  to  October,  and  the  S.W.  monsoon  prevails  on  that  part  of  the 
island  which  is  North  of  the  equator  at  the  same  time.  The  S.E.  monsoon, 
which  lasts  from  May  to  October,  on  the  coast  of  Celebes,  situated  South  of 
the  equator,  brings  the  driest  season.  The  N.W.  monsoon  replaces  the  S.E. 
towards  October,  and  continues  till  April,  when  rain  is  almost  perpetual,  and 
the  wind  strong.  During  the  two  months  when  the  sun  is  vertical  over  ihe 
island,  and  near  to  the  syzygies,  there  are  invariably  northerly  winds  aTid 
rain.  On  that  part  of  the  island  situated  North  of  tlie  equator,  the  N.E. 
monsoon  in  October  replaces  the  S.W.,  making  the  fine  season.  In  the 
North  part  of  the  Strait  of  Macassar,  from  May  to  October,  a  S.E.  monsoon 
is  found  on  the  East  coast  of  Borneo  ;  also  between  Celebes  and  Grilolo,  it  is 
succeeded  by  the  N.W.  monsoon,  continuing  from  November  to  April.  In 
the  South  part  of  the  Strait  the  wind  is  N.E.  in  April,  May,  and  June  ;  but 
there  is  less  in  August  and  September.  During  October,  November,  Decem- 
ber, and  following  months,  fresh  breezes  prevail  from  W.S.W.  to  W.N.W. 
in  these  latitudes.  Near  the  West  coast  of  Celebes,  from  May  to  October, 
we  find  land  and  sea  breezes,  while  on  the  opposite  coast  of  Borneo  the  wind 
is  steady  from  the  South.  From  November  to  April,  on  the  western  const 
of  Celebes,  the  wind  varies  from  W.S.W.  to  W.N.W.  ;  in  April,  May,  and 
June,  it  is  from  N.E.,  but  is  light  during  the  month  of  August.  It  has 
been  remarked  that  when  the  S.W.  wind  prevails  on  the  Celebes  coast,, 
about  6  leagues  off  the  coast  it  becomes  W.N.W.  and  N.W.  on  the  coast  of 
Borneo.  During  the  S.E.  monsoon,  from  May  to  October,  a  vessel  cannot 
oontend  against  it  on  the  low  coast  of  Borneo  ;  and  on  this  coast,  in  this 
season,  light  land  breezes  are  found,  while  on  the  corresponding  coast  of 
Celebes,  which  is  elevated,  a  fresh  land  wind  blows  during  the  night,  followed 
during  the  day  by  a  sea  breeze.  In  December  we  generally  find  alternate 
winds  near  Celebes.  In  August  and  September  the  winds  are  light ;  but 
sometimes  off  this  coast  storms  from  the  S.W.  occur,  and  long  calms. 

In  the  Celebes  Sea  and  Sooloo  Archipelago  easterly'  winds  prevail  in  October, 
but  are  not  regularly  established  till  November.  In  May  they  are  replaced 
by  westerly  winds,  and  in  a  month  become  established  to  terminate  in  Oc- 
tober ;  the  climate  is  then  made  up  of  rain,  squalls,  and  tempests,  which 
take  place  generally  in  July  and  August.  In  September  a  heavy  mist  hanga 
about  the  coast  of  Mmdanao.  At  the  commencement  of  the  westerly  mon- 
soon the  winds  are  light  for  some  time,  with  heavy  rain,  during  which  the 
wind  blows  in  an  opposite  direction,  sometimes  lasting  from  tlie  eastward 
more  than  a  week.  Occasionally  heavy  storms  happen  until  the  westerly 
wind  becomes  established.  During  this  monsoon  the  weather  is  cloudy, 
rainy,  and  sometime;*  stormy ;  and  in  this  reason  we  find  between  Mindanao 


and  Celebes  that  heavy  storms  take  place  from  N.W.  ;  the  westerly  winds 
sometimes  last  till  November. 

In  the  Sooloo  Sen  the  East  and  N.E.  monsoon  is  not  a  steady  fresh  breeze, 
but  often  varies.  In  the  neighbourhood  of  Mindanao  the  northerly  winds 
never  blow  fresh,- but  are  often  displaced  for  several  days  by  light  changeable 
winds,  which  again  occurs  at  the  end  of  January,  and  it  is  considered  that 
the  same  winds  prevail  from  the  Sooloo  Archipelago  to  Manila. 

The  Island  of  Borneo  forms  the  N.W.  and  western  boundary  of  the  China 
Sea,  and  is  intersected  by  the  equator,  and  the  result  is  as  in  Sumatra,  that 
the  monsoons  of  the  N.W.  coast  do  not  take  place  at  the  same  time  as  those 
on  the  West  coast.  The  S.W.  monsoon  prevailing  on  the  N.W.  coast  from 
May  to  October,  at  the  same  time  as  the  S.E  monsoon  is  on  the  West  coast, 
and  the  N.E.  monsoon  blows  on  the  N.W.  coast,  while  the  N.W.  monsoon 
prevails  on  the  AVest  coast.  On  the  northern  part  of  Borneo  the  S.W.  mon- 
Boon  is  not  established  till  between  the  15th  and  30th  of  May,  when  there  is 
continual  rain.  The  weather  is  not  so  bad  in  September,  and  the  dry  season 
sets  in  with  the  N.E.  winds,  varying  to  the  East.  However,  this  can  hardly 
be  called  the  dry  season  ;  for,  in  consequence  of  its  position  under  the 
equator,  the  island  is  incessantly  inundated  with  rain.  On  the  West  coast 
the  S.E.  monsoon  prevails  towards  the  end  of  May,  and  fine  weather  then 
sets  in.  From  September  to  April  the  West  or  N.W.  monsoun  occurs,  with 
continual  rain  and  heavy  gales. 

The  weather  at  Lahuan,  on  the  N.W.  coast  of  Borneo,  is  generally  very 
fine  ;  the  land  and  sea  breezes  are  seldom  interrupted.  A  large  quantity  of 
rain  falls  annually,  but  this  generally  comes  off  the  coast  ot  Borneo  in 
squalls,  which  most  frequently  oc(  ur  between  8  p.m.  and  midnight,  and  blow 
heavily,  especially  in  June  and  July.  In  tiie  S.W.  monsoon  the  land  breeze, 
which  usually  commences  with  these  squalls,  lasts  until  7  or  8  a.m.,  and  is  a 
steady,  fresh  breeze,  whilst  in  the  N.E.  monsoon  it  is  light  and  variable, 
and,  if  blowing  hard  in  the  China  Sea,  it  is  not  felt  at  Labuan. 

The  sea  breeze  in  the  S.W.  monsoon  usually  commences  at  noon,  and 
lasts  until  4  or  5  p.m.,  seldom  exceeding  a  royal  breeze  ;  but  in  the  N.E. 
monsoon  it  commences  earlier,  and  lasts  until  7  or  8  p.m.,  hanging  well  to 
the  northward,  and  blowing  fresh.  January,  February,  and  March,  are  the 
dry  months  ;  only  2.2  inches  of  rain  fell  in  those  months  in  1865. 

Ihe  monsoims  on  the  coast  of  Palawan  are  so  subject  to  interruption,  being 
influenced  by  local  circumstances  and  other  causes,  that  it  is  dilfic.ult  to  say 
at  what  period  either  fairly  sets  in.  The  barometer  is  of  little  use  in  prog- 
nosticating the  changes ;  the  difierence  in  the  column  of  mercurj'  for  the 
whole  year,  seldom  exceeding  two-tenths  of  an  inch.  In  general  the  mercury 
rises  to  N.E.  and  easterly  winds,  and  falls  to  S.W.  and  westerly. 

In  January  to  April  moderate  N.E.  and  easterly  winds  prevail  on  the 
coast  of  Palawan,  and  on  the  coast  of  Luzon  land  and  sea  breezes  have  been 


experienced  with  considerable  regularity.  May,  and  the  early  part  of  June, 
appear  to  be  the  finest  period  of  the  year  on  the  coast  of  Palawan,  when, 
land  and  sea  breezes  prevail  with  tolerable  regnlarity,  the  former  coming 
fresh  from  the  South  and  S.E.  in  the  morning,  and  the  latter  from  the  North 
and  N.W.  in  the  afternoon. 

Towards  the  end  of  June,  and  throughout  July,  unsettled  weather,  gene- 
rally commencing  about  the  change  of  moon,  may  be  expected.  A  slight 
depression  of  the  mercury,  after  a  succession  of  fine  weather,  frequently  in- 
dicates the  approach  of  strong  W.S.W.  squalls,  which  are  usually  accompa- 
nied by  dark  cloudy  weather  and  much  rain,  lasting  for  a  week  or  ten  days. 
These  are  generally  succeeded  by  a  period  of  fine  weather,  with  N.W.  and 
S.W.  winds,  which  draw  to  the  southward  and  eastward  in  the  mornings. 
If  June  or  July  have  been  unsettled,  it  may  be  expected  that  August  gene- 
rally will  be  fine,  with  moderate  S.W.,  but  more  frequently  westerly  winds, 
particularly  in  the  afternoon.  If,  on  the  contrary,  June  or  July  has  been 
tolerably  fine,  very  unsettled  weather  may  be  expected  in  August. 

In  September  and  October  the  wind  generally  blows  strong  from  the 
W.S.W.,  with  dark,  cloudy  weather ;  and  oG  the  S.AV.  end  of  Palawan 
squalls,  which  veer  to  W.N.W.  and  N.W.,  sometimes  blowing  with  great 
violence,  succeed  each  other  rapidly,  and  are  accompanied  by  rain.  Between 
the  squalls  the  wind  very  often  shifts  to  S.E.  In  November  and  December 
the  weather  is  variable ;  N.E.  and  easterly  winds,  changing  at  times  to  S.E., 
more  frequently  prevail. 

Among  the  Philippine  Islands  the  two  regular  monsoons  prevail,  which  are 
met  with  in  the  China  Sea.  These  monsoons  sometimes  extend  as  far  South 
as  the  Mariana  Islands  in  the  Pacific  Ocean,  and  as  far  North  as  the 
coast  of  Japan.  The  Philippine  Islands,  lying  North  and  South,  their  high 
lands  naturally  intercept  the  course  of  the  wind  ;  and  the  result  is  that  at 
forty  or  fifty  leagues  from  them  much  bad  weather  is  encountered,  which 
becomes  much  worse  as  the  islands  are  approached.  The  N.E.  monsoon 
commences  about  October,  with  fine  weather,  lasting  till  April,  with  winds 
varying  from  North  to  N.E.  If  it  should  occasionally  veer  to  N.W.  it 
blows  hard.  The  S.W.  monsoon  is  not  observed  here  till  between  the  com- 
mencement and  end  of  May,  and  does  not  become  regular  till  June.  During 
this  monsoon  the  \^eather  is  gloomy,  cloudy,  and  very  wet.  About  this 
period  severe  storms  sometimes  occur,  called  "  collas  tempestados,"  which 
are  generally  accompanied  by  thunder  and  rain,  the  wind  changing  about 
and  blowing  from  all  points  of  the  compass  with  the  same  force.  These 
collas  and  bad  weather  take  place  at  the  end  of  July,  or  middle  of  August, 
and  sometimes  in  October.  They  are  not  unlike  the  typhoons.  In  September 
the  wind  loses  strength,  the  rain  is  less,  and  the  sky  is  fine ;  but  in  the 
morning  there  is  a  thick  fog,  which  lasts  till  noon.  At  the  change  of  the 
monsoons  bad  weather  is  sometimes   felt,   as  in  the  China  Sea.     During 


February  and  March,  about  the  end  of  the  N.E.  monsoon,  on  the  coast  of 
Lu9on,  the  wind  varies,  often  with  a  tendency  to  follow  the  course  of  the 
alternate  land  and  sea  or  solar  breezes.  The  alternate  winds  are  well  esta- 
blished in  April ;  and  from  June  to  October,  the  period  of  the  S.W.  mon- 
soon, the  wind  brings  rain,  which  blows  on  the  coast  at  right  angles. 


It  will  be  manifest  that  if  it  be  difficult  to  define  exactly  the  direction  and 
seasons  of  the  monsoons  which  blow  over  the  Indian  Archipelago,  it  will  be 
still  more  difficult  to  describe  the  currents.  Ocean  currents  are  induced,  in  a 
great  degree,  by  the  prevalent  direction  of  the  wind,  which  having  free  scope 
over  both  land  and  sea,  has  a  much  more  persistent  character  than  that  of 
the  surface  water,  driven  through  tortuous  channels,  often  lying  transverse 
to  the  normal  direction  of  the  wind. 

Again  there  are  anomalies  arising  from  the  tidal  streams,  the  flood  tide 
from  the  Pacific,  and  that  from  the  Indian  Ocean,  both  being  directed  to  the 
same  quarters,  produces  many  apparent  complications. 

As  a  general  rule,  the  true  current  sets  to  leeward,  impelled  by  the  trade 
wind  or  monsoon  prevailing  at  the  period,  and  when  the  waters  have  to 
pass  through  the  narrow  straits  between  the  islands  it  often  rushes  past  with 
great  velocity. 

But  then  this  true  current  is  frequently  overcome  or  accelerated  by  the 
tida,l  streams  reaching  it  in  opposite  directions ;  and,  therefore,  each  strait 
requires  special  exemplification,  and  this  will  generally  be  found  in  the  de- 
scription of  the  coasts  which  follow  these  preliminary  chapters. 

One  general  remark  may  be  made.  A  large  portion  of  the  archipelago 
lies  between  the  two  great  tropical  drifts  to  westward ;  in  other  parts  of 
the  world,  as  on  the  Guinea  Coast,  and  in  the  Gulf  of  Panama,  a  counter 
current  is  found  near  the  equator  running  to  eastward,  between  these  westward 
drifts.  It  cannot  be  said  that  such  a  counter  current  is  found  in  the  Indian 
Archipelago  ;  but  the  same  causes,  difficult  to  define,  which  produce  this 
equatorial  counter  current,  will  help  to  make  the  movements  of  the  waters 
here  more  complicated  and  difficult  of  comprehension.  North  and  South  of 
this  central  belt  on  the  eastern  coasts  of  Asia  and  Australia,  the  equatorial 
streams  recurve  and  form  streams  analagous  to  the  Gulf  Stream  in  the  At- 
lantic ;  and  this  is  especially  the  case  in  the  stream  flowing  through  the 
Formosa  Channel  past  the  Japan  Islands.  This  was  first  defined  by  the 
Editor  in  his  Pacific  Directory  fts  the  Japanese  Current. 


The  temperature  of  the  ocean  in  the  Archipelago  is  high,  as  might  be  ex- 
pected ;  and,  from  its  peculiar  condition,  it  may  be  looked  on  as  the  head 
waters  of  that  great  circulatory  system,  which  reaches  every  portion  of  the 
ocean  in  its  course,  and  gives  one  universal  character  to  the  waters  of  the 
ocean.  Sea  water,  as  is  well  known,  possesses  the  same  characteristics  in 
every  known  part  of  the  world,  and  from  the  surface  to  its  bed.  This 
can  only  have  arisen  from  the  entire  circulation  and  intermingling  of  the 
whole  mass  of  the  waters  of  the  ocean,  which  has  passed  over  every  portion 
of  its  bed.  A  few  brief  remarks  on  each  locality  will  suffice  to  give  a  more 
particular  notion  of  the  movement  of  the  waters  in  its  vicinity. 

Malacca  and  Singapore  Steaits. — The  great  island  of  Sumatra,  from  its 
lying  directly  across  the  line  of  direction  of  the  two  monsoons,  causes  the 
currents  which  enter,  or  run  out  of  the  China  Sea  by  the  Malacca  Strait,  to 
be  much  modified  by  tidal  influences.  As  a  broad  rule,  it  may  be  stated 
that  the  waters  flow  to  West  and  N.W.  during  the  N.E.  monsoon,  between 
November  and  March,  and  set  in  the  opposite  direction  with  a  lesser  velo- 
city during  the  S.W.  monsoon,  which  blows  the  water  into  the  Bay  of 
Bengal.  In  September,  while  the  S.W.  monsoon  still  lasts,  a  strong  current 
sets  eastward  around  the  South  part  of  Ceylon,  and  thence  directly  for 
Acheen  Head  in  Sumatra,  where  it  is  divided,  a  portion  running  down  the 
West  Coast  of  Sumatra  to  S.W.,  and  the  other  as  a  weak  current  down  the 
Strait  of  Malacca.  In  October  this  drift  is  weak  and  uncertain,  but  in  No- 
vember, when  the  N.E.  monsoon  is  in  full  force,  the  current  to  N.W.  and 
along  the  North  Coast  of  Sumatra  runs  at  the  mean  rate  of  a  mile  an  hour. 
From  December  to  February  this  current  still  moves  to  leeward,  and  in 
March  and  April  is  sometimes  very  strong.  When  the  S.W.  monsoon  seta 
in,  iu  May  or  June,  the  reverse  current  commences,  and  in  July  and  August 
attains  considerable  strength,  and  thus  continues,  with  some  fluctuations, 
until  September  or  October. 

But  all  these  movements  of  the  waters  are  much  mixed  up  with  the  tidal 
streams.  The  flood  tide  enters  the  Strait  of  Malacca  from  the  N.W.,  and 
is  met  somewhere  in  the  Strait  of  Singapore  by  the  flood  stream  coming  from 
the  China  Sea. 

In  the  Strait  of  Singapore  the  true  current  streams  become  still  more 
marked  by  the  tides.  During  the  construction  of  the  Horsburg  Lighthouse 
at  its  eastern  entrance,  and  therefore  open  to  the  influences  directly  coming 
from  the  China  Sea,  Mr.  Thompson  made  the  following  observations: — The 
tidal  currents  set  through  the  Middle  Channel,  that  is,  to  the  North  of  Pedra, 
Branca,  in  a  N.E.  and  S.W.  directioa,  through  the  South  Channel,  between 


Pedra  Branca  and  the  Bintang  shore,  in  an  E.N.E.  and  W.S.W.  direction, 
and  through  the  North  Channel  between  Romania  shoal  and  islands,  in  a 
N.N.E.  and  S.S.W.  direction.  The  currents  are  much  affected  by  the  pre- 
vailing winds ;  they  set  strongly  into  the  straits  during  the  continuance  of 
the  N.E.  monsoon,  and  in  a  contrary  direction  during  the  S.W.  monsoon. 
This  is  particularly  the  case  during  neap  tides.  It  is  high  water  at  full  and 
change  at  Pedra  Branca  at  10''  35™  a.m.  The  flood  runs  into  the  Straits  and 
the  ebb  outwards,  but  the  current  does  not  generally  turn  till  half  ebb  or 
half  flood,  that  is,  if  low  water  be  at  6  a.m.  the  current  will  run  ebb  till 
9  a.m.,  although  the  water  be  rising  on  the  rock.  At  12*"  noon  it  would  bo 
high  water,  after  which  the  tide  would  fall,  but  notwithstanding  this  the 
current  would  run  flood  till  3''  p.m.  before  turning ;  but  there  are  frequent 
exceptions  to  this  rule,  for  I  observed  during  the  months  of  May,  June,  and 
July,  when  the  morning  ebb  tides  fall  strong  out  till  three  hours  after  the 
tide  began  to  rise  on  the  rocks,  and  then  continued  slack  water  all  day  ; 
while  in  the  months  of  October  and  November,  when  the  evening  ebb  falls 
much  lower  than  the  morning  one,  the  tidal  current  would  set  strong  out  all 
night  and  continue  slack  inwards  during  the  next  day.  At  full  moon,  in 
August,  1851,  I  found  the  perpendicular  rise  and  fall  of  tide  was  only  2  ft. 
9  in.,  but  three  days  afterwards  it  was  6  ft.  7  in.,  which  was  the  greatest 
during  three  springs.  In  July  the  greatest  rise  was  7  ft.  9  in.  The  neap 
tides  only  rise  and  fall  1  ft.  7  in. 

Again  he  says:— The  current  at  times  is  not  less  than  4  miles  an  hour, 
and  probably  nearer  5,  though  this  is  unusual,  and  2  to  4  knots  may  be 
taken  as  the  usual  strength,  though  much  variation  was  observed  during 
different  months.  Strong  ebbs  prevailed  during  the  mornings  of  May,  June, 
and  July,  and  on  the  evenings  of  October  and  November  strong  ebbs  also 
prevail.  During  the  S.W.  monsoon  the  floods  do  not  run  so  strong  as  the 

Strait  of  Sunda. — The  currents  in  this  Strait  are  more  of  the  nature  of 
tides,  although  very  much  affected  by  the  winds.  During  the  S.E.  monsoon 
the  ebb  tide  on  the  South  side  of  the  Strait  frequently  sets  to  westward  at 
from  1  to  2  knots,  and  lasting  for  fourteen  hours,  succeeded  by  a  slack  water 
or  weak  flood  for  six  hours.  In  the  middle  of  the  Strait  the  velocity  is 
greater,  from  2  to  3^  miles  per  hour.  "When  the  winds  are  light,  the  flood 
to  N.E.  and  the  ebb  to  S.W.  succeed  each  other  regularly,  and  their  rate  is 
about  equal,  but  at  spring  tides  and  in  the  middle  of  the  Strait  they  attain 
a  rate  of  3  or  3i  miles  an  hour.  In  the  opposite  season  of  the  westerly  mon- 
soon the  ebb  and  flood  are  generally  regular,  but  during  strong  gales  the 
flood  lasts  longest.  In  February  and  March  a  strong  set  to  the  W.S.W.  is 
sometimes  met  with  on  the  North  side,  reaching  a  velocity  at  times  of  4  to 
4  J  miles  an  hour.  In  the  description  of  the  Strait  in  a  subsequent  page, 
this  topic  will  be  again  alluded  to. 


In  Banka  Strait  and  the  adjacent  passages  there  is  much  complication  in 
the  movements  of  the  waters,  arising  from  two  causes,  the  one  is  the  meeting 
of  the  flood  tides  from  the  China  Sea  and  from  the  Indian  Ocean,  and  the 
other  is  from  the  peculiarity  of  the  monsoons,  which,  as  explained  in  our 
Indian  Ocean  Directory  (pages  29 — 36),  are  here  an  intermediate  belt  be- 
tween the  northerly  and  southerly  monsoons  on  either  side  of  the  equator. 
Occurring  during  the  southern  summer  months,  November  to  March,  and 
coming  from  the  N.W.  is  called  the  middle  or  cross  monsoon.  During  its 
greatest  strength,  January  to  March,  the  current  or  ebb  tide  sets  to  south- 
ward for  fourteen  to  eighteen  hours  at  a  time,  with  a  rate  of  2  to  3^  knots, 
and  the  flood  from  South  is  then  scarcely  perceptible.  The  reverse  occurs 
during  the  S.E.  monsoon,  the  flood  stream  setting  with  great  velocity  to  the 
northward,  while  sometimes  the  ebb  runs  out  weakly  for  eight  or  ten  hours. 
To  the  northward  the  N  W.  monsoon  has  more  eflFect  than  the  S.E.  mon- 
soon, and  the  reverse  is  the  case  in  the  opposite  season.  Between  the  mon- 
soons the  tidal  streams  are  regular,  but  when  the  monsoons  are  blowing 
strongly,  a  constant  surface  drift  is  found  setting  to  leeward  on  the  Sumatra 

Gulf  or  Siam. — The  following  is  by  Lieutenant  Richards,  who  surveyed 
the  Gulf  :— 

The  currents  in  the  Gulf  of  Siam,  near  the  middle,  are  generally  weak  and 
variable,  but  near  the  land,  in  the  strength  of  the  monsoons,  strong  sets  may 
be  expected.  In  the  S.W.  monsoon  a  strong  northerly  current  was  found, 
from  Lem  Chong  P'ra  to  Sam-roi-yot  Point.  In  the  N.E.  monsoon  there  is 
frequently  a  strong  set  across  the  head  of  the  Gulf  to  the  westward. 

In  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Redang  Islands  and  Pulo  Obi,  the  strong 
currents  prevalent  in  the  China  Sea  may  be  expected.  The  China  Sea  cur- 
rent does  not  appear  to  enter  the  Gulf  further  than  a  few  miles,  but  is  said 
to  set  across  its  mouth  in  both  monsoons. 

The  flood  tide  from  the  China  Sea  appears  to  meet  the  western  shore  of  the 
Gulf,  and  divides  somewhere  near  Cape  Patani ;  for  at  the  Redang  Islands 
the  flood  sets  to  the  southward,  and  at  Singora  and  Koh  Krah  it  was  found 
setting  to  the  northward. 

CHINA  SEA  in  the  South-west  Monsoon. — The  currents  in  the  China 
Sea  are  very  changeable,  their  direction  and  velocity  depending  much  upon 
local  circumstances.  Late  in  April,  or  early  in  May,  they  generally  begin 
to  set  to  the  northward,  in  the  southern  and  middle  parts  of  the  sea,  and 
continue  to  run  in  a  north-easterly  direction  until  September,  while  the 
S.W.  monsoon  is  strong;  but  they  are  not  constant  in  this  monsoon,  for  at 
times,  when  the  wind  is  moderate  or  light,  they  are  liable  to  change  and  set 
in  various  directions.  After  the  strength  of  the  monsoon  has  abated,  there 
is  often  little  or  no  current  in  the  open  sea,  running  to  the  north-eastward ; 
but  sometimes  its  direction  is  to  the  southward. 

CHINA  SEA.  29 

Along  the  coast  of  Cochin  China,  from  Pulo  Obi  to  Cape  Pandaran,  the 
current  sets  mostly  to  the  E.N.E.,  parallel  to  the  shore,  from  April  to  the 
middle  of  October;  and  during  the  same  period  its  direction  is  generally  to 
the  northward  along  the  East  coast  of  the  Malay  peninsula,  from  the  entrance 
of  Singapore  Strait  to  the  Gulf  of  Siam.  To  the  northward  of  Cape  Padaran 
there  is  but  little  current  in  the  S.W.  monsoon,  near  the  Cochin  China  coast ; 
for,  from  thence  to  the  Gulf  of  Tong  King,  a  small  drain  is  sometimes  found 
setting  northward,  at  other  times  southward.  When  a  gale  happens  to  blow 
out  of  the  latter  gulf  from  the  N. W.  and  westward,  the  current  at  the  same 
time  sets  generally  to  the  S.W.  or  southward,  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Paracel 
islands  and  reefs,  or  where  these  gales  are  experienced ;  and  this  current 
running  obliquely,  or  contrary  to  the  wind,  a  turbulent  and  high  sea  is 
thereby  produced. 

On  the  Southern  Coast  of  China  the  current  is  much  governed  by  the  wind  ; 
when  strong  S.W.  winds  prevail,  it  runs  along  shore  to  the  eastward,  but 
seldom  strong.  Near  and  amongst  the  islands,  westward  of  Macao,  there  is 
generally  a  westerly  current,  occasioned  by  the  freshes  from  Canton  River, 
which  set  in  that  direction ;  frequently  sweeping  along  the  islands  from 
Macao  to  St.  John  between  W.S.W.  and  W.N.W.,  about  1  or  2  knots  per 
hour.  This  westerly  current  is,  however,  not  always  constant  in  the  S.W. 
monsoon,  for  it  slacks  at  times  ;  then  a  weak  tide  may  sometimes  be  expe- 
rienced running  eastward. 

On  the  coasts  of  Luzon  and  Palawan,  the  current  generally  sets  northward 
in  the  SW.  monsoon,  but  frequently  there  is  no  current,  and  near  these 
coasts  it  seldom  runs  strong.  Near  the  Bashi  Islands  it  sometimes  sets 
eastward  when  strong  westerly  winds  prevail ;  but  generally  strong  to  the 
northward,  or  between  N.N.W.  and  N.E. 

In  the  North-east  Monsoon. — The  current  in  the  China  Sea  during  the 
N.E.  monsoon  generally  runs  south-westward,  with  a  velocity  depending  on 
the  strength  of  the  wind.  When  the  force  of  the  monsoon  is  abated,  or 
during  moderate  and  light  breezes,  there  is  often  little  or  no  current. 

In  the  western  parts  of  the  sea,  along  the  coasts  of  Cochin  China  and  the 
Malay  Peninsula,  the  current  generally  begins  to  run  to  the  southward  about 
the  middle  of  October  (sometimes  sooner  on  the  former  coast),  and  continues 
until  April.  During  the  month  of  March  its  direction  is  constantly  to  the 
southward  about  Pulo  Aor,  with  light  easterly  winds  and  calms  at  times. 
On  the  coast  of  Cochin  China,  and  adjacent  to  Hainan  Island,  a  current 
varying  from  South  to  S.W.,  commences  sometimes  about  the  middle  of 
September;  near  the  land,  from  lat.  15°  N.  to  11°  or  11^°  N.,  it  increases  in 
strength ;  but  its  rate  decreases  in  proportion  as  it  flows  southward.  During 
the  prevalence  of  the  N.E.  monsoon,  from  about  lat.  14°  N.  to  Cape  Padaran, 
the  current  near  the  coast  frequently  runs  40  or  50,  and  sometimes  60  miles 
to  the  southward  in  24  hours  ;  the  rate,  however,  is  variable,   and  it  is  only 


in  the  limits  above  mentioned  that  it  is  occasionally  so  strongs,  for  its  strength 
abates  at  Cape  Padaran,  and  runs  with  less  velocity  to  the  S.W.,  towards 
the  entrance  of  the  Gulf  of  Siam. 

On  the  Southern  Coast  of  China  the  current,  during  the  N.E.  monsoon, 
runs  almost  constantly  to  the  W.S.W.,  nearly  parallel  to  the  land  ;  and 
sometimes  with  inconceivable  rapidity,  when  a  typhoon  or  a  storm  happens. 
At  the  distance  of  70  or  80  miles  from  the  coast,  it  seldom  runs  so  strong 
as  near  it ;  and  in  30  or  40  fathoms  soundings  there  is  much  less  current 
than  in  shoal  water,  near  the  shore  and  amongst  the  islands.  The  westerly 
current  sometimes  slacks,  and,  contiguous  to  the  land,  is  succeeded  by  a 
kind  of  tide. 

Between  Formosa  and  the  China  coast  the  current  runs  to  the  southward 
during  the  N.E.  monsoon.  When  strong  N.E.  winds  prevail,  its  direction 
is  generally  to  the  S.W.  or  southward,  between  the  South  end  of  Formosa 
and  the  North  end  of  Luzon ;  but  here,  in  light  variable  winds,  it  often 
sets  to  the  northward.  On  the  West  coast  of  Luzon  the  current  is  change- 
able, sometimes  setting  southward  along  the  coast,  at  other  times  northward. 
On  the  coast  of  Palawan  it  is  also  mutable,  governed  by  the  prevailing 
•winds,  but  seldom  runs  strong  in  any  direction,  unless  impelled  by  severe 
gales.  To  the  eastward  of  Formosa,  about  Boteltobago  Island,  it  frequently 
runs  strong  to  the  northward  and  north-eastward,  so  early  as  the  1st  of 
March  ;  and  although  changeable  at  times,  it  sets  mostly  in  that  direction 
during  the  S.W.  monsoon  ;  and  in  the  opposite  direction  during  the  N.E. 
monsoon. — (China  Sea  Directory. J 

EASTERN  PASSAGES.— The  currents  in  the  passages  East  of  Java  are 
very  various,  and,  like  the  monsoons,  do  not  seem  to  be  reducible  to  any 
fixed  laws,  a  feature  doubtless  due  to  their  geographic  relations,  lying  as 
they  do  between  the  wind  systems  of  the  northern  and  southern  hemispheres. 
But  as  their  action  is  frequently  of  importance  in  endeavouring  to  make  a 
passage  against  an  adverse  wind,  they  require  much  attention.  The  follow- 
ing imperfect  notes,  derived  frequently  from  the  Dutch,  are  given  as  a  guide 
to  their  general  character. 

South  Coast  of  Java. — The  monsoons  here  are  liable  to  great  deviations, 
although  they  frequently  shift  about  the  middle  of  April  and  November. 
This  is  owing  in  some  degree  to  the  mountainous  character  of  the  island  ; 
and  there  are  some  remarkable  reverse  currents  experienced  when  within  a 
degree  or  two  of  the  coast.  The  Dutch  officers,  Lieutenants  Rietveld, 
Eschauzier,  &c.,  say  that  during  the  easterly  monsoon,  April  to  November, 
a  constant  easterly  current  is  encountered,  or  running  against  the  monsoon  at 
times  so  strong  as  to  ripple,  but  on  an  average  of  10  to  12  miles  per  day. 
The  drift  is  frequently  to  S.E.  two-thirds  of  a  mile  an  hour.  Captain  M.  H. 
Jansen  has  stated  that  in  the  eastern  monsoon  the  current  sets  to  the  west- 
ward from  full  to  change  of  the  moon,  and  either  to  the  eastward  from  the 


change,  or  that  there  was  no  current.  It  is  also  certain  that  there  is  a  con- 
siderable set  to  the  westward  in  this  monsoon,  especially  near  the  shore. 
In  the  westerly  monsoon  the  current  is  sometimes  to  the  S.S.E.  and  South, 
decreasing' in  force  to  between  11°  and  15°,  and  then  ceases,  and  a  strong 
westerly  current  is  encountered  increasing  in  velocity  as  the  Strait  of  Sunda 
is  approached,  amounting  at  times  to  42  miles  per  day. 

Bali  Strait. — The  currents  or  tides  run  through  the  Narrows  of  Bali 
Strait  with  great  velocity,  some  say  6  knots,  and  cause  great  ripplings, 
eddies,  and  a  boisterous  sea,  particularly  near  the  Bali  shore  during  the 
eastern  monsoon,  when  the  S.S.W.  winds  blow  so  strongly  that  it  is  often 
impossible  to  manoeuvre  a  ship.  The  flood  runs  to  the  northward  and  the  ebb 
to  the  southward,  and  at  full  and  change  of  the  moon  it  is  high  water  there 
between  12  and  1  o'clock.  About  quadrature  of  the  moon,  and  particularly 
near  the  last  quarter,  the  tides  are  very  irregular ;  they  change  first  on  the 
Java  side  of  the  strait,  and  only  If  or  2  hours  later  on  the  Bali  shore. 
During  the  eastern  monsoon  the  flood  is  often  found  only  near  the  Java 
shore,  and  even  there  not  to  the  northward  of  Batu  Dodol,  but  diu-ing  the 
western  monsoon  the  northerly  currents  prevail.  A  tide  lasts  often  for  7  or 
8  hours. 

TiMOE,  Etc. — The  currents  are  strong,  with  great  ripplings,  in  the  Ombay 
passage,  and  the  Straits  to  the  northward  of  Timor,  generally  setting  to  the 
N.E.  during  the  western  monsoon,  and  during  the  opposite  to  the  south- 
westward  ;  but  in  some  places,  close  in-shore,  a  kind  of  weak  tide  has  been 
experienced.  Near  the  entrance  of  the  Straits  of  Alloo  and  Pantar  the 
current  takes  a  northerly  direction  during  the  eastern  monsoon,  but  during 
the  western  monsoon  it  sets  out  S.S.W.  The  strong  current  in  the  Ombay 
Passage  seems  to  cause  a  strong  easterly  current  along  the  North  coast  of 
Ombay  during  the  eastern  monsoon. 

In  June  the  S.  W.  or  westerly  currents  in  the  Ombay  Passage  seem  to  have 
attained  their  greatest  strength,  amounting  to  72  or  82  miles  in  twenty-four 

Near  the  end  of  the  eastern  monsoon  (in  August  and  September)  strong 
easterly  currents  take  place  in  the  Ombay  Passage,  though  in  October  they 
often  run  with  great  velocity  to  the  south-westward. 

Ships  from  Java  or  Macassar,  bound  to  Amboina,  during  the  eastern 
monsoon,  work  along  the  North  coasts  of  Sombawa,  Flores,  &c.,  till  they 
have  reached  the  N.W.  or  North  point  of  Wetter  ;  or  further  to  the  east- 
ward, if  bound  to  Banda ;  and  the  voyage  is  often  much  accelerated  by 
favourable  currents. 

New  Guinea,  Etc. — During  the  easterly  monsoon,  the  current  sets  to  the 
N.W.  along  the  western  coast  of  New  Guinea  and  between  the  Ki  and  Arru 
Islands,  and  thence  eastward  along  the  South  coast  of  Ceram,  at  the  rate  of 
a  mile  or  a  mile  and  a  half  an  hour,  according  to  the  strength  of  the  wind 

32  TIDES. 

the  velocity  being  greatest  along  the  coast  of  New  Guinea.  At  this  period 
an  easterly  current  prevails  on  the  North  side  of  the  islands,  extending  from 
Timor  to  Timor-Laut,  so  that  a  moderately  fast  vessel  would  experience  no 
di£B.culty  there  in  beating  up  against  that  monsoon.  In  the  westetrly  mon- 
soon the  current  in  these  seas  usually  sets  with  the  wind,  but  its  velocity  is 
not  so  great  as  during  the  other  season. 

Of  the  currents  on  the  North  coast  of  New  Guinea  we  have  buc  few  par- 
ticulars, and  these  chiefly  from  D'Urville,  who  sailed  along  it  in  August, 
1827,  where  he  found  strong  westerly  and  N.W.  currents  of  more  than  a 
mile  an  hour.  It  is  probable  that  this  westerly  drift  is  constant,  and  that, 
arriving  at  the  Moluccas  and  Philippine  Islands,  it  is  diverted  more  to  the 
northward,  and  finally  assumes  the  N.E.  direction  along  the  coast  of  China, 
which  has  been  previously  adverted  to. 

1 1 1.— T  IDES. 

But  little  can  be  said  here  to  give  a  general  view  of  the  tides  in  the  Indian 
Archipelago.  Each  particular  locality  and  strait  would  require  a  special 
exemplification,  which  as  far  as  we  have  the  means,  is  given  in  the  local 
descriptions  in  a  subsequent  part  of  the  work. 

The  flood  tidal  wave  from  the  Indian  Ocean,  proceeding  in  a  N.E.  direc- 
tion, is  mainly  obstructed  b.y  the  line  of  islands  which  it  encounters  in  its 
whole  breadth.  It  passes  through  the  various  channels  with  considerable 
rapidity  when  favoured  by  the  monsoon,  or  is  almost  annihilated  by  the 
contrary  season.  In  the  former  case  it  passes  on  till  it  meets  that  which 
comes  from  the  Pacific  and  China  Sea,  thus  neutralizing  each  other,  and 
occasioning  much  complication,  and  the  phenomena  of  double  tides.  In  the 
difl'erent  seasons  the  tides  from  this  cause  are  in  some  cases  quite  reversed, 
the  high  water  hour  corresponding  in  one  case  with  the  low  water,  period  of 
the  other. 

Free  from  the  entanglements  of  the  Archipelago,  the  great  tidal  wave  pur- 
sues a  normal  course  in  the  Pacific,  and,  according  to  the  China  Pilot,  it  strikes 
upon  the  eastern  coast  of  China,  from  Hong  Kong  to  the  Yang-tse  kiang, 
nearly  at  the  same  period ;  it  being  high  water  on  fuU  and  change  days  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  the  Lema  Islands,  at  about  8^  30",  and  at  the  outer 
islands  of  the  Chusan  Archipelago  it  is  an  hour  later.  The  rise  and  fall, 
however,  increases  considerably  to  the  northward ;  probably  owing  to  the 
obstruction  which  the  wave  receives  from  the  Philippine  Islands ;  and  in 
some  instances  the  diurnal  inequality  is  great.  By  the  Tide  Table  it  will 
be  perceived  that  to  the  eastward  of  HoDg  Kong,  and  as  far  as  Breaker 



point,  the  tideg  are  irregular  and  weak,  the  current  occasioned  by  the  mon- 
soon overcoming  them. 

After  passing  Breaker  Point,  the  coast  trends  more  northerly,  and  the 
flood  stream  will  be  found  useful  to  vessels  bound  to  the  northward.  The 
rise  and  fall  increases,  passing  from  7  ft.  at  Namoa  Island  to  12  ft.  at  Tong- 
sang,  and  20  ft.  at  Amoy.  Between  Amoy  and  the  Eiver  Min,  the  rise  of 
the  tide  varies  from  16  to  18  ft.  at  springs,  and  the  flood  enters  on  the  North. 
as  well  as  on  the  South  side  of  Hai-tan  Strait. 

To  the  northward  of  the  Min,  the  flood  sets  more  determinately  to  the 
North  ;  it  seldom,  however  (unless  ofi"  headlands  or  in  narrow  channels), 
overcomes  the  current  caused  by  the  monsoon,  but  has  the  effect  of  slacken- 
ing it. 

Throughout  the  Chusan  Archipelago  and  the  estuaries  to  the  North, 
great  care  and  attention  to  the  tides  is  necessary.  Particular  instructions 
for  this  purpose  will  be  found  in  the  body  of  the  work  ;  and  it  only  remains 
here  to  caution  the  navigator  that,  as  his  vessel  approaches  the  coast  to  the 
northward  at  Chusan,  the  tides  increase  in  rapidity,  and  unless  precaution  is 
taken,  she  will  be  set  among  the  small  islets  of  this  rugged  archipelago. 

The  following  Tide  Table,  extracted  faom  that  published  by  the  Admi- 
ralty, and  drawn  up  by  Commander  Burdwood,  E.N.,  will  give  the  times  of 
high  water  and  the  ranges  of  the  tides. 



Malacca  Strait,  Malay 

Junkseylon  Island  (E 

Pulo  Tubah    


Penang  (Georgetown) 

North  Sands  

Light  vessel  (One  Fa- 
thom Bank)    


Cape  flacbada    


Binding  River   

Malacca  Road     

Full  and 

10  0 

5  30 

6  0 
5  30 

2  30 

7  30 



















Off  i^Iount  Formoza  , . 

Tanjong  Bolus   

Singapore,  New  Har- 
bour * 

Rhio  Strait 

Malacca  Strait,  Sumatra 

Diamond  Point  ...... 

Bala  wan  River    

flattie  Point 

Siak  River  (entrance) 
„     off  the  town  .... 

Full  and 

Sps.     Nps. 

8  30 

9  30 

9  45 
9  50 

3  0 
3  0 
9     0 





7  10 
7  10 





*  The  low  water  at  Singapore  is  affected  by  a  large  diurnal  inequality,  amounting  at 
times  to  6  feet. 




Hiffh  l 


Full  and 

Change.  Sps. 



Full  and 

Sps.      Nps. 

Sumatra^  N.E.  Coast. 

Pulo  Aor 

St.  Barbe     

Badas    Island, 


Batoo  Barra  . . 
Dheli  River    . . 


Sumatra,  West  Coast. 


Sillebar  Rivpp  (Bar) . . 
Mensular  Island  (S.E. 


Padanfj  Road 

Tappanoely  Harbour  . 

Acheen  Head 

Diamond  Point 

Durian  Strait. 

Sabon  Island 
Deep  Point . . 
Red  Island . . 

Banka  Strait. 

ToboeAli  Point. 

Laboh  Point  . . 
Lucipara  Pass 
Nangka  Island 
Kalian  Point  . . 
Bersiap  Point. . 
Cape  Oelar  , . . . 

Gaspar  Strait.  § 

Pulo  Memlanao 
Pulo  Leat   

Java  Sea. 

Ciimon  Islands  .... 
Sourabaya  Strait  (Zee 



Jansen  Channel. . 
Banjoewangie  , . . , 
Segoro  Wedie  Bay 

h.     m. 

6     0 

6     0 

2  50 

3  0 

6     0 
6     0 

6     0 

6  10 

8  45 


5     0 
5     0 

8  30t 

10  0+ 

11  Of 

7  0 

8  0 
6  30 
6  30 

2  30 
2  30 

8  0 


1     0 

9  0 










Patytan  Bay 

Tylatiap  Harbour   (S. 


Tytando  Inlet     

Wynkoops  Bay  (S.W. 

Coast) . . 

Zand  Bay    



Knlang  Bayang  Harb. 

Baly  Strait 

Badong  Bay  (S.  Coast) 

Tebunkos  Road  (North 


Lombock,  West  Coast. 

Ampanam  Bay 
Peejow  Bay    . . 


Ragged  Island   . 

Sapie  Bay    

Britannia  Bay    . 
Bima  Bay    

Sumba  or  Sandelhout, 
North  Coast. 

Nangamessie  Harbour 
Palmedo  Road    


Koepang . 
Dilhi    ... 

Flora  Sea. 

Adenara,  Floras 
Alligator  B.iy, 


h.     m.      ft, 

3  0 

8  45 

6  30 

5  0 

5  0 

10  0 

7  0 

0  30 
11     0 

5    0 

8     0 

8  10 

1     0 

1     0 


11  30 

11     0 
1     0 

4  40 




*  From  observations  made  in  the  month  of  September  by  W.  Stanton,  Commanding 
H.M.  Surveying  brig  Saracen. 
+  In  S.E.  monsoon. 
J  In  N.W.  monsoon. 
§  Only  one  high  water  in  24  hours,  and  very  irregular. 



Full  and 

Sps.     Nps. 


Batchian,  Gilolo    .... 

Sanguir  Island 

Geby,  Fohou  Island. . 
Manganitoe  Bay    .... 

Limbe  Strait 

Stnaana  Bay 

Koplwatte  Bay 

Wahaay  and  Hatiling 


Bouro,  Cajili  Bay  .... 


S:tparooa  Island     .... 
Cambing    or 

Island  . . . , 
Banda,  Banda  Islands 
Dampier  Strait 

Borneo,  China  Sea. 

St.  Pierre,  Island  .... 

Rendezvous   or   Kum- 
pal  Island    

Tanjong  Api 

Sarawak  hiver  (Mora- 
tabas  entrance)  *     . . 
„       Santubong    . . 
„       Sarawak  Junc- 

„  „       City 

Burong  Island    

Rajang  River 

Bruit  River     

Bintula  River 

Bruni  River    

Labuaii  Island,  Victo- 
ria Harbour    

Mungalum  Island, . . . 

Malludu  Bay 

Balambansran    Island, 
South  Harbour  .... 


Ragged  Point     

Pamaruug  Islands , . . , 

Balabac  Island. 

Dalawan  Bay 


North  Balabac  Strait  . 

Palawan,  West  Coast. 

Eran  Bay    

a.     m. 
1     0 

5     0 

6     0 

1  32 

0  33  irr. 









5     0    15-18 
5  20    15-18 

4  45 

4  45 
3  0 

5  45 
11  0 

9  45 
11  0 
10  30 

10     0 
8     0 

7     0 

11  0 
11  0 
10  50 

10  10 









Full  and 
Change.       Sps 


Taj'-bay-oo-bay     .... 

Ooloogan  Bay    

Mayday  Bay  

Port    Barton?   (Bubon 



Bacuit  Bay 

Cavern  Island 

Millman  Island 

Observatory  Island   . . 

Palawan,  East  Coast. 

Ursula  Island     

Port  Royalist 

Casuariiia  Point 

Barren  Island    

Calandasan      Islands, 

Bird  Isl  .nd     

TaJ-Tai  Bay 


Philippine  Islands. 

Port  Zebu    

Port   Buluagan,    O'sta 


Port  Iloilo 

Port  San  Jacinto,  Ticao 


Paluan  Bay  (Mindoro) 
Manila  (Luzon)    .... 

Port  Sual     „      

Port  Laguimanoc     „ 
Alabat  Harlionr        ,, 
Busainga  (Burias  Id.) 
Sarangani  Point,  Min- 

Scarborough  Shoal    . . 

Sulu  Sea. 

Ubian  Island  (Kpena- 
poussan  Group)  f  . . 

Cagayan  Sulu  t 


Pearl  Bank     



Tanj  Unsang 

Dalrymple  Harbour, 
Sulu  Island     . 

h,  m. 


10  15 


9  30 


9  55 


10  55 


9  40 


10  0 


9  30 


10  27 


11  0 


11  0 


11  0? 


9  30 


9  30 


9  30 


9  30 


0  30 








6  30 



10  40 



1  30 


10  0 


0  30 


7  0 


11  0 


6  15 


6  10 


6  0 


6  5 


6  50 


6  40 


8  0 


7  50 


*  At  Sarawak  River  the  highest  tides  occur  at  the  change  of  the  monsoons,  viz..  May  and 
November.  In  the  N.E.  monsoon  the  higher  tides  occur  at  the  new  moon,  and  those  of 
the  day  are  higher  and  more  regular  than  those  of  the  night ;  while  during  the  S.W.  mon- 
soon the  contrary  takes  place,  and  the  higher  tides  are  then  at  full  moon. 

t  In  the  N.E.  monsoon. 




Full  and 

Sps.      Nps. 


Full  and 


Sps.      Nps, 

Babuyan  Islands. 

Port  Pio  Quinto,  Ca- 
migiiin  Island     . . . . 

Port  Musa,  Fuga  oi 
New  Babuyan    . . . . 

Pratas  Shoal 

Batanes,   Bashee    Ids. 

Takau  Harliour. . . 
Port  Kok-si-kon  , 
Wanckan  Bank.s    , 


Tam-Sui  Harbour. 
Kelung  Harbour  , 
Sau-o  Bay 

Meiaco  Sima  Group 
Port  Haddington  . . . 

Loo  Choo  Islands, 

Nafa  Kianfif    

Port  Uoriiinar 

Oho   Sima,  Vincennes 


„   "Wild  Wave  Bay 

China  Sea,    West  Coast 
{Malay  Peninsula) 

Eomania  Point 
Sidili  Eiver  . . 
Blair  Harbour 

Gvlf  of  Siam. 

Tringano  River.. ., 
Menam  Eiv.,  Paknara 
Bangkok  River  .... 

Cape  Liant 

Chentabnn  liiver  , 

Pulo  Panjang- , 

Rocky  Island , 

Cochin  China. 

Pulo  Condore* 
MithoRod  .. 
Cape  St.  James 
Saigon  City    .. 

b.    m. 

6     0 

4     0? 

10  30 
5  60 

6  45 

8  0 
6  7 

5     7 




















Nhatrang  Bay 
Hon-cohe  Bay 
Touron  Bay    . , 

China  Sea,  S.S.  Coast. 
Bay,  Hainan 


Yu-lin-kan  Bay  .... 
Qnan-rhow-wan  .... 
Tien -pak  Harbour     .. 


Namoa  Hnrbour  .... 
Boddnm  Cove,  Ladrone 


Canton  River  (entr.) . . 
Broadway  River  (ent.) 
Typa  Anchorage    .... 


Cumsingmun  Harbour, 

Canton  River 

Urm  stone  Bay    

.Junk    Fleet   entrance, 

Canton  River 

Tnilung  Channel  „ 
Wang-nnni  Channel.. 
,1  unci  ion  Channel  .... 
Laiikeetlsland,  Canton 


Lintin  Island  ,, 

Fan-si-ak  Channel  ,, 
Chuen-pee  Point         „ 

!  March 
May  & 
Kuper Island,  (  March 
oflf  Canton  <  May  & 
City  (.June 

Sham-shui,  Si" 

KiangorW.  | 


Wu-chu         „J 
Hong  Kong  Road 
Ninepin  Group  . . 
Tide  Cove,  Mirs   Bay 
Tooni-ang  Island,  Bias 

Tsang-chow   Id.,  Bias 

Bay , 

Hong-hai  Bay    , 

Kin-siang  Point,  Hie 

chechin  Bay 

Chino  Bay 

Haimun  Ray 

h.  m. 

8  30 
11  30 

3  0 



9  5 



8  30 
10  0 

9  40 

10  0 

11  0 
10  0 
10  0 





0  6 
10  30 



11  50 

1  50 
11  50 

2  0 


11  20 


1  0 

1  40 
1  15 



0  30 

2  40 


1  40 


10  15 
10  0 
10  0 




8  0 

8  30 
10  0 


7  0 
7  0 
9  0 


*  l-'rom  a  French  Survey,  1862. 

t  At  Whampoa  Docks — In  March,  the  day  and  night  tides  rise  to  the  same  level.  From 
April  to  October,  the  day  tides  are  the  higher,  and  from  November  to  February  the  lower 
In  May  and  June  the  level  of  spring  tides  ib  4  feet  and  the 


neaps  2  feet  higher  than  in 




Full  and 

Spa.     Nps. 


Full  and 


Sps.     Nps. 

Cape  of  Good  Hope  . . 

Cupchi  Point 

Swatow  (Double  Id.) . . 
Clipper  Eoad,   Namoa 


Chauan  Bay    

Tongsang  Harbour  . , 
Chimney  Island,  Rees 

Pass , 

M  ikung  Harbour  (Pes 

cadores)  , 

China,  East  Coast. 

Amoy,  Inner  Harbour 
„  Chiang  Chin, 
West  River 

Hu-i-tau  Bay 

Chimmo  Bay 

Chinchu  Harbour  .... 

Meichen  Sound 

Haitan  Strait 

White  Dog  Islands   . . 

Min  River,  Temple  Pt. 
,,  Losing   Id. 

Chang-chi  Island  .... 

Spider  Island 

Lishan  Bay     

Namquan  Harbour    . . 

Namki  Islands   

Pih-ki-.-)han  Islands  . . 

Fong-whang  Group, 
Bullock  Harbour   .. 

Wan-ehu  River  (entr.) 
City  . . 

Chin-ki  Island    

Tai-chow  Islands  .,. . . 

St.  George  Island,  San- 
moon  Bay   , 

Kweshan  Islands  . . . 

Nimrod  Sound    

Vernon  Channel,  Cbu 
san  Archipelago 

Ting  hae  Harbour    . 

Poo-too  I^land 

Lansew  Bav    

Volcano  Islands 

East  Saddle  I^land    . 

Yung  River,  Chinhae 
,.         Ninsj-po-fu 

Hang-chu  Bay,  Seshan 


,,  Fog  Islands 






11  30 

10  SO 


3  40 

0  15 

10  20 

0  25 

0  30 


9     0 

10  45 


9  30 

10     0 

10  15 

10     0 

8  30 

8  30 

8  30 

9  0 
9  30 
9  20 
9     0 

10  20 
9  30 

10  30 

9  40 

11  0 
8  15 

10  0 

11  30 
11  0 
11  20 

1     0 

11  45 
11  45 

















Hang-chu  Bay,  Chapu 

„         (off  Can-pu) 

Gutzlaff  Island 

Yang-tse  Kiang  (light 

ship  at  entrance)  . . 
,,  entrance  to 

Wusnng  River  .... 


tLangshan  Crossing. . 



Ydlow  Sea. 

Wang-kia-tai  Bay .... 
Wei-hai  or  Kyau-chau 


Ching-tau  Bay 


Tau-tsui  Head    

Tsing-hai  Bay    

Staunton  Island 

Wang-kia  Bay 

Shihtau  Bay   

Sang-tau  Bay 

Aylen  Bay 

Litau  Bay   

Shantung  Promontory 
Wei-hai-wei  Harbour 
Lung-mun  Harbour.. 


Hope   Sound    (Mi-au- 

tau  Group) 

Miau-tau  (Depot  Bay) 
Ta-tsing  ho  or  Yellow 


Chi-Ho    .... .... 

Peiho  or  Peking  River 

(entrance)  j 

Tien-tsin,   Peiho   Riv. 

Peh  tang  ho    

Sha-lui-tien  Banks  (W. 


Liau-tung,  Chingho. . 

Lau-mu  ho 

Tai-cho  ho 

Yang  ho 


Sand    Point,     Gulf  of 


N.W.  Head  of  Gulf  of 


Liau  Ho  (Bar)    

h;    m. 

11  30 


0  40 

1  30 
1  40 

6     0 

0  65 

2  30 

3  0 

4  0 
9  30 

10     0 
10  34 




10  24 


10  35 


4  10 


4  0 


3  30 


7  0 


3  0 


2  50 


1  20 


1  30 


0  15 


0  15 




4  50 


6  30 


4  0 


*  From  tidal  observations  made  at  Shanghai  by  the  engineer  to  the  Customs  for  the  last 
six  months  of  1872,  the  night  tides  in  July  and  in  the  following  three  months  average  con- 
siderably higher  than  the  day  ones.  The  reverse  occurs  in  the  months  of  November  and 
December. — The  North  China  Herald. 

t  At  the  Langshan  Crossing  the  tide  rises  for  3  hours  only,  and  falls  for  9  hours. — 
H.M.S.  Acttpon,  1861. 

t  Time  and  rise  much  affected  bv  winds. 



Full  and 

Sps.      Xps. 

Liau  Ho  (Yin-koa)  . . 
Vansittrtrts  Saddle .... 

Hulu  Shan  Bay 

Society   Bay,    Sulivan 


Port  Adams,  Mary  Id. 

Pigeon  Bay     

Ta-lien-whan  Bay     . . 

Encounter  Rock 

Hniyun-tau,  Thornton 


Chang-zu-do  Island  . . 


Pin?- Yang  Inlet  .... 

Chodo  Island 

Ta-Tong  River 

Salee  River,   Kapkot-i 

,,  Buisee  Id. 

Seoul    River,     Poteu- 


„  Kampa-oui 

„  Sfcukkol  . . 

„         Seoul   ... 
Marjoribanks  Harbour 

Basil  Bay    

Ko-kon-tau  Group    . . 

Kuper  Harbour 

Crichton  Harbour. . . . 

Tracy  Island 

Hooper  Island    

Port  Hamilton   

Tsu-sima  Sound  .... 
Tsau-liang-hai  or  Cho- 

san  Harbour   

Yung-hing  Bay 

Port  Lazaref,  Brough- 

ton  Bay 

Expedition  Biiy 

Novogrod  Bay   


Sagitsu-no-ura  Harb. 
Yama  Gawa  Harbour, 

Kigoaima  Gulf  .... 

Nagasaki  Bay    



Tama-no-ura  Harbour, 

Goto  Island    




Whitsed  Bay 

Mikuni  Roads    

h.  m. 


5  0 


4  20 


2  30 


0  15 


2  0 


11  4.5 


10  47 


10  44 


9  30 


9  30 


9  65 


7  45 


6  1^0 


6  30 


6  40 


5  20 


7  20 

7  50 

8  45 

9  30 


3  80 


4  15 


2  25 


9  28 


9  50 


8  58 


9  10 


8  30 


8  30 


7  45 


5  20 


5  20 


2  30 


2  30 


8  0 


7  15 


7  15 


9  44 


9  16 


8  40 



9  16 


8  30 


8  30 













Sado  (Yebisu)     

Tsu^ar  Strait 

La  Perouse  Strait  .... 
Yezo  Id.,  Notske  Bay 

,,  Nemorro  An- 

„       Akishi  Bay . . 

„       Endermo   H. 


Malo  Yama     

„     Hakodadi  Harb. 
Yamada  Harbour  .... 

YoKo-HAMA,  Yedo  B.f 
Yokoska  Harbour 


Tatiyama  Bay    


Port  Simoda 

Heda  Bay   

Eriora  Bay 


Matoja  Harliour    .... 


Owasi  (Rodney  Bay) . . 



Tanabe,  Kii  Channel 
Yura-no-uchi ........ 


Hacbken  River 

Kata  Channel     

Sus  iki  and  Nomi  Har- 


Inland  Sea. 

Hiogo  and  Kobe  Bays 
Oosaka  River  (entr.) . . 

„       City    

Yura  Harbour    

Naruto  (Fukura)    .... 

Benten  Sima 

Nisi  Siuia    

Sakoshi  Bay    


Maiko  Fort     


Awasima  Island     .... 

Siyako  Island 





Hime  Sima  Road  .... 

Full  and 


h.  m. 


1  30 


5  0 


5  0 


10  30 


4  50 


5  0 


4  30 


4  35 



2  0 


3  0 

5  0 


4  30 


6  0 


5  15 


5  55 


5  50 


6  0 


6  0 




7  30 


6  50 


6  15 


7  0 


7  30 

6  1 

6  50 


6  0 

6  1 

6  0 


5  55 


6  4 


6  4 


6  0 




7  15 


7  30 


8  17 


6  5 


6  14 


11  20 


10  15 


19  10 



11  27 


6  27 


11  25 


0  7 


0  16 


11  25 


10  37 


10  36 


11  0? 

8  45 


*  in  the  Rivor  Seoul,  spring  tides  rise  from  16|  feet  at  the  entrance,  to  6^  feet  at  Seoul, 
t  With  southerly  winds  the  tide  rises  about  2  fuot  higher. 


(     39     ) 


liemarks  on  the  Temperatures  of  the  China,  Sulu,   Celebes,  and  Banda  Seas,  hy 
Staff- Commander  T.  H.  Tizard.* 

The  temperatures  obtained  in  the  seas  partially  enclosed  by  the  Indian 
Archipelago,  prove  that  they  have,  each  of  them,  deep  basins  cut  off  from 
the  general  oceanic  circulation  by  ridges  connecting  the  islands  which  sur- 
round them  ;  for  although  in  each  sea  soundings  of  over  2,000  fathoms  were 
obtained,  in  no  case  did  the  temperature  decrease  in  a  regular  curve  from 
the  surface  to  the  bottom,  as  is  usual  in  the  open  ocean ;  in  every  case,  after 
attaining  a  certain  depth,  the  temperature  below  that  depth  remained  the 
same :  thus,  in  the  Banda  and  China  Seas  the  temperature  remained  the 
same  from  900  fathoms  to  the  bottom,  in  the  Celebes  Sea  from  700  fathoms 
to  the  bottom,  and  in  the  Sulu  Sea  from  400  fathoms  to  the  bottom. 

In  the  China  Sea  three  temperature  soundings  have  been  obtained,  one  by 
Commander  Chimmo  in  H.M.S.  Nassau,  in  lat.  12°  53'  N.,  long.  110°  31' E., 
the  depth  being  1,546  fathoms;  and  two  in  the  Challenger,  one  of  which  is 
in  lat  17°  51'  N.,  long.  117°  14'  E.,  the  depth  being  2,150  fathoms,  and  the 
other  in  lat.  16°  42'  N.,  long.  119°  22'  E.,  the  depth  being  1,050  fathoms.  In 
these  three  soundings  the  minimum  temperature,  which  varied  from  36°.  1  to 
37°,  was  found  at  a  depth  ranging  between  600  and   1,050  fathoms. 

In  the  Sulu  Sea  three  temperature  soundings  have  been  obtained,  one  in 
lat.  8°  5'  N.,  long.  119°  45'  E.  of  the  depth  of  1,778  fathoms,  by  Commander 
Chimmo;  one  of  2,550  fathoms  in  lat.  8°  32'  N.,  long.  121°  55'  E.  ;  and  one 
of  2,225  fathoms  in  lat.  8°  0'  N.,  long.  121°  42'  E.  The  latter  soundings 
were  obtained  by  the  Challenger  in  October  1874  and  in  January  1875. 

In  each  of  these  three  soundings  the  minimum  temperature  of  50°.5  was 
reached  at  the  depth  of  400  fathoms.  From  that  depth  to  the  bottom  the 
temperature  remained  unchanged. 

In  the  Celebes  Sea  three  temperature  soundings  were  obtained  in  the 
Challenger,  one  in  lat.  2°  55'  N.,  long.  124'  53'  E.,  in  October  1874,  the  depth 
being  2,150  fathoms;  a  second  in  lat.  5°  44'  N.,  long.  123°  34'  E.,  also  in 
October  1874,  the  depth  being  2,600  fathoms ;  and  the  third  in  lat,  5°  47'  N., 
long.  124°  1'  E.,  in  February  1875,  the  depth  being  2,050  fathoms.  In  each 
of  these  three  soundings  the  minimum  temperature  of  38°.5  was  reached,  at 
a  depth  of  from  700  to  800  fathoms,  from  which  depth  to  the  bottom  the 
water  remained  unchanged. 

In  the  Banda  Sea  three  temperature  soundings  were  obtained  in  September 
1874,  one  in  lat.  5°  41'  S.,  long.  134°  4'  E.,  the  depth  being  800  fathoms;  a 
second  in  lat.  5°  26'  S.,  long.  133°  19'  E.,  depth  580  fathoms ;  and  the  third 
in  lat.  5°  24'  S.,  long.  130°  37'  E.,  depth  2,800  fathoms. 

*  Extracted  from  the  "  Geographical  Magazine  "  for  March  1876. 


In  the  last  sounding,  2,800  fathoms,  the  minimum  temperature  of  ST'.S 
was  reached  at  the  depth  of  900  fathoms ;  from  thence  to  the  bottom  no 
alteration  in  the  temperature  of  the  water  was  detected. 

In  the  Molucca  Passage,  which  connects  the  Banda  Sea  with  the  Pacific 
Ocean,  one  temperature  sounding  of  1,200  fathoms  was  obtained  in  lat. 
0°  41'  N.,  long.  126°  37'  E.,  in  October  1874,  and  the  temperature  was  found 
to  decrease  regularly  from  the  surface  to  the  bottom,  the  minimum  tempera- 
ture at  the  bottom  being  35°.2. 

Two  soundings  and  temperatures  were  also  obtained  in  January  1875  in 
the  waters  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  which  separates  the  water  of  the  Sulu 
Sea  from  that  of  the  Pacific  Ocean.  One  of  these  soundings  (700  fathoms)  is 
in  lat.  12°  21'  N.,  long.  122°  15'  E.,  in  the  basin  formed  by  the  islands  of 
Panay,  Tablas,  Eomblon,  Sibuyan,  and  Masbate ;  and  the  other  (375  fa- 
thoms) in  lat.  9°  26'  N.,  long.  123"  45'  E.,  South  of  Bohol  Island,  in  the 
channel  leading  from  Suriago  Strait  to  the  Sulu  Sea.  In  the  first  sounding 
the  minimum  temperature  of  51°. 5  was  reached  at  the  depth  of  220  fathoms  ; 
and  in  the  second,  the  minimum  temperature  of  54°  was  reached  at  the  depth 
of  230  fathoms. 

A  temperature  sounding  of  2,550  fathoms  was  obtained,  in  February  1875, 
in  lat.  4°  19'  N.,  long.  130°  15'  E.,  in  that  part  of  the  Pacific  Ocean  adjacent 
to  the  Celebes  Sea  and  Molucca  Passage.  Here  a  minimum  temperature  of 
34°. 6  was  reached  at  1,300  fathoms. 

An  examination  of  the  chart  of  these  regions  will  show  that  the  deep  ba- 
sins of  the  China  and  Celebes  Seas  are  alone  in  communication  with  the 
Pacific  Ocean,  and  that  consequently  their  temperature  must  be  greatly  de- 
pendent on  the  temperature  of  that  part  of  the  Pacific  immediately  adjacent 
to  their  openings  into  that  ocean,  for  although  both  seas  are  in  communica- 
tion indirectly  with  the  Indian  Ocean,  they  are  cut  off  from  the  deep  basin 
of  that  ocean  by  a  large  tract  of  shallow  water,  which,  in  the  China  Sea,  ex- 
ceeds a  breadth  of  600  miles,  and  in  the  Celebes  Sea  is  apparently  about 
half  the  length  of  the  Macassar  Strait, 

The  Sulu  Sea  receives  its  waters  from  the  China  and  Celebes  Seas  and 
Pacific  Ocean ;  its  temperature  depends,  therefore,  to  a  great  extent  on  the 
temperatures  of  those  seas. 

The  isotherm  of  80°  is  found  at  a  depth  of  20  fathoms  in  the  Sulu  Sea; 
at  40  fathoms  in  the  Celebes  Sea  ;  and  at  22  fathoms  in  the  Banda  Sea.  In 
winter  the  China  Sea  has  a  large  range  of  surface  temperature  from  64°  at 
Hong  Kong  to  84°  at  Singapore,  while  the  surface  temperature  of  the  other 
three  seas  varies  only  slightly  all  the  year  round.  The  specific  gravity  of 
the  water  in  the  Celebes,  Sulu,  and  Banda  Seas,  was  found  to  be  less  than 
in  the  Pacific  Ocean :  this  may  be  accounted  for  by  the  excess  of  rainfall 
over  evaporation  in  the  area  occupied  by  them. 

(     41     ) 


In  the  older  works  which  described  the  navigation  of  this  Archipelago, 
the  important  element  of  the  compass  variation  was  disregarded,  because  the 
magnetic  meridians  so  nearly  coincide  with  the  geographic  meridians,  that 
they  are  in  most  parts  practically  the  same. 

The  isogonic  lines,  as  shown  on  the  illustrative  chart,  have  a  great  pecu- 
liarity in  the  eastern  seas.  A  line  of  no  variation  passes  across  the  Coast  of 
China  and  down  through  the  Philippine  Islands,  while  another,  traversing 
the  Bay  of  Bengal,  passes  southward  of,  and  parallel  to,  the  Island  of  Java. 
Between  these  lines  the  amount  of  easterly  variation  does  not  exceed  2°  in 
the  western,  and  4°  in  the  eastern  parts  of  the  area.  The  chart  will  best  ex- 
plain this. 

But  there  are  other  considerations  respecting  the  compass,  apart  from  the 
amount  of  its  deviation  from  the  true  meridian.  This  is  the  amount  of  the 
different  terrestrial  and  local  magnetic  forces  which  act  on  the  compass 
needle.  The  lines  of  equal  dip  will  give  one  of  these  elements,  but  the 
works  specially  devoted  to  the  subject  will  show  how  important  it  is  that 
the  commander  should  be  aware  of  the  effects  of  those  varying  magnetic 
changes  he  will  have  to  pass  through  in  his  long  voyage  to  the  field  of  the 
present  work. 

The  epoch  assumed  in  the  chart  is  1878,  but  there  has  been  no  appreciable 
change  in  the  amount  shown  since  magnetic  observations  have  been  con- 
ducted with  accuracy,  so  that,  for  the  present  at  least,  it  may  be  taken  as 
correct  for  a  long  period,  sufficiently  so  to  draw  attention  to  any  unsuspected 
change  in  the  magnetism  of  the  ship,  should  the  compass  show  a  different 
amount  to  that  given  on  the  chart. 

I.  A. 

CHAPTER     11. 


One  general  principle  may  be  laid  down  for  ships  traversing  the  Indian  Ar- 
chipehigo,  and  that  is  that  during  the  S.W.  monsoon,  April  to  September, 
ships  approaching  China  must  go  by  the  channels  westward  of  Borneo,  and 
in  the  opposite  season  they  will  take  one  of  the  passages  to  the  eastward  of 
Sunda  and  of  Borneo  ;  the  return  voyage  being  also  reversed  in  these  par- 

Therefore  the  passages  through  the  Archipelago,  which  lie  westward  of 
the  great  island  of  Borneo,  are  termed  generally  the  Western  Passages,  being 
the  Straits  of  Sunda  and  Malacca;  and  those  which  pass  eastward  of  Java 
and  Borneo  are  called  the  Eastern  Passages.  To  these  may  be  added  what 
was  termed  the  Great  Eastern  Passage,  or  that  to  the  southward  and  eastward 
of  Australia  and  Van  Diemen's  Land,  and  which  was  first  followed  by  Capt. 
Butler,  in  the  Walpole,  in  the  northern  monsoon  of  1794.  Of  this  route 
Captain  Maury  says — This  now  is  never  or  very  seldom  used,  and  should 
never  be  attempted  except  tor  very  special  reasons. 

An  exception  may  be  made  to  this  absolute  conclusion  in  favour  of  clipper 
or  well  handled  ships,  which  sometimes  have  successfully  attempted  to  beat 
up  the  China  Sea  against  the  N.E.  monsoon.  Of  this  more  will  be  said  here- 

The  Strait  of  Sunda  is  then  the  great  portal  of  the  Archipelago  and  China 
Sea,  and  is  used  in  all  seasons  for  the  ports  South  of  China,  and  frequently 
in  all  seasons  as  an  entrance  to  the  Eastern  Passages.  In  the  remarks  as  to 
the  most  advisable  routes,  which  will  follow,  the  passages  from  the  Atlantic 
through  the  Strait  of  Sunda  will  be  first  considered. 


In  the  volume  on  the  navigation  of  the  Indian  Ocean,  to  which  this  is  a 
continuation,  full  descriptions  of  the  winds  and  currents  of  that  ocean  are 
given,  so  that  by  reference  to  that  work  an  insight  will  be  gained  into  those 
influences  which  affect  a  vessel's  course  in  crossing  it.  On  pages  158,  159,  of 
that  work,  too,  some  brief  remarks  on  the  best  track  for  approaching  the 


Strait  of  Snncla,  or  the  passages  eastward  of  it,  are  given  :  but  as  this  topic 
has  more  especial  reference  to  the  scope  of  this  book,  some  further  observa- 
tions will  be  given. 

Notwithstanding  all  the  long  discussions  which  have  ensued  since  the  vast 
extension  of  Oriental  commerce,  and  the  consequent  accumulation  of  expe- 
rience, it  is  still  a  disputed  point  as  to  which  is  the  best  parallel  for  crossing 
the  Indian  ocean  in  sailing  eastward  round  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.  On 
the  one  hand  it  is  contended  that  by  not  going  too  far  southward,  better 
weather,  and  as  much  advantage  otherwise,  is  gained.  On  the  other  hand, 
it  is  said  that  by  keeping  more  approximatively  to  the  great  circle  course, 
that  is  in  higher  latitudes,  the  "  brave  West  winds  "  are  more  constant  and 
of  greater  force,  and  that  the  distance  to  be  sailed  over  is  proportionately 
shortened.  The  following  will  illustrate  this.  The  first  remarks  are 
taken  from  the  Admiralty  Sailing  Directions,  advocating  a  comparatively 
low  parallel. 

On  leaving  the  cape,  steer  boldly  to  the  southward,  so  as  to  run  down  the 
easting  in  lat.  39°  or  40°  S.,  where  the  wind  blows  almost  constantly  from 
some  western  point,  and  seldom  with  more  strength  than  will  admit  of  carry- 
ing sail ;  whereas  in  a  higher  latitude  the  weather  is  frequently  boisterous 
and  stormy,  with  sudden  changes  of  wind. 

Some  navigators  prefer  making  their  easting  in  a  higher  latitude  than 
39"  or  40°  S.,  whilst  others  steer  a  more  direct  course  for  Java  Head  than  is 
here  recommended  ;  but  the  above  directions  are  those  usually  followed  in 
H.M.  ships,  and  are  generally  believed  to  be  the  best. 

Now,  respecting  this  choice  of  the  parallel  of  about  39°,  on  which  to  run 
eastward,  the  distance  to  be  traversed,  or  the  approximate  75°  of  longitude 
from  the  offing  of  the  cape  to  the  point  where  you  must  bear  oflF  to  the  north- 
ward, is  about  3,508  miles,  a  distance  of  nearly  600  miles  would  be  saved  if 
the  latitude  of  50°  were  taken. 

On  this  point  Captain  Maury,  who  differs  from  the  Admiralty,  says  as 
follows :  — 

A  vessel  bound  through  the  Straits  of  Sunda,  after  crossing  the  equator, 
usually  holds  her  wind,  hauling  up  to  the  eastward  as  the  S.E.  trades  of  the 
Atlantic  will  allow,  until  she  gets  into  the  calm  belt  of  Capricorn.  Here, 
though  she  may  not  find  long  continued  calms,  she  finds,  nevertheless,  those 
light  winds  which  are  always  found  to  prevail  in  that  sort  of  debateable 
ground  which  is  always  between  any  two  systems  of  winds.  This  calm  belt 
is  between  the  S.E.  trades  on  one  side,  and  the  variables,  or  "  brave  West 
winds,"  of  the  southern  hemisphere,  on  the  other. 

Having  cleared  the  trades,  the  present  practice  of  mariners  is  to  edge  oflF 
a  little  to  the  East  of  South  until  they  gain  the  parallel  of  35° — 37°  ;  crossing 
this,  they  haul  up  due  East,  between  the  parallels  of  37°  and  39°,  and  run 
between  them — the  place  of  all  others  where  the  southern  edge  of  the  cy- 


clones  which  traverse  those  parallels  is  most  apt  to  be  felt  adversely — from 
the  prime  meridian  to  longitude  80° — 85°  E.  Now,  if  any  one  were  seeking 
to  find  a  route  that  passes  through  the  regions  most  beset  with  light  and 
baffling  winds,  this  is  the  route  to  which  I  should  point.  The  idea  of  sailing 
5,000  miles  along  the  borders  of  the  calm  belt  of  Capricorn,  as  many  East 
Indiamen  do,  when  there  is  sea  room  for  the  Great  Circle  route,  with  the 
"  brave  West  winds  "  "  following  fast,"  is  simply  absurd. 

Having  run  along  this  "  debateable  ground,"  and  reached  the  meridian  of 
80°  or  85°  E.,  another  mistake  is  committed  by  crossing  this  calm  belt  in  the 
Indian  Ocean  again  obliquely,  which  should  never  be  done.  These  calm 
belts  should  alway?,  whenever  the  land  and  dangers  will  admit,  be  crossed 
as  directly  on  a  meridian  as  the  winds  will  allow ;  for  the  sooner  you  cross 
them,  the  sooner  you  will  get  winds  that  will  drive  you  along. 

Such  is  the  course  of  the  present  route,  as  the  Dutch  crossings  abundantly 
show,  and  has  been  shortened  for  the  Dutch,  and  may  be  shortened  for  the 
Americans  and  all  others,  ten  days  or  more,  by  all  vessels  that  will  follow 
this  course. 

(1)  After  crossing  the  parallel  of  St.  Roque,  stand  through  the  S.E.  trades 
with  a  rap  full  and  topmast  studding  sail,  as  if  you  were  bound  to  Australia, 
not  caring  to  make  better  than  a  S.S.E.  course  good,  until  you  lose  the 
trades,  clear  the  calms  of  Capricorn,  and  get  the  "  brave  West  winds  "  on 
the  polar  side  of  them.  Vessels  that  do  this  will  generally  clear  the  calms, 
and  get  the  "  brave  West  winds  "  by  the  time  they  reach  latitude  3.5°— 40°, 
finding  themselves  at  this  juncture  somewhere  between  the  meridians  of  20° 
and  30°  W.  Now  shape  your  course  per  Great  Circle  for  the  intersection  of 
parallel  of  40°,  with  the  meridian  of  80° — 85°  E.,  or  any  other  near  which 
it  may  be  deeiiied  advisable,  with  the  changing  seasons,  to  enter  the  region 
of  the  S.E.  trades  of  the  Indian  Ocean. 

The  following  route,  from  30°  W.  35°  S.  to  the  intersection  of  this  parallel, 
with  85°  E.,  difi'ers  so  little  from  the  Great  Circle,  that  the  difference  becomes 
practically  of  no  moment. 

(2)  Suppose  you  clear  the  calms  of  Capricorn  in  latitude  35°,  longitude 
30°  W.,  now  steer  fur  the  meridian  of  10°  E.,  at  its  intersection  with  the 
parallel  of  48°  or  50°  S.  ;  then  run  on  between  these  parallels  to  longitude 
50°.  From  this  point  steer  for  the  intersection  of  85°  E.  and  35°  S.  The 
total  distance  to  be  run  South  of  the  parallel  of  35°  being  5,000  miles,  the 
distance  by  the  present  route  being  5,500  miles;  so  here  is  one  day's  sail 
gained  by  the  "  short  cut,"  and  certainly  better  winds. 

(3)  But  suppose  you  have  good  luck  in  the  South  Atlantic,  and  can  clear 
the  calms  of  Capricorn  in  20°  W.  instead  of  30°  W.,  but  in  the  same  latitude, 
your  course  then  is  to  aim  to  strike  the  parallel  of  50°  in  20°  E.,  and  then 
run  along  it  as  before  to  50°  E.,  the  distance  South  of  35°  by  this  route  being 
4,900  miles. 


But  suppose  the  winds  favour  you  still  more,  and  you  be  in  10°  W.  before 
you  reach  the  parallel  of  35°  ;  in  this  case  you  should  run  between  the 
parallels  of  45° — 46°  till  you  come  to  the  meridian  of  50°  E.  You  should  so 
shape  your  course  from  10°  W.  as  to  get  between  these  parallels,  near  the 
meridian  of  20°  E.  The  distance  South  of  35°,  by  this  route,  is  4,400  miles  ; 
in  other  words,  the  distance  from  the  usual  place  of  crossing  the  parallel  of 
St.  Roque  to  Java  Head  is — 

By  present  route,  9,200  miles;  by  (1),  8,940  miles;  by  (2),  8,730  miles; 
by  (3),  8,520  miles. 

There  is  no  part  of  the  world  where  the  master  of  a  sailing  vessel  can  turn 
his  knowledge  of  the  principles  of  Great  Circle  sailing  to  more  advantage 
than  he  can  when  his  course  is  East  in  that  great  expanse  of  ocean  on  the 
polar  side  of  the  calm  belt  by  Capricorn.  Here,  when  his  course  has  easting 
in  it,  the  famous  westerly  winds  of  that  region  will  drive  him  ahead  with  the 
force  and  velocity  of  steam  power. 

Suppose,  therefore,  a  navigator,  bound  for  the  Straits  of  Sunda,  should, 
instead  of  heading  up  East  on  crossing  35°  S.,  near  30°  "W.,  after  having 
crossed  the  equator  near  this  meridian,  proceed  to  40°  S.  before  heading 
up  East,  how  much  would  his  distance  from  the  equator  in  the  Atlantic  to 
the  crossing  of  40^  S.  in  longitude  85°  E.  be  increased  ?  Answer,  100  miles. 
His  gain  in  time  to  off-set  this  increase  of  distance  would  be  a  quicker  run 
through  the  calms  of  Capricorn  by  reason  of  going  straight  across  them,  and 
the  further  advantage  of  strong  winds  along  the  more  southern  route. 

The  best  course,  under  all  circumstances,  is  as  a  rule,  to  do  thus  : — Run 
from  the  equator  in  the  Atlantic  to  the  South  as  fast  as  you  can,  caring  little 
for  easting  until  you  have  cleared  the  calms  of  Capricorn,  and  caught  the 
"  brave  West  winds"  on  the  polar  side  of  that  belt ;  then  shape  your  course 
so  as  to  cross  20°  E.  between  47°  and  52°  S.  ;  leave  these  parallels  about 
the  meridian  of  60°  E.,  and  then  steer  thence  for  the  parallel  of  40°  S.,  near 
its  intersection  with  85°  E. 

This  description  of  the  course  to  be  run,  and  the  points  of  intersection  to 
be  gained,  is  given  only  for  those  navigators  who  may  be  unable  to  get  out 
of  the  true  Great  Circle  routes  and  courses. 

It  is  well  to  remark  that  most  ice  has  been  seen  along  this  route,  between 
20°  and  40°  E.,  and  that  much  is  to  be  gained  by  running  down  your  easting 
as  near  to  the  South  as  ice  and  safety  will  permit.  So  impressed  have  I 
been  with  the  gain  to  be  made  by  running  well  to  the  South  in  this  part  of 
the  ocean,  that  I  formerly  said,  with  regard  to  the  route  to  Australia — 

"  In  further  proof  that  the  route  recommended  in  the  Sailing  Directions 
of  the  Admiralty  is  too  far  to  the  North,  and  as  an  illustration  of  the  advan- 
tage of  the  route  which  I  advise,  I  have  prepared  some  tables,  and  it  appears 
from  them  that  there  is  no  longer  room  for  difference  of  opinion  as  to  the 
advantages  of  going  farther  South  than  39°— 40°;  how  much  farther,  though, 


still  remains  to  be  decided.  But  so  far  as  the  facts  before  us  go,  they  justify 
the  assertion  that  for  every  degree  you  go  South  of  the  Admiralty  route  to 
Australia,  you  gain  three  days  on  the  average,  until  you  reach  the  parallel 
of  45° — 6°,  for  the  averages  of  the  table  are  not  below  this  parallel ;  and  I 
believe  it  will  turn  out  that  the  best  streak  of  wind,  in  the  long  run,  is  to 
be  found  between  45°  and  50°  8.  It  seems  to  be  almost  as  steady,  between 
these  parallels,  from  the  westward,  as  it  is  anywhere  to  the  East,  between 
the  trade  wind  parallels  of  15°  and  20°.  The  average  "vertex"  of  those 
that  go  South  of  41°  is  53°  33'  ;  the  average  "vertex"  of  those  that  go 
North  of  that  parallel  is  39°  7'  S.  The  mean  parallels  upon  which  the  latter 
run  down  their  longitude  is  38°  52',  and  the  former  43°  59'  ;  for  this  diifer- 
ence  of  5°,  the  average  gain  of  those  who  take  the  more  southern  parallels  is 
14  days,  which  comes  very  near  to  an  average  of  3  days'  gain  on  the  voj'^age 
to  Australia  for  every  degree  you  go  South  of  the  Admiralty  route.  As  far 
as  80°  E.,  the  Admiralty  route  to  Australia  and  the  old  route  to  Sunda  are 
the  same.  The  average  speed  to  Australia  by  the  Admiralty  route  is  134 
miles  a  day  against  154  by  the  new  route  ;  so  that  the  route  well  to  the 
South  has  in  its  favour  not  only  better  winds,  but  shorter  degrees  and  longer 
daily  runs. 

If  the  winds  were  fair  all  the  way,  the  nearest  route  to  Java  Head  from 
the  fairway  off  St.  Roque  would  be  via  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  ;  indeed,  the 
Great  Circle  from  St.  Koque  to  Java  runs  through  the  unexplored  regions  of 
Africa.  But  both  the  winds  and  the  land  render  such  a  route  in  navigation 
impracticable ;  for  the  former  generally  compel  the  outward  Indiaman,  in 
spite  of  herself,  to  cross  the  meridian  of  25°  W.  as  far  South  as  the  parallel 
of  30° — 33°  S.  ;  and  the  Great  Circle  thence  to  Java  Head  passes  some 
8°  or  10°  South  of  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.  Moreover,  the  winds  in  the 
Indian  Ocean  render  a  departure  from  the  Great  Circle  again  necessary. 
The  winds,  however,  are  such  as  to  admit  all  four  of  the  routes  on  pages 
42,  43,  ante. 

The  route  No.  3  is  600  miles  shorter,  and  has  better  winds  than  the 
present  route.  But,  after  clearing  the  S.E.  trades  of  the  Atlantic,  the  pre- 
sent route  runs  about  1,000  miles  obliquely  across  the  calms  of  Capricorn, 
where  the  average  rate  of  sailing  is  not  over  100  miles  a  day.  Now,  by 
going  straight  across  these  calms  as  by  route  (1),  you  will  clear  them  gene- 
rally in  two  days,  and  then  get  those  "  brave  West  winds,"  which  will  waft 
you  along  at  the  rate  of  200  or  300  miles  a  day,  according  to  the  heels  of 
the  ship. 

The  navigator,  therefore,  will  act  most  wisely  who  will  wait,  and  let  things 
as  he  may  find  them  govern  him  as  to  where,  after  clearing  the  S.E.  trades, 
he  will  begin  to  shape  his  course  for  the  Great  Circle  to  the  meridian  of  85° 
East,  or  for  the  meridian  near  which  he  proposes  to  cross  the  calms  of  Ca- 
pricorn in  the  Indian  Ocean.     Suffi'  e  it  to  say,  he  may  begin  to  do  it  any- 


where  South  of  30°,  and  between  the  meridians  of  30°  and  10°  W.,  and  reach 
Java  Head  several  days  sooner,  on  the  average,  than  he  would  by  continuing 
to  follow  the  present;  route. 

In  attempting  to  follow  these  Great  Circle  routes,  navigators  should  recol- 
lect that  the  greate&t  saving  of  distance,  as  compared  with  the  rhumb-line 
route,  is  always  along  those  arcs  that  lie  nearly  East  and  West,  and  are 
farthest  from  the  equator  ;  and  that,  so  far  as  distance  is  concerned,  he 
might  as  well  be  out  of  his  way  on  one  side  of  these  arcs  as  the  other.  As 
illustrative  of  this  route,  I  may  refer  to  the  track  of  a  ship  whose  log  I 
have,  and  with  regard  to  which  I  only  say  that,  it  she  had  stood  on  from  lat. 
28°  to  35°  S.,  at  that  season,  in  long.  20°  W.,  and  then  shaped  her  course 
per  Grreat  Circle  route,  she  would  probably  have  done  better ;  as  it  is,  she 
crossed  the  meridians  as  follows  : — 0°  in  36°  20'  S.  ;  20°  E.  in  38°  20'  S.  ; 
40°  E.  in  38°  35'  S.  ;  60°  E.  in  38°  S.  ;  70°  E.  in  38°  20'  S. ;  80°  E.  in  36"  S. ; 
90°  E.  in  33°  0'  S. ;  which  is  a  fair  representation  of  the  average  June  route 
of  the  Dutch. 

"Arriving  in  lat.  28°  0'  S.,  long  22°  W.,  I  projected,"  says  her  master, 
"  on  my  chart,  the  Great  Circle  course  thence  to  Java  Head,  the  vertex  being 
in  lat.  44°  S.,  and  long,  about  25°  E.  I  adhered  to  this  course  as  far  as 
practicable,  having  in  view  the  favourable  sailing  points  of  the  vessel,  and 
being  compelled  to  run  her  before  some  of  the  heavy  seas  of  the  high  lati- 
tudes until  reaching  the  parallel  of  30°  in  long,  about  69°  E.,  when  I  deemed 
it  prudent  to  keep  to  the  eastward  of  the  Great  Circle  course,  and  approach 
the  meridian  of  Java  Head  larther  South,  to  forelay  for  the  chance  of  there 
being  considerable  easting  in  the  trades.  I  crossed  the  tropic  in  about 
94°  30'  E.  long.,  and  fetched  Java  Head,  sailing  upon  an  easy  bow-line 
(which  is  a  good  sailing  point  of  the  vessel,  and,  I  believe,  of  most  sharp 
vessels).  I  will  remark  here  that  I  could  find  nothing  explicit  in  '  Hors- 
burgh'  regarding  the  direction  of  the  wind  in  the  S.E.  trades;  but,  after 
many  unsatisfactory  remarks,  the  whole  is  summed  up  on  page  161,  vol.  i. 
5th  edition,  thus  : — When  the  sun  has  great  North  declination,  it  may  not 
be  absolutely  requisite  for  ships  which  sail  well  to  reach  the  meridian  of 
thoir  port  so  far  southward,  the  trade  wind  then  blowing  more  from  S.E.  and 
E.S.E.  in  general  than  from  East  and  E.N.E. 

Accompanying  my  abstract  is  an  abstract  of  the  log  of  the  ship  Minstrel, 
of  Boston,  which  vessel  (commanded  by  my  brother)  pursued  the  Admiralty 
route  in  running  up  her  easting ;  and,  although  he  crossed  the  equator  in 
the  Atlantic  12  days  before  me,  yet  I  made  Java  Head  the  day  before  him, 
and  there  was  not  much  difference  in  the  sailing  of  the  vessels.  Where  I 
gained  on  him  most  was  in  high  latitudes.  Although  I  made  a  fair  passage 
by  pursuing  the  circle  course  so  far  as  the  latitude  of  33°,  yet  I  would  not 
again  adhere  to  it  farther  than  the  vertex  ;  thence,  I  would  sail  East  on  or 
near,  that  parallel  until  reaching  the  longitude  of  90",  or  thereabouts  •  then 


hauling  North  across  the  belt  of  variables  to  the  southward  of  the  trades,  at 
right  angles,  and  be  upon  the  safe  side,  after  reaching  the  trades,  at  any 
season  of  the  year. 

A  good  passage  could,  perhaps,  be  made  by  sailing  on  a  circle  course  from 
the  Atlantic  to  a  good  position  relative  with  Java  Head,  in  the  Indian 
Ocean,  say  95°  E.  and  33°  S. ;  but  the  vertex  should  be  far  South  of  53°,  or 
thereabout.  And  I  should  not  feel  justified  in  attempting  to  pursue  such  a 
route,  until  we  have  some  definite  information  relative  to  the  existence  of 
danger  from  ice,  against  which  Horsburgh  cautions  navigators. 

Navigators,  by  taking  the  old  route,  are  liable  to  meet  with  another  diffi- 
culty, especially  when  they  attempt  to  run  down  their  longitude  near  the 
parallel  of  35° — 6°  S.  About  this  parallel  is  a  famous  place  for  circular 
storms— cyclones.  They  revolve  with  the  sun,  and  the  parallel  of  35°—  6°  ia 
frequently  traversed  by  the  southern  edge  of  them ;  consequently,  as  these 
storms  travel  East  or  West,  the  wind  on  the  southern  edge  of  them  is  gene- 
rally from  the  eastward." 

Thus  far  Captain  Maury,  to  which  two  remarks  may  be  appended,  the 
one  on  the  dangers  from  ice  in  high  southern  latitudes,  the  other  on  the 
occurrence  of  cyclones  in  the  lower  parallels. 

The  frequency  of  ice  and  its  peculiarities  in  the  Southern  Indian  Ocean  is 
dwelt  upon  in  our  Directory  for  the  Indian  Ocean,  pages  86 — 91,  and  it  is 
there  shown  that  the  drifts  attain  a  lower  latitude  in  the  southern  winter 
than  at  other  seasons,  nearly  approaching  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  in  July 
to  September,  but  then  it  is  considered  that  they  leave  a  clear  space  to  the 
southward.  In  January  to  March  they  are  not  frequently  encountered  north- 
ward of  55°  S. 

In  the  same  work  the  question  of  the  occurrence  of  cyclones  on  the  paral- 
lels indicated  is  discussed,  and  to  those  pages  the  reader  is  referred. 

There  can  be  no  doubt  but  these  revolving  storms  do  sometimes  attain 
these  latitudes  after  recurving  from  the  northward,  and  passing  to  the  east- 
ward. Should  the  well-known  indications  of  these  meteors  be  clearly  ascer- 
tained, of  course  it  behoves  the  commander  to  seek  that  edge  of  the  disk  (the 
northern  edge),  which  will  help  him  forward  on  his  voyage,  rather  than  be 
opposed  by  the  contrary  gales  on  its  southern  margins. 

But  it  is  argued  by  some  that  these  gales  are  generally  not  revolving,  but 
are  right  lined  winds,  or  so  slightly  curved  in  their  paths  that  they  cannot 
be  classed  as  cyclones.  Upon  this  topic  see  pages  12,  13,  of  the  Indian 
Ocean  Directory — the  whole  subject  and  its  application  being  given  in  pages 
5  to  17,  and  151  to  159. 

To  the  two  opinions  given  above,  as  to  the  best  parallel  for  running  down 
the  easting  after  passing  round  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  we  may  add  that  of 
Mr.  Towson,  whose  labours  on  this  subject  are  well  known.  It  is  true  that 
his  object  was  to  shorten  the  road  to  Australia,  and  therefore  the  tracks  lie 


to  the  southward  of  that  great  continent ;  but  they  will  hold  good  equally 
for  that  which  diverges  to  the  northward  before  reaching  this  eastern  exten- 
sion. He  chooses  the  parallel  of  51°  S.  for  passing  across  the  Southern 
Indian  Ocean  to  the  southward  of  Kerguelen  Land. 

With  all  deference  to  these  great  authorities,  may  it  not  be  that  all  are 
right,  if  their  views  are  followed  in  different  seasons.  It  would  seem  to  be 
quite  natural  that  a  lower  latitude  would  carry  all  the  advantages  during  the 
winter  season  that  a  high  parallel  does  in  the  summer.  The  limits  between 
the  trade  winds  and  the  westerly  anti-trades  certainly  vibrates  in  latitude 
with  the  progress  of  the  sun  in  the  ecliptic  ;  and  therefore,  during  the  in- 
clement winter,  the  Admiralty  parallel  of  39° — 40°  may  be  quite  as  advan- 
tageous (except  as  regards  the  distance  to  be  run)  as  the  probably  more  bois- 
terous but  shorter  course  in  higher  latitude.  Aguiii,  in  the  summer  months 
the  parallels  advocated  by  Maury  and  Towson  may  certainly  be  safely  fol- 
lowed ;  but  in  this,  also,  some  other  considerations  may  enter.  The  sailing 
powers  of  the  ship,  the  nature  of  her  cargo,  and  the  health  of  the  crew  and 
passengers  (especially  if  the  latter  be  an  important  item  in  the  account) 
would  lead  the  commander  to  hesitate  before  he  would  carry  his  vessel  into 
climates  very  much  colder  than  that  he  has  recently  left,  and  which  he  will 
soon  enter  again,  and  where  he  will  probably  meet  with  heavy  winds  and 
turbulent  seas. 

As  has  been  said  above,  the  point  does  not  appear  to  be  entirely  decided, 
nor  can  it  be  so  when  each  ship  may,  from  motives  of  expediency,  require 
different  handling.  The  above  facts  and  opinions  are  given,  and  the  com- 
mander must  make  his  own  choice  of  them.  For  pursuing  the  voyage  to  the 
northward,  the  following  is  given  in  the  Admiralty  Directions. 

In  the  South-east  Monsoon,  i.e.,  from  the  middle  of  April  to  the  middle 
of  September,  vessels,  having  passed  the  island  of  St.  Paul,  should  not  edge 
away  too  quickly  to  the  northward,  but  should  endeavour  to  reach  first  as 
far  to  the  eastward  into  the  S.E.  trade  wind  as  the  meridian  of  Java  Head, 
crossing  the  southern  tropic  in  about  102°  E.  In  this  season  a  westerly 
current  runs  along  the  South  coast  of  Java,  and  in  the  months  of  June,  July, 
and  August,  when  it  is  at  its  greatest  strength,  it  will  be  indispensable  to  be 
well  to  the  eastward,  or  otherwise  the  ship  will  be  liable  to  fall  to  leeward 
of  Java  Head.  In  the  vicinity  of  Java  the  S.E.  monsoon  also  veers  some- 
times to  East  or  E.N.E. 

In  the  North-west  Monsoon,  i.e.,  from  the  middle  of  October  to  the  mid- 
dle of  March,  but  especially  in  December  and  January,  the  southern  tropic 
should  be  crossed  several  degrees  to  the  westward  of  the  meridian  of  Java 
Head,  when  a  direct  course  can  be  steered  for  Sunda  Strait,  or  to  make  En- 
gano  Island,  or  the  land  about  Flat  Point,  the  southern  extreme  of  Sumatra. 
Great  care  must  be  taken  during  this  monsoon  not  to  fall  to  leeward  of  Java 
Head,  for  the  westerly  winds  blow  with  great  violence  along  the  South  coast 

I.    A.  ii 


of  Java,  and  their  strength,  united  with  the  strong  current  setting  to  the 
eastward,  make  it  impracticable  to  beat  up  along  this  coast ;  a  vessel  may 
thus  have  to  steer  to  the  southward,  and  re-enter  the  S.E.  trade,  in  order  to 
make  sufficient  westing  to  fetch  Flat  Point.  When  nearly  on  the  parallel  of 
Java  Head,  and  one  or  two  degrees  to  the  westward  of  it,  a  direct  course  may 
be  steered  for  the  Strait,  with  an  allowance  for  a  probable  current  setting  to 
the  southward. 

If  contrary  winds  are  met  with  shortly  after  leaving  St.  Paul  Island,  in 
November,  December,  or  January,  a  vessel  may  steer  at  once  to  the  north- 
ward, and  cross  the  tropic  in  80°  or  90°  E.,  when  she  will  meet  with  westerly 
winds  to  carry  her  to  the  strait. 

Shifting  of  the  Monsoons.— During  the  period  when  these  changes  occur, 
i.e.,  from  about  the  middle  of  September  to  the  end  of  October,  and  from 
about  the  middle  of  March  to  the  end  of  April,  the  winds  are  variable  and 
uncertain.  It  is  advisable  at  those  times  to  make  sufficient  easting  in  the 
S.E.  trade  to  bring  Java  Head  nearly  North,  and  then  to  steer  direct  for  it, 
borrowing  a  little  to  the  eastward  or  westward,  when  it  is  approached,  as 
may  be  required  by  the  prevailing  wind  or  other  circumstances. 


In  the  S.W.  Monsoon. — In  this,  the  fair  wind  season,  there  is  no  great 
difficulty  in  making  a  passage  around  the  South  end  of  Ceylon,  or  from 
Madras,  or  any  of  the  Coromandel  ports.  Having  passed  Ceylon,  steer  so 
as  to  pass,  in  lat.  6°  20'  N.,  through  the  channel  between  Pulo  Eondo  and 
the  South  end  of  the  Great  Nicobar.  If  the  monsoon  be  strong  from  southern 
quarters,  and  the  weather  overcast,  so  that  there  may  be  some  uncertainty 
in  the  latitude  for  want  of  observations,  keep  southward  towards  Acheen 
Head,  to  guard  against  the  chance  of  a  northerly  current.  But  great  caution 
is  necessary  in  such  weather,  because,  should  the  wind  have  had  much 
westing  in  it,  it  may  have  caused  a  south-westerly  current  down  the  West 
coast  of  Sumatra,  Such  a  contingency  must  be  guarded  against  when  it  is 
neared  in  dark,  stormy  weather.  Acheen  is  generally  best  made  from  the 
southward  at  this  season,  passing  with  great  precaution  either  through  the 
Surat  Passage  iwithin  the  islands,  or,  which  is  better,  northward  of  Pulo 
Brasse,  by  the  Bengal  Passage. 

Bound  through  the  strait,  and  having  passed  the  islands  off  Acheen  Head, 
which  is  then  best  to  be  avoided,  stand  on  towards  Pulo  Bouton,  on  the 
eastern  side  of  the  Strait  of  Malacca,  because,  as  has  been  before  explained, 
the  high  land  of  the  Pedir  Coast,  intercepting  the  monsoon,  causes  light 
baffling  winds  all  along  the  Sumatra  side.  When  Pulo  Bouton  is  made 
bearing  to  eastward,  you  may  be  able  to  carry  brisk  westerly  winds  up  to 
Pulo  Penang.      Should   the  winds  be  light,   a  northerly  current  may  be 


encountered  setting  out  of  the  entrance  to  the  strait,  and  this  may  set  the 
ship  to  northward  of  Pulo  Bouton  ;  but  when  once  the  islands  on  the  Malay 
coast  are  made,  there  will  be  no  difficulty  in  getting  along  that  coast  to  the 
S.E.  Keep  within  a  moderate  di^stance  of  the  coast,  in  35  to  20  fathoms, 
making  for  the  Sambilangs,  carefully  avoiding  the  mud  bank  off  the  coast 
between  Penang  and  Pulo  Binding,  in  lat.  4°  14'  N.  The  outer  edge  of  this, 
as  is  shown  in  the  subsequent  descriptions,  is  steep-to,  shoaling  suddenly 
from  10  and  8  fathoms  to  9  ft.  in  some  parts,  and  it  must  therefore  not  be 
neared  into  less  than  12  to  15  fathoms.  Passing  between  the  steep,  rocky 
Sambilangs  and  the  isolated  Pulo  Jarra,  in  the  middle  of  the  strait,  which 
is  perfectly  clean  with  the  deepest  water  in  the  strait  around  it,  you  make 
for  the  West  end  of  the  North  Sands,  those  dangerous  shoals  which  run 
parallel  with  the  coast,  but  which  danger  is  much  diminished  by  the  light- 
ship on  the  One-fathom  Bank,  between  the  North  and  South  sands.  Should 
you  meet  with  an  adverse  wind  when  up  with  the  Sambilangs,  keep  along 
the  Perak  coast  in  moderate  depths,  not  less  than  10  or  11  fathoms,  as  there 
may  be  a  useful  counter-tide  and  good  anchorage  in  doing  so.  Having 
arrived  at  the  One-fathom  Bank  and  its  lightship,  and  sighted  the  Arroa 
Islands,  there  will  be  no  difficulty  in  getting  up  to  Singapore,  as  shown  in 
the  subsequent  descriptions. 

In  the  N.E.  Monsoon. — The  passage  to  the  eastward  against  this  fine 
weather  monsoon  is  tedious  and  lingering.  Having  passed  Ce^-lon,  it  is  best 
to  keep  to  the  northward,  passing  between  the  Nicobar  Islands  and  the 
Little  Andaman ;  or,  if  from  Madras,  through  the  Sonibreiro  Channel. 
Those  from  Ceylon  should  keep  well  in  with  the  South  end  of  the  Great 
Nicobar,  if  the  wind  will  permit,  in  entering  the  strait.  But  should  you  get 
drifted  to  leeward  of  Pulo  Brasse,  enter  it  by  the  Surat  Passage,  around 
Acheen  Head.  When  past  Acheen  Head,  a  westerly  current  will  be  en- 
countered running  along  the  coast  between  that  and  Diamond  Point ;  but 
in  the  offing  and  on  the  Malay  side  it  sets  more  or  less  to  the  northward 
throughout  the  ^ear.  Therefore,  when  within  the  strait,  get  away  from  the 
{Sumatra  coast,  and  try  to  gain  the  Malay  side,  where  there  are  more 
favourable  winds,  tidal  streams,  and  the  alternating  land  and  sea  breezes 
by  which  you  may  work  to  the  S.E. 


In  the  S.W.  Monsoon. — It  is  best  to  keep  on  the  Sumatra  side  of  the 
Malacca  Strait  in  going  westward  during  this  monsoon,  because  there  is  an 
eddy  current  at  its  entrance  on  that  side,  especially  along  the  Pedir  Coast. 
Having,  by  means  of  every  shift  of  wind  and  this  favouring  drift  got  up  to 
Acheen  Head,  pass  between  Pulo  Way  and  Pulo  Brasse  by  the  Bengal 
Passage,  keeping  close  to  the  latter  island  and  around  the  islets  at  its  North 


end.     If  bound  to  Madras  the  passage  will  be  very  tedious,  and  every  slant 
of  wind  must  be  zealously  taken  advantage  of. 

If  bound  for  Ceylon  or  the  western  ports,  and  having  cleared  Acheen 
Head,  make  for  the  southward,  keeping  off  the  islands  along  the  West  coast 
of  Sumatra  as  far  as  possible.  Having  crossed  the  equator,  and  got  into 
the  S.E.  trades,  run  down  your  westing  till  up  with  the  meridian  of  the 
port  of  destination.  Then  bear  up  northward,  and  if  bound  to  Point  de 
Galle,  make  the  land  of  Ceylon  to  the  westward  ;  or,  if  to  Trincomalee  or 
the  East  coast,  make  the  S.E.  part  of  the  island,  for  strong  westerly  winds 
and  very  violent  easterly  currents  prevail  about  the  South  part  of  Ceylon  at 
this  season. 

This  passage  to  the  eastward,  during  the  adverse  monsoon,  is  seldom  at- 
tempted if  it  can  be  avoided,  and  unless  a  vessel  can  keep  well  on  the  wind 
it  may  be  very  difficult. 

In  the  N.E.  Monsoon. — There  is  do  difficulty  in  this  passage.  Keep  on 
the  Malay  coast  until  up  with  Junkseylon,  and  then  steer  so  as  to  pass  be- 
tween Car  Nicobar  and  the  South  end  of  the  Little  Andaman,  if  early  in  the 
season.  If  bound  noi'thward  of  Madras,  either  the  above  or  the  Sombreiro 
Passage  may  be  chosen,  taking  care  to  make  the  coast  to  the  northward  of 
the  destined  port. 


Having  passed  through  Sunda  Strait,  for  which  directions  will  be  given  in 
the  subsequent  pages,  and  bound  to  Banka  Strait,  it  is  usual  to  steer  a  direct 
course  for  the  Two  Brothers.  With  a  working  wind,  it  will  be  prudent  to 
keep  within  a  moderate  distance  of  the  Sumatra  coast;  11  or  12  fathoms  ia 
a  good  depth.  A  good  mark  in  daylight  is,  when  standing  in-shore,  to  tack 
when  North  Island  is  just  on  with  the  highest  Zutphen  Island  ;  the  sound- 
ings will  then  be  generally  7  or  8  fathoms,  and  a  large  ship  should  not  risk 
a  less  depth  when  working  between  North  Island  and  the  Swallow  Eock, 
which  she  will  pass  eastward  of,  if  the  South  Brother  is  not  brought  east- 
ward of  N.  by  E. 

Although  the  space  between  the  Thousand  Islands  and  the  Two  Brothers 
can  be  navigated  with  more  confidence  since  its  partial  examination  by  Com- 
mander Bullock,  in  H.M.S.  Serpent,  in  1865,  yet,  as  no  complete  survey  has 
been  made,  the  mariner  is  recommended  to  proceed  with  caution.  The 
Brothers  may  be  passed  at  a  prudent  distance  on  either  side.  On  passing  to 
the  eastward,  take  care  to  avoid  the  Lynn  and  Brouwers  Eeefs  ;  and  when 
passing  between  the  islands  and  the  Shahbundar  Banks,  a  vessel  should  not 
keep  larther  from  the  islands  than  3  miles,  and  not  nearer  the  coast  of  Su- 
matra than  the  depth  of  9  fathoms. 

Having  passed  the  Brothers,  steer  to  the  northward  towards  Lucipara, 


keeping  the  Brothers  to  the  westward  of  South,  to  avoid  the  reported  posi- 
tion of  the  Clifton  shoal,  and  endeavouring  to  keep  in  soundings  from  9  to 
12  fathoms,  as  a  direct  course  cannot  be  depended  upon,  on  account  of  irre- 
gular currents  or  tides  setting  out  from  the  rivers.  Neither  can  the  sound- 
ings in  this  track  be  implicitly  trusted  to,  being  irregular,  from  8^  to  11  or 
12  fathoms  in  some  places,  particularly  contiguous  to  Tree  Island  bank,  and 
the  edges  of  the  other  banks  projecting  from  the  coast  of  Sumatra,  also  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  Arend  and  Boreas  banks  in  the  offing.  It  will  be,  how- 
ever, prudent  to  borrow  towards  the  main  if  the  depths  increase  to  12  or  13 
fathoms  ;  and  to  haul  off  from  it  if  they  decrease  to  8A  or  9  fathoms  towards 
the  banks  that  line  the  coast.  Near  these  the  soundings  are  generally  hard 
and  more  irregular  than  farther  out  from  the  land,  in  12  or  13  fathoms  ; 
but,  in  the  latter  depths,  a  ship  will  be  too  far  off  the  coast  with  a  westerly 

When  the  weather  is  clear,  during  the  day,  it  may  be  proper  to  get  a  sight 
of  the  coast  from  the  poop  of  a  large  ship  at  times,  edging  out  occasionally 
in  the  night,  or  when  the  depths  decrease  to  8J  or  9  fathoms.  Having  passed 
the  bank  off  Tree  Island,  the  coast  may  be  approached  with  greater  safety, 
and  the  depth  will  decrease,  regularly  steering  northward  for  Lucipara,  to 
6|  fathoms,  when  it  bears  N.  ^  E.  about  10  miles. 

If  at  night  a  vessel  should  come  into  shallow  water  between  the  Two 
Brothers  and  Lucipara,  and  not  being  certain  whether  she  is  on  either  the 
Arend  or  Boreas  banks,  or  the  bank  off  the  coast  of  Sumatra,  it  is  advisable 
to  anchor  immediately,  and  to  wait  for  daylight,  for  the  depths  are  moderate, 
and  the  bottom  throughout  this  track  generally  favourable  for  that  pur- 


When  bound  from  Banka  Strait  to  that  of  Sunda,  the  proper  course  will 
be  about  S.  by  E.,  keeping  in  from  9  to  13  fathoms  ;  but  the  currents  are 
too  variable  to  trust  implicitly  to  any  course,  and  the  depths  also  are  top 
irregular  to  depend  on  them  alone,  for  the  5  and  4^  fathoms  Boreas  and 
Arend  banks  may  be  easily  mistaken  for  those  south-eastward  of  Tree 
Island,  which  are  very  dangerous.  It  will  therefore  be  advisable  in  day- 
time to  keep  on  the  Sumatra  side  in  8  or  9  fathoms,  from  which  depths  that 
shore  is  generally  visible  from  the  deck,  and  at  night  to  keep  off  shore 
when  the  water  shoals  to  less  than  9  fathoms,  and  to  approach  it  when  it 
deepens  to  more  than  13  fathoms,  as  that  depth  with  westerly  winds  would 
be  too  far  off. 

Having  arrived  in  about  3°  40'  S.,  or  about  30  miles  distant  from  the  Two 
Brothers,  keep  as  nearly  as  possible  in  9  or  10  fathoms,  so  as  to  get  sight  of 
these  islands  bearing  South,  but  not  to  the  eastward  of  that  bearing  in  order 
to  avoid  the  Clifton  Shoal ;  otherwise,  if  made  when  in  1 1  fathoms,  it  would 


be  difficult  to  weather  them  with  a  westerly  wind,  especially  as  the  current 
runs  to  the  south-eastward  during  the  western  monsoon.  When  passing 
to  the  eastward  of  the  Two  Brothers,  recollect  the  Brouwers  and  Lynn  Eeefs. 

Coming  from  the  northward  the  Two  Brothers  appear  like  one  island,  and 
hence  some  vessels  have  been  led  into  danger  by  mistaking  Mound  Imbong, 
or  Knob-hill,  in  Sumatra,  when  seen  in  the  twilight,  for  these  islands.  Sail- 
ing past  these  islands  at  night,  the  vessel's  position  should  be  well  ascertained 
before  dark,  or  else  it  would  be  better  to  anchor. 

Having  passed  on  either  side  of  the  Brothers,  the  safest  bearing  to  bring 
them  upon  appears  to  be  N.  ^  E.  After  losing  sight  of  them  upon  that 
bearing,  a  course  about  S.  by  W.  may  be  steered  for  the  entrance  of  Sunda 

Captain  Ste-phens,  of  the  shi-p  ffarkawat/,  says: — "In  May,  approaching 
Sunda  Strait  from  the  eastward  the  Java  side  should  be  steered  for,  and  kept 
aboard,  as  then  the  winds  are  light,  those  from  S.E.  prevailing  at  night,  and 
from  N.E.  during  the  day ;  this  precaution  will  prevent  the  vessel  being 
carried  by  the  current  to  the  westward  of  the  Button  Islet ;  this  current  runs 
constantly  to  the  S.  W.  in  the  middle  of  the  strait,  it  is  checked  by  the  short 
flood,  but  runs  strong  with  a  long  ebb." 


Vessels  bound  from  Banka  Strait  to  Singapore  seldom  adopt  the  O  uter 
route  to  the  eastward  of  the  islands  of  Linga  and  Bintang,  most  vessels  pre- 
ferring to  proceed  by  Ehio  Strait ;  it,  however,  forms  part  of  the  main  route 
into  the  China  Sea,  and  is  therefore  of  great  importance. 

Outer  Eoute. — The  ordinary  route  for  vessels  bound  northward  is  be- 
tween the  Toejoe  Islands  and  Pulo  Taya ;  they  may,  however,  pass  on  either 
eide  of  Pulo  Taya,  which,  being  high  and  bold,  is  very  convenient  to  make 
in  thick  weather  or  at  night. 

At  night,  or  in  thick  weather,  the  lead  will  be  very  useful  in  detecting  the 
drift  caused  by  cross  currents  between  the  Toejoe  Islands  and  Sumatra,  for 
the  depth  decreases  generally  towards  Sumatra,  and  increases  towards  those 
islands ;  but  care  should  be  taken  in  approaching  them,  as  the  remarkable 
irregularities  of  the  currents  have  brought  many  vessels  into  the  danger  of 
being  entangled  among  them.  Near  Sumatra  a  mud  bottom  mixed  with 
Band  prevails,  and  near  the  islands  mud  only. 

The  Castor  Bank,  lying  to  the  N.E.  of  Pulo  Taya,  carries  not  less  than  5 
fathoms  water,  but  a  vessel  will  pass  eastward  of  it  by  not  bringing  Pulo 
Taya  South  of  S.W.  ^  W.,  and  westward  of  it  by  keeping  that  island  South 
of  S.S.W.  ^  W.  The  East  point  of  Linga  (which,  with  a  point  to  the  w^est- 
ward  of  it,  appears  at  a  distance  like  two  islands)  bearing  N.N.W.  will  lead 
from  4  to  5  miles  to  the  N.E.  both  of  the  Castor  Bank  and  the  Ilchester 
Shoal.     But  in  order  to  avoid  the  last-named  danger,  if  the  channel  between 


the  Castor  Bank  and  Linga  is  used,  take  care  not  to  bring  the  East  point  of 
Linga  to  the  East  of  North. 

Having  passed  eastward  of  Pule  Taya,  a  course  may  be  steered  to  cross 
the  equator  in  20  or  21  fathoms,  or  in  long.  106°  30'  E.  From  the  equator 
steer  about  North  until  past  the  Frederick  and  Oeldria  shoals,  observing  in 
the  night  not  to  come  under  23  or  24  fathoms  between  lat.  0°  30'  and  0°  50'  N. 
to  avoid  those  dangers  ;  if  it  be  day  when  Pulo  Euig  or  Ragged  Island  ia 
seen,  keep  it  westward  of  N.W.,  and  it  will  lead  eastward  of  these  shoals. 
When  abreast  of  Pulo  Panjang,  and  in  soundings  of  24  or  25  fathoms  water, 
a  N.W.  or  N.W.  by  W.  course,  according  to  tide,  will  lead  to  the  entrance 
of  Singapore  Strait. 

The  Inner  Route,  by  the  Strait  of  Rhio,  will  be  noticed  in  connection 
with  the  description  of  the  coast  of  the  strait  hereafter  given,  as  the  various 
marks,  &c.,  will  be  best  understood  by  referring  to  those  descriptions. 

Vessels  bound  from  Banka  Strait  to  Singapore  during  the  strength  of  the 
N.E.  monsoon  frequently  adopt  the  Inner  Route  by  the  Varella  and  Durian 
Straits.  During  the  prevalence  of  strong  northerly  winds  in  the  months  of 
December  and  January,  sailing  vessels  will  save  much  time  by  doing  so,  for 
here  they  will  have  smooth  water,  good  anchorage,  and  but  little  tide, 
whereas  on  the  eastern  side  of  Linga,  at  this  season  of  the  year,  there  ia 
generally  a  heavy  sea,  and  a  southerly  current  sometimes  running  at  the  rate 
of  3  knots  an  hour.  In  Yarella  Strait  they  will  also  be  greatly  assisted  by 
the  squalls  from  the  Sumatra  coast. 

Varella,  or  Brahalla  Strait,  is  situated  at  the  southern  part  of  this  route, 
and  Durian  Strait  at  its  northern  part ;  the  intermediate  portion  has  not 
received  a  specific  denomination.  The  entire  route  is  about  120  miles  in 
length  from  Pulo  Varella  to  the  Carimon  Islands,  and  is  bounded  on  the 
western  side  by  the  coast  of  Sumatra,  False  Durian,  Sabon,  and  the  con- 
tiguous islands ;  and  on  the  eastern  side  by  Sinkep  and  the  other  islands  off 
the  South  and  West  coasts  of  Linga,  and  by  Great  and  Little  Durian,  and 
the  adjacent  islands. 

The  Strait  of  Malacca  and  Strait  of  Singapore,  and  their  navigation, 
will  be  also  described  in  subsequent  pages. 


In  South-west  Monsoon. — When  June  approaches,  and  the  S.W.  mon- 
soon is  set  regularly  in,  the  track  from  Singapore  to  China  by  the  main 
route^  eastward  of  Pulo  Sapatu  and  over  Macclesfield  Bank,  is  preferable, 
the  winds  being  more  steady  in  the  open  sea  than  near  the  coast.  About 
full  and  change  of  the  moon,  and  as  early  as  April,  a  westerly  breeze  will 
sometimes  be  found  blowing  out  of  the  Gulf  of  Siam  to  carry  a  vessel 
to  Macclesfield  Bank,  and  afterwards  easterly  winds  to  run  her  to  Hong 


Thia  route  becomes  precarious  if  a  sailing  vessel  is  not  up  with  Pulo 
Sapatu  early  in  October  ;  for  near  this  island,  about  the  middle  of  that 
mouth,  strong  southerly  currents  begin  to  prevail  with  light  northerly  winds, 
variable  airs,  and  calms,  by  which  many  vessels  have  been  delayed  lor 
several  days,  and  have  made  no  progress  to  the  northward.  Fresh  winds 
from  the  southward  have  been  met  with,  even  so  late  as  1st  of  November, 
but  these  instances  are  rare. 

Some  vessels  proceeding  by  the  main  route  have  carried  strong  S.W.  and 
southerly  winds,  when  others  taking  the  inner  route  have  at  the  same  time 
experienced  N.W.  and  westerly  gales  blowing  out  of  the  Gulf  of  Tong  King, 
with  dark  weather  and  rain,  and  have  been  in  danger  of  being  driven  among 
the  Paracel  Eeefs ;  the  inner  route  ought,  however,  to  be  chosen  in  the 
strength  of  the  S.W.  monsoon  if  the  vessel  is  weak  and  making  much  water, 
for  the  sea  will  be  smooth,  and  being  near  the  land  she  may  reach  an  an- 
chorage if  required.  The  gales  out  of  the  gulf  are  not  frequent,  and  the  land 
may  be  kept  in  sight  nearly  all  the  time. 

Taking  the  inner  route,  steer  from  Pulo  Aor  along  the  coast  to  the  Eedang 
Islands,  thence  across  the  Gulf  of  Siam,  and  along  the  coasts  of  Cambodia 
and  Cochin  China,  keeping  the  latter  aboard  to  Cape  Touron.  From  thence 
Bteer  for  the  S.W.  part  of  Hainan,  coasting  along  this  island,  and  passing 
between  it  and  the  Taya  Islands ;  then  cross  over  to  make  the  coast  of 
China  about  Tien-pak,  or  Hailing  Island.  The  islands  from  thence  to 
Hong  Kong  may  be  coasted  along  at  discretion,  or  shelter  may  be  found 
amongst  them  on  an  emergency.  If  this  route  is  taken  before  the  middle  of 
March  or  1st  of  April,  the  passage  will  be  tedious  unless  the  vessel  is  a 

good  sailer. 

Bound  to  Hong  Kong  in  the  strength  of  the  S.W.  monsoon,  with  the  wind 
steady  between  S.E.  and  S.W.,  endeavour  to  make  the  Great  Ladrone  Island 
bearing  about  North,  then  steer  between  it  and  the  Kypong  Islands,  and 
between  Lingting  and  the  Lema  Islands,  for  the  West  Lamma  Channel. 
After  the  middle  of  August,  when  easterly  winds  are  likely  to  prevail  seve- 
ral days  together,  as  they  are  more  or  less  at  all  seasons,  it  will  be  necessary 
to  make  the  N.E.  head  of  the  Lema  Islands,  and  proceed  in  by  the  Lema 
Channel,  towards  the  West  Lamma  Channel.  The  East  Lamma  Channel  is 
also  safe  in  both  monsoons,  for  although  the  water  is  deep,  if  the  wind  falls 
light  it  is  safe  to  anchor  in,  and  there  is  little  or  no  tide. 

In  North-east  Monsoon.  — Sailing  vessels  leaving  Singapore  for  China  in 
February,  March,  and  part  of  April,  may  expect  a  tedious  beating  passage, 
if  they  adopt  the  main  route.  In  March,  April,  or  May,  they  can  proceed 
by  the  inner  route  along  the  Coast  of  Cochin  China,  which  is  generally  the 
most  expeditious  route  in  these  months. 

The  passage  to  China  by  the  coasts  of  Palawan  and  Luzon  may  be  fol- 
lowed late  in  the  S.W.  monsoon ;  without  much  difElculty  in  October  and 


November ;  and  it  is  now  often  made  in  December,  January,  and  at  every 
period  of  the  N.E.  mcnsoou.* 

In  December,  January,  and  February,!  sailing  vessels  should  not  leave 
the  entrance  of  Singapore  Strait,  in  strong  N.E.  winds,  but  anchor  on  the 
northern  shore,  under  the  Water  Islands,  in  9  or  10  fathoms.  In  those 
months  gales  often  occur  at  new  and  full  moon  ;  the  weather  is  then  thick, 
the  rain  lasting  two  or  three  days,  and  the  current  outside  accelerates  to  the 
S.S.E.  ^  E.  from  2^  to  3  knots  an  hour.  A  vessel  leaving  the  strait  then, 
instead  of  fetching  St.  Barbe  Island,  would  fall  bodily  to  leeward,  and  have 
to  work  up  the  West  coast  of  Borneo.  Fine  weather  follows,  the  wind 
backing  round  to  North  and  N.  W.  ;  the  current  in  the  offing  decreasing  in 
strength  to  about  1  i  knot. 

Leave  the  Water  Islands  with  the  first  of  the  ebb,  and  keep  clean  full. 
Stand  to  the  north-eastward  to  go  through  the  channel  between  Subi  Island 
and  the  Great  Natuna ;  a  passage  that  may  without  much  difficulty  be 
made,  in  these  months  especially,  at  full  and  change,  when  the  wind,  after 

•  It  was  formerly  the  general  custom  for  the  clipper  vessels  employed  in  the  opiuni 
trade  hetween  India  and  China  to  beat  up  the  middle  of  the  China  Sea  in  the  strength  of 
the  N.E.  monsoon,  keeping  as  close  to  the  western  edges  of  the  reefs  as  possible,  where 
the  current  was  found  to  be  generally  in  their  favour.  Many  commanders  who  have  been 
accustomed  to  make  their  passages  in  that  way  are  strongly  of  opinion  that  it  is  the  best 
route  for  vessels  later  in  the  season  than  the  month  of  November,  whilst  others  who  have 
been  accustomed  to  proceed  by  the  Palawan  have  just  as  strong  opinions  in  favour  of  that 
route.  The  following  remarks  of  Mr.  T.  B.  White,  who  was  for  many  years  in  command 
of  clipper  vessels  engaged  in  the  opium  trade,  appear  to  be  exceedingly  valuable,  inasmuch 
as  thej'  furnish  a  balanced  opinion  on  the  respective  advantages  of  these  routes.  He  says : 
"  I  am  sorry  I  cannot  say  much  from  experience  in  oeating  up  the  Palawan  in  a  sailing 
vessel,  for  during  the  entire  period  of  my  command  of  the  Lanrick  I  never  once  went  that 
way,  but  always  along  the  western  edges  of  the  shoals.  I  am,  however,  now  quite  certain 
that  I  should  have  often  made  much  quicker  passages,  and  saved  much  wear  and  tear,  by 
going  up  the  Palawan.  In  the  Fiery  Cross,  although  a  powerful  steamer,  I  found  it  pre- 
ferable to  take  the  Palawan,  and  always  did  so  during  the  strength  of  the  N.E.  monsoon 
(November  to  February),  saving  fuel  and  wear  and  tear  ;  and,  though  a  longer  route,  mads 
better  passages  by  getting  smooth  water  and  often  favourable  currents.  I  believe  nearly 
all  heavily  laden  ships  now  take  the  Palawan  from  October  until  the  end  of  February  in 
preference  to  the  outer  passage,  and  a  current  to  the  north-eastward  is  generally  felt  the 
nearer  the  Borneo  coast  is  kept  aboard,  and  usually  the  weather  is  moderate,  with  a  rolling 
beam  swell  on  ;  at  l^ast  that  has  been  m.y  experience  when  going  up  in  the  steamer,  Mr. 
Eeynell,  in  the  clipper  Waterwitch,  usually  took  the  Palawan  in  the  N.E.  monsoon,  and 
made  some  very  good  passages.  Now  that  it  is  so  thoroughly  well  surveyed,  I  consider  it 
quite  as  safe  as  the  outer  passage." 

t  These  directions  (as  far  eastward  as  the  Natuna  Islands)  apply  with  equal  force  to 
vessels  bound  either  to  the  Gulf  of  Siam  or  the  River  Saigon.  They  have  been  compiled 
chiefly  from  "  Sailing  Directions  between  Singapore  and  the  River  Saigon,  by  Mr.  A.  J. 
LoituR,  commanding  the  ship  Kensington,"  by  Commander  J.  W.  King,  E.N. 

I.   A.  t 


a  few  hours'  calm,  frequently  hauls  to  the  westward  with  squalls  and  rain, 
and  then  veers  round  to  S.W.  and  South,  blowing  moderately  for  2^  hours. 

By  taking  avantage  of  these  slants,  Subi  may  be  easily  weatliered,  and 
the  intricate  channels  between  it  and  the  N.W.  coast  of  Borneo  avoided. 
After  fetching  Low  Island,  in  long.  107°  48'  E.,  if  the  wind  continues 
easterly,  take  the  starboard  tack  to  the  northward,  passing  westward  of 
Low  Island,  keeping  not  less  than  3  miles  from  the  south-western  side,  to 
avoid  the  shoal  water  as  far  as  2  miles  from  its  shore.  Q-ive  Haycock  a 
berth  of  3  or  4  miles  in  passing,  as  the  coral  shoal  about  that  island  extends 
fully  3  miles  from  its  S.W.  side.  Large  ships  should  not  pass  eastward  of 
Haycock  at  night,  as  this  locality  is  said  to  have  hidden  danger. 

Alter  passing  Haycock  there  will  be  no  difficulty  in  working  up  to  the 
S.E.  point  of  the  Great  Natuna,  as  that  island,  when  approaching  it  from  the 
S.W.,  shelters  against  the  strong  N.E.  current  of  the  monsoon.  Off  its 
southern  shore  at  night,  in  fine  weather,  the  wind  is  ofi"  the  land,  which 
should  not  be  appi'oached  nearer  than  2  or  3  miles  without  a  good  breeze,  as 
the  water  is  deep  close  in-shore,  and  no  good  anchorage. 

Vessels  fetching  to  leeward  of  Subi  with  a  northerly  wind  should  take  the 
Koti  Passa'2;e,  between  Pulo  Panjung  and  Sirhassen  Island.  The  Sirhassen 
Passage  is  also  a  good  channel,  and  quite  safe  when  the  South  side  of 
Sirhassen  Island  is  kept  aboard.  The  currents  among  these  islands  are 
more  regular ;  but  not  so  in  the  Api  Passage,  where  they  set  in  various 
directions,  and  with  great  velocity  to  the  S.W.  from  16  to  19  hours  at  a  time  ; 
for  large  ships  any  of  the  other  passages  are  preferable  to  this,  for  great 
caution  and  perseverance  are  requisite  in  working  through,  as  the  Borneo 
coast  in  from  10  to  11  fathoms  water  must  be  kept  aboard  to  avoid  the  cur- 
rent and  profit  by  the  land  winds.* 

In  taking  the  Koti  Passage,  give  Pulo  Panjung  a  good  berth  to  avoid  the 

*  For  steam  vessels  (especially  those  of  small  power)  proceeding;  to  China  by  the  Palawan 
passage  against  the  N.E.  monsoon,  the  route  by  the  Api  Passage  and  the  coast  of  Borneo 
presents  the  following  advantages  :  hrst,  light,  variable  winds  and  smooth  water  will  often 
be  found  close  to  the  Borneo  coast,  when  a  strong  monsoon  is  blowing  a  hundred  miles  off 
it ;  and  next  the  Api  passage  route  affords  convenient  landmarks  to  lead  a  vessel  safely  and 
expeditiously  to  the  entrance  of  the  Palawan ;  whereas  by  the  ordinary  route  much  diffi- 
culty and  delay  frequently  occurs  in  making  Low  Island,  and  in  passing  between  the  Royal 
Charlotte  and  Louisa  iShoals. 

Steamers  leaving  Singapore  should  pass  southward  of  Victory  Island,  then  steer  to  sight 
the  small  island  of  St.  Pierre  (carefully  observing  and  allowing  lor  the  set  of  the  current), 
and  afterwards  for  the  Api  Passage,  keeping  over  towards  Marundiim  Island  rather  than 
Api  Point.  Ha\'ing  passed  Marundum  and  Data  Point,  the  course  is  cl^ar  up  to  the  en- 
trance of  the  Palawan,  passing  between  the  South  Luconia  shoals  and  Barram  Point,  and 
keeping  as  close  to  the  Borneo  coast  until  abreast  of  that  point  as  circumstances  may  make 
convenient.— Navigating-Lieutenant  J.  W.  Reed,  commanding  Her  Majesty's  surveying 
vessel  Itifleman,  1866. 


dangerous  reef  wliich  suirouudB  it.  The  winds  amongsst  these  islands,  aud 
as  far  eastward  as  the  meiidian  of  Cape  iSirik,  are  generally  from  Nurth  to 
N.N.W.  The  passage  cleared,  proceed  to  the  north-eastward;  endeavour- 
ing, if  not  ct-rtaiu  oi  the  longitude,  to  make  the  Royal  Charlotte  or  Louisa 
IStioal,  whichever  is  the  weathermost,  by  running  on  its  parallel  of  latitude ; 
and  as  the  currents  appear  to  be  influenced  by  the  prevailing  winds,  vessels 
sduuld  bt;  prepared  to  anticipate  a  set  in  the  direction  in  which  it  is  blowing, 
tiie  velocity  of  the  current  being  proportionate  to  the  force  of  the  wind. 

Having  made  either  the  Royal  Churlotte  or  Lcjuisa  Shoals,  on  passing 
mid-channel  between  them,  steer  E.  by  N.  100  miles,  aud  then  about  N.E. 
for  lat.  8°  N.,  long.  116°  15'  E.,  when  Balabac  Peak  will  probably  be  seen 
bearing  about  east-southerly,  and  making  like  a  r.ither  flat-topped  island, 
with  a  small  peak  rising  in  the  centre ;  when  about  40  miles  distant  from  the 
island,  the  low  hills  may  be  seen  on  either  side  of  the  peak,  having  at  first 
the  appearance  of  detached  islands. 

Having  brought  Balabac  Peak  to  bear  about  E.S.E.  at  the  above  distance, 
a  N.N.E.  f  E.  course  should  be  steered,  when  the  high  land  of  Bulanhow 
will  soon  be  discernible,  bearing  about  N.E.  by  E.  f  E.  This  course  should 
lead  about  6  miles  eastward  of  the  reported  Roger  Breakers,  10  miles  west- 
ward of  the  elbow  of  the  bank  of  soundings  fronting  Palawan  Island,  and 
midway  between  the  Ro_)al  CapiHUi  Shoal  and  the  edge  of  the  bank  (the 
most  dangerous  part  of  the  channel).  When  Bulanhow  Mountain  bears  fcj.E. 
by  E.  I  E.  the  vessel  will  be  in  line  with  it  and  the  Royal  Oiptain  Shoal,  and 
in  the  narrowest  part  of  the  channel,  which  is  27f  miles  wide,  and  the  high 
land  of  Alantaleengaliau  will  then  bear  E.  i  S. 

If  the  wind  be  well  to  the  southward,  and  the  weather  thick,  Balabac 
Island  may  be  approached  nearer,  in  order  to  get  well  hold  of  the  land,  but 
extreme  caution  sliould  be  taken  not  to  go  within  12  miles  of  it,  as  sound- 
ings of  26  and  20  fathoms  extend  that  distance  off,  in  a  westerly  direction 
from  the  peak,  having  shoal  patches  immediately  inside  them. 

If  the  wind  be  to  the  westward,  with  thick  cloudy  weather,  Balabac 
Island  should  nut  be  approached  nearer  than  36  miles,  for  these  winds 
usually  force  a  strong  current  tiirough  the  straits  to  the  eastward,  and  when 
off  the  S.W.  end  of  PaLiwau,  it  is  not  unusual  for  them,  particularly  in 
squalls,  to  veer  to  W.N.W.,  and  sometimes  N.W.,  blowing  with  great 
violence,  aud  placing  the  vessel  on  a  lee  shore  with  respect  to  the  shoals 
inside  the  ed^e  of  the  bank.  It  generally  so  happens,  that  about  the  time, 
September  and  October,  when  vessels  adopt  the  i'alawan  route,  this  weather 
prevails  off  the  S.W.  end  of  Palawan,  rendering  it  uncertain  and  uiffivuit 
to  hit  the  narrowest  part  \>f  the  channel,  owing  to  the  laud  being  ob- 
scured, especially  if  neither  the  Royal  Charlotte  nor  the  Louisa  Shoal  has 
been  made,  aud  the  longitude  corrected. 

Uuder  these  circumstances,  it  is  advisable  to  advance  with  caution,  regu- 


lating  the  speed  of  the  vessel  so  as  to  be  in  the  fairway,  viz.,  lat.  8°  N.,  long. 
116°  15' E.,  for  making  the  channel  at  daylight.  Horsburgh  recommends 
lat.  8°  30'  N.,  and  long.  116°  30'  E.,  but  this  may  be  running  too  close  at 
night,  unless  confident  of  the  accuracy  of  the  reckoning. 

If  not  certain  of  the  vessel's  position,  endeavour  to  get  soundings  on  the 
edge  of  the  bank  to  the  north-westward  of  Balabac  Island,  and  the  safest 
part  to  approach  for  this  purpose  is  that  about  the  elbow,  on  the  parallel  of 
8°  30°  N.,  or  immediately  to  the  southward  of  it,  for  it  is  believed  the  portion 
of  the  bank  whicli  is  embraced  by  the  bearings  of  Balabac  Peak,  S.E.  by 
E.  ^  E.  and  S.S.E.,  comprising  a  distance  of  25  miles,  is  free  from  danger. 
If  the  peak  be  obscured,  the  same  bearings  of  the  body  of  the  island  will, 
if  taken  with  care,  answer.  Or  should  the  North  extreme  of  the  island  be 
discernible  (showing  like  a  hillock,  with  a  low  double  hill  to  the  southward), 
the  part  of  no  danger  will  be  included  within  the  lines  of  bearing  of  it,  East 
and  S.S.E.  |  E. 

During  the  period  in  which  the  Eoyalist  was  engaged  upon  this  survey, 
experience  led  to  the  belief  that  in  the  thickest  weather  the  land  is  seldom 
totally  obscured  for  any  length  of  time. 

Having  obtained  soundings,  which  will  be  about  90  fathoms,  if  close  to 
the  edge  of  the  bank,  and  from  45  to  55  fathoms,  sand,  if  inside,  haul  off  to 
the  north-westward,  to  give  the  edge  a  berth  of  about  10  miles,  then  steer 
the  channel  course  N.N.E.  f  E.  When  Bulanhow  Mountain  bears  eastward 
of  E.  by  N.  ^  N.,  the  elbow  has  been  passed,  and  the  bank  then  trends 
N.E.  by  N.  It  is  between  the  elbow  and  the  parallel  of  9°  15'  N.  (a  distance 
of  60  miles)  on  the  East,  and  the  Half  Moon,  Eoyal  Captain,  and  Bombay 
Shoals  on  the  West,  that  the  most  dangerous  part  of  the  Passage  lies. 

When  Montaleengahan  Mountain  bears  S.E.  ^  E.,  or  the  Pagoda  Cliff, 
(generally  seen  when  the  more  elevated  land  is  obscured),  S.E.  ^  S.,  the  vessel 
will  be  on  the  line  of  the  Bombay  Shoal,  where  the  channel  is  28  miles  broad. 

Having  passed  the  Bombay  Shoal,  abreast  of  which  the  bank  trends  N.E. 
^  N.,  steer  a  course  parallel  with  its  edge,  preserving  a  distance  of  8  or  12 
miles  from  it,  and  27  or  30  miles  from  the  land,  or  nearer,  if  convenient,  and 
the  peaks  on  Palawan  are  sufficiently  distinct  to  get  good  cross  bearings. 
It  is,  however,  not  desirable  to  get  too  close,  as  the  edge  of  the  bank  in 
about  the  parallels  of  9°  30'  and  10°  N.,  is  not  uniform  in  its  outline,  and 
several  rocky  patches  lie  within  a  mile,  and  in  some  places  only  3  cables* 
lengths  from  the  100  fathoms  line. 

This  N.E.  A  N.  course,  edging  a  little  more  to  the  northward  when  abreast 
of  Ulugan  Bay,  where  the  bank  extends  28  miles  from  the  shore,  will  take 
a  vessel  through  the  passage  clear  of  every  known  danger. 

Vessels  working  through  the  Palawan  Passage,  having  conformed  to  the 
directions  given  for  making  the  S.W.  end  of  Palawan,  should,  in  fine 
weather,  endeavour  to  make  their  inshore  boards  in  the  afternoon,  for  the 


8un  then  being  astern  of  the  vessel,  the  patches  lying  near  the  edge  of  the 
bank  will  generally  be  distinguished  from  the  mast-head  in  ample  time  to 
tack  off.  In  squally  weather,  also,  during  heavy  rains,  these  patches  have 
been  observed  imparting  a  yellowish  hue  to  the  surface  of  the  water. 

It  is  almost  needless  to  remind  the  seaman  (when  the  land  is  obscured) 
of  the  desirableness  of  getting  hold  of  the  edge  of  the  bank  before  dark,  in 
order  that  he  may  have  a  good  departure  for  the  night ;  and  on  making 
his  inshore  board,  it  must  also  be  borne  in  mind,  that  the  probability  of 
coming  suddenly  into  soundings  is  great,  as  the  approach  on  this  tack  will 
generally  be  at  right  angles  to  the  edge  of  the  bank.  He  should  therefore 
be  prepared  to  go  round  immediately  on  getting  indication  of  soundings. 

Proceeding  northerly  from  the  Palawan  Passage,  it  is  customary  to  beat 
up  the  West  coast  of  Luzon  to  Piedra  Point,  and  thence  direct  for  Macao  or 
Hong  Kong,  passing  leeward  of  the  Pratas.  But  if  bound  to  any  of  the 
ports  northward,  much  time  might  be  saved  by  passing  along  the  eastern 
coast  of  Formosa,  thereby  avoiding  the  heavy  labour,  wear,  and  loss  of  time, 
by  the  attempt  to  work  against  the  monsoon  along  the  coast  of  China,  which 
even  a  clipper  sometimes  fails  in  effecting. 

In  working  along  the  Luzon  coast,  particularly  about  dawn  or  sunset, 
less  sea,  and  much  lighter  winds,  and  at  times  even  land  breezes  will  be  ex- 
perienced by  hugging  the  coast  by  short  boards ;  but  great  caution  should 
be  observed,  particularly  between  Piedra  Point  and  Cape  Bojeador,  as 
several  coastline  dangers  do  not  find  a  place  in  the  charts. 

The  first  strong  gust  of  the  monsoon  will  be  experienced  on  clearing 
Cape  Bojeador,  but  this  should  not  induce  the  navigator  to  stand  further 
westward  than  will  enable  him  to  make  his  eastern  stretch  to  weather  it, 
when  he  will  at  once  experience  less  wind.  This  generally  is  the  case  on  all 
lee  shores  backed  by  mountains,  either  resulting  from  obstruction,  reaction, 
or  the  effect  probably,  after  sunset,  of  counteracting  land  winds.  Among 
the  groups  northward  of  Luzon  there  are  no  dangers  which  are  not  easily 
avoided,  and  no  continuous  strong  breezes  will  be  experienced,  at  all  com- 
parable in  force,  or  attended  by  high  sea,  similar  to  those  which  prevail 
between  Piedra  Point  and  Hong  Kong.  On  the  contrary,  good  working 
breezes,  and  at  times  light  winds  prevail,  enabling  a  sailing  vessel  of  mode- 
rate speed  to  make  the  range  of  6  degrees  northing  in  8  days.  Typhoons 
are  likely  to  happen  in  both  monsoons  between  the  North  coast  of  Luzon 
and  Formosa. 


In  North-east  Monsoon. — Ships  bound  from  China  to  Singapore,  or  to 
the  Straits  of  Gaspar  and  Banka,  should  in  March  and  April  adopt  the  main 
route  by  the  Macclesfield  Bank,  which  is  the  most    expeditious  in  thesa 


months,  keeping  to  the  eastward  on  leaving  the  China  Coast ;  and  also  in 
passing  Pulo  Sapatu  they  ought  to  borrow  to  the  eastward  towards  the 
fihoals,  where  the  winds  are  more  favourable  in  these  months  than  farther 
to  the  westward.  In  April,  the  Vansittart,  by  keeping  about  3  degrees  more 
to  the  eastward  than  the  Herefordshire,  made  as  much  progress  in  one  day  as 
the  latter  did  in  ten.*  At  all  other  times,  the  inner  route  by  the  coast  of 
Cochin  China  seems  preferable ;  for  it  is  the  shorter,  and  the  ease  afforded 
to  ships  by  steering  from  the  Grand  Ladrone  immediately  before  the  wind, 
when  blowing  strong  at  N.E.,  is  a  great  advantage  ;  whereas,  by  the  main 
route,  a  S.S.E.  course  is  shaped  for  the  Macclesfield  Bank,  often  bringing 
the  wind  and  sea  before  the  beam,  which  strains  a  deeply-laden  ship.  Many 
have  strained  so  much,  that,  in  order  to  gain  upon  the  pumps,  they  were 
forced  to  bear  away  for  the  inner  ro)ite  ;  others,  by  persevering  in  the  main 
route,  have  laboured  excessively,  and  some  of  them  at  last  foundered  with 
their  crews.  Some  of  the  ships  which,  after  leaving  China,  have  been 
missing,  have  probably  suffered  from  the  same  cause.  Had  those  ships,  on 
leaving  Canton  River,  steered  S.S.W.  h  W.  or  S.S.W.  I  W.,  the  direct 
course  for  the  inner  route,  they  probably  would  not  have  strained  in  the 
least,  but  have  reached  their  ports  of  destination  in  safety. 

Vessels  may,  according  to  circumstances,  pass  either  to  the  eastward  or 
westward  of  the  Catwick  Islands  and  Pulo  Ceicer  de  Mer,  or  thin^ugh  any 
of  the  channels  between  them ;  but  since  the  Rawson  Shoal  is  known  to 
have  no  existence,  it  would  seem  advisable,  in  thick  weather,  to  pass  20  or 
30  miles  eastward  of  Pulo  Sapatu,  especially  at  night :  from  thence,  passing 
westward  of  the  Charlotte  Bank  and  the  Anamba  Islands,  steer  to  make 
Pulo  Aor. 

Should  the  weather  be  thick,  and  a  fresh  breeze  blowing,  when  near  Pulo 
Aor,  round  to  under  its  lee,  and  wait  a  convenient  time  to  bear  up  for  the 

*  Captain  Stephens  says : — "  Vessels  leaving  the  coast  of  China  or  Manilla,  and  bound 
towards  Sunda  Strait,  in  March,  April,  or  in  the  early  part  of  May,  may  expect  a  tedious 
passage  down  the  China  Sea  if  proceeding  by  the  old  route  which  passes  Pulo  Sapatu,  par- 
ticularly if  they  do  not  sail  before  the  5th  or  10th  of  April.  Whereas,  if  the  track  be  taken 
alono-  the  coast  of  Luzon,  down  the  Palawan  Passage,  along  the  coast  of  Borneo,  past 
Direction  Island,  round  Soruetou,  and  through  the  Carimata  Strait,  passing  close  round  the 
North  Watcher,  and  on  for  St.  Nicholas  Point  on  Java,  they  are  likely  to  carry  easterly 
winds,  with  fine  weather  and  a  smooth  sea,  the  whole  distance,  thus  making  a  direct  course, 
and  will  avoid  calms.  The  current  will  also  be  more  favourable  than  otherwise  until  May 
is  well  advanced.  To  prove  the  advantages  of  the  eastern  route,  it  may  be  stated,  that  in 
April,  1861,  two  American  ships  sailed  fram  Fu-chau-fu;  one  proceeded  by  Pulo  Sapatu  on 
the  West  side  of  the  China  Sea,  the  other  by  the  Palawan  Passage  and  Carimata  Strait ;  the 
letter  ship  passed  Anjer  twenty  days  before  the  other.  The  Harkaway,  on  her  passage  in 
Aonl  and  May,  1862,  carried  an  easterly  wind  the  whole  way  down,  and  had  no  occasion  to 


strait.*  The  current  between  tliis  island  and  the  East  point  of  Bintang  sets 
about  S.S.E.,  by  which  it  often  happens  that  vessels  leaving  Pulo  Aor  steer 
too  much  southerly,  and  are  swept  with  the  current  and  the  ebb  tide  coming 
out  of  the  strait,  so  far  to  leeward  of  Bintang,  that  they  have  been  obliged 
to  proceed  round  it,  and  come  up  through  Rliio  Strait, 

In  March,  during  the  latter  part  of  this  munsoon,  the  winds  are  steady 
from  the  eastward,  the  weather  settled,  and  the  current  weak.  In  April  the 
prevailing  winds  are  also  from  the  eastward,  and  are  much  lighter  and  ac- 
companied with  calms  and  squally  weather  ;  from  the  latter  end  of  this  mouth 
to  about  the  middle  of  May  the  monsoon  gradually  breaks  up. 
In  South- West  Moxsoox.— Captain  Blake,  of  H.M.S.  Lame,  remarks: — 
Although  formerly  considered  impracticable,  it  is  now  a  common  practice 
for  ships  to  work  down  the  China  Sea  at  all  periods  of  the  S.  W.  monsoon. 
After  leaving  Hong  Kong,  the  usual  course  is  to  stand  towards  Hainan, 
which  will  be  often  fetched  without  tacking,  as  the  wind  frec^uently  blows 
for  days  together  from  the  S.E.  or  eastward  in  that  part  of  the  China  Sea ; 
from  thence  across  the  Gulf  of  Tong  King  to  the  Cochin  China  coast. 
Land  and  sea  breezes  and  smooth  water  generally  prevail  close  to  that  coast, 
for  which  reason  it  is  usual  to  work  down  as  close  to  the  shore  as  possible, 
taking  advantage  of  every  slant  of  wind,  but  being  careful  not  to  get  too  far 
off  the  land.  It  is  sometimes  possible  to  get  as  far  to  the  southward  as  Cape 
Padaran  in  this  way,  but  generally  after  passing  Cape  Yarela  the  monsoon 
is  found  blowing  very  fresh,  with  frequent  hard  squalls  out  of  the  Gulf  of 
Siam,  rendering  it  impassible  for  a  ship  to  do  much  to  windward.  From 
Cape  Varela,  or  from  Cape  Padaran,  if  a  vessel  has  been  able  to  fetch  it, 
stretch  away  to  the  southward — making  a  tack,  if  necessary,  to  weather  the 
Arest  London  or  other  shoals — till  the  coast  of  Borneo  is  reached,  along 
which  work,  and  pass  out  through  any  of  the  South  Natuna  channels.  Stand 
across  to  Singapore,  keeping  well  to  the  southward  before  closing  Bintang, 
to  be  sure  of  your  landfall,  as  the  currents  run  very  strong,  sometimes  2 
miles  an  hour  to  the  northward. 

In  Noeth-East  Monsoon. — Sailing  vessels  bound  from  Singapore  to  the 
Gulf  of  Siam  in  the  N.E.  monsoon  generally  pass  eastward  of  the  Natuna 
Islands.  Smart  sailing  vessels  proceed  between  the  Anamba  and  Natuna 
Islands,  and  endeavour  to  make  Pulo  Obi  ;  they  then  steer  for  Pulo  Dama, 
if  bound  to  Kamput,  in  the  Gulf  of  Siam  ;  or  outside  Pulo  Panjang  and  Pulo 
Way,  direct  for  Cape  Liant,  if  bound  to  Bangkok.  In  February  and  March 
it  frequently  happens  that  vessels  fall  in  with  an  easterly  wind  off  Pulo  Aor 
that  takes  them  right  up  to  Pulo  Obi. —  Captain  Loftus. 

*  Since  the  edtablishment  of  the  Horsburg  light  on  Pedra  Branca,  there  is  really  now 
no  difiBculty  in  making  Singapore  Strait  at  any  time,  with  proper  attention. 


The  directions  given  on  page  55  for  proceeding  from  Singapore  to  Hong 
Kong  apply  also  to  vessels  bound  to  the  Gulf  of  Siam  or  to  Saigon,  until 
they  have  arrived  to  the  eastward  of  the  Natuna  Islands,  either  by  passing 
between  the  Great  and  South  Natuna,  or  by  the  Koti  Passage,  when— 

Jf  hound  to  the  Gulf  of  Siam,  proceed  to  the  north-eastward  to  about  long. 
11  Tor  112°  E.,  which  can  easily  be  done,  as  the  wind  here  is  invariably 
from  North  to  N.N.W.  as  far  as  the  meridian  of  Cape  Sirik,  when  it  gene- 
rally hauls  to  the  north-eastward  ;  then  with  a  full  sail  stand  on  the  star- 
board tack  towards  Pulo  Obi.  Little  or  no  current  will  be  experienced  until 
lat.  6°  or  7°  N.  is  gained  ;  when  it  will  be  found  setting  strong  to  the  S.W., 
governed  considerably  by  the  prevailing  winds. 

In  April  and  May  the  best  passages  to  the  gulf  are  made  by  keeping  the 
Malay  coast  aboard  ;  but  expect  squalls,  calms,  and  rain.  The  current  will 
also  begin  to  set  weakly  to  the  N.E. — Lieut.  J.  Richards,  R.N. 

If  bound  to  Saigon,  proceed  to  the  north-eastward  to  about  112°  E.,  when 
stand  over  with  a  full  sail  on  the  starboard  tack,  to  make  Cape  Tiwane. 
From  lat.  7°  N.  until  the  mouths  of  the  Cambodia  Rivers  bear  West,  distant 
about  70  miles,  strong  currents  will  be  found  setting  to  the  S.W.,  governed 
considerably  by  the  prevailing  winds,  for  when  strong  gales  blow  in  the 
early  part  of  this  monsoon,  the  south-westerly  current  is  stronger,  and  often 
runs  3  knots  an  hour.  The  tides  are  regular,  and  set  pretty  strong  in-shore 
on  the  Cochin  China  coast  during  both  monsoons. 

In  the  latter  part  of  March  and  April  an  easterly  wind  is  often  found  to 
the  eastward  of  the  Anamba  Islands,  that  will  take  a  ship  to  the  Brothers, 
W.  by  S.,  about  24  miles  from  Pulo  Condore ;  and  afterwards  she  may  work 
up  to  Cape  St.  James  inside  that  island,  keeping  close  to  the  Cambodia  coast, 
which  is  very  low,  and  can  seldom  be  seen  at  night. 

After  opening  out  the  mouths  of  the  Cambodia  Eivers,  strong  ebbs  will  be 
found  setting  to  windward,  greatly  assisting  ships  on  tlie  in-shore  tack ;  but 
they  should  not  stand  near  these  mouths  during  the  flood  tide,  and  on  no 
account  shoal  the  water  to  less  than  12  fathoms  in  the  night.  The  lead 
should  never  be  neglected  when  standing  towards  this  low  land,  which  may 
be  seen  about  10  miles  oflP  on  a  fine  clear  day. 

N.E.  and  N.N.E.  gales  often  blow  in  the  latitude  of  Pulo  Sapatu,  and 
between  it  and  the  Cochin  China  coast,  in  December,  January,  February, 
and  sometimes  March.  They  continue  for  two  or  three  days  with  a  heavy 
sea  and  strong  current.  A  gradual  rise  in  the  barometer  is  a  sure  indication 
of  one  of  these  gales  ;  while  at  their  height  the  mercury  fluctuates  about  ,'o*o  of 
an  inch  during  the  twenty-four  hours,  and  commences  falling  before  the  gale 
is  over,  the  sky  being  generally  thick  and  hazy  throughout. 

After  sighting  the  land,  the  vessel  should  gain  the  meridian  of  Cape  St. 
James  in  one  of  these  gales,  bear  up  for  Pulo  Condore,  and  anchor  either  iu 


the  Great  Bay,  or  in  Pulo  Condore  Harbour,  where  good  shelter  will  be 
found  ;  otherwise  the  vessel  will  be  drifted  to  leeward  of  that  island,  and 
require  several  days  to  beat  back  to  regain  her  former  position. 

In  Sotjth-west  Monsoon. — In  this  monsoon  the  winds  prevail  between 
S.E.  and  "West  in  Singapore  Strait,  and  vessels  will  have  no  difficulty  in 
sailing  through  to  the  eastward. 

If  bound  to  the  Gulf  of  Siam,  having  cleared  Singapore  Strait,  shape  a 
course  to  make  the  Redang  Islands ;  and  from  thence  keep  the  western  shore 
of  the  gulf  aboard,  passing  inside  Puly  Lozin  and  Koh  Krah. 

If  bound  to  Saigon,  steer  to  pass  to  the  westward  of  Pulo  Condore,  mak- 
ing allowance  for  a  current  setting  out  of  the  Gulf  of  Siam,  whilst  crossing 
the  entrance  of  that  gulf.  When  the  body  of  Pulo  Condore  bears  about 
South,  steer  North,  or  N.  ^  W.,  if  an  easterly  current  prevail ;  which  will 
soon  bring  the  vessel  on  the  edge  of  the  bank  that  fronts  the  mouths  of  the 
Cambodia  Rivers,  and  extends  to  the  entrance  of  Saigon  Eiver,  Steer  then 
northward  along  the  edge  of  the  bank,  keeping  in  8  to  12  fathoms  ;  if  the 
water  shoalens  under  7  or  8  fathoms,  haul  to  the  eastward,  and  it  will  imme- 
diately deepen,  the  soundings  being  regular  on  the  edge  of  the  bank. 

Directions  for  making  the  land  about  Cape  St.  James,  and  for  proceeding 
up  the  Donnai  Eiver  to  Saigon,  are  given  hereafter. 


In  North-east  Monsoon. — From  Bangkok  the  passage  down  the  gulf  will 
frequently  be  shortened  in  the  N.E.  monsoon,  by  sighting  the  Kusrovie 
Eock,  and  passing  between  the  Tanqualah  group  and  Koh  Tron.  Keep 
well  to  the  westward  of  Pulo  Panjang,  and  if  bound  to  Singapore,  the 
passage  will  be  made  quicker  by  hauling  well  out  into  the  China  Sea ; 
passing  about  20  miles  outside  Pulo  Brala,  outside  Pulo  Aor,  and  then 
steering  for  Barbukit  Hill,  so  as  to  allow  for  the  southerly  current  setting 
across  the  strait. 

Approaching  Pulo  Timoan  at  night  or  in  thick  weather,  a  good  lookout 
should  be  kept,  and  allowance  made  for  the  current  setting  to  the  south- 
westward,  as  vessels  have  several  times  found  themselves  close  to  the  North 
end  of  that  island  when  their  reckoning  has  placed  them  well  to  the  east- 
ward of  it. 

In  South-west  Monsoon. — From  Bangkok  to  Singapore  keep  the  western 
shore  of  the  gulf  aboard,  passing  inside  the  Eedang  Islands,  Pulo  Kapas, 
and  Pulo  Brala.  Below  Pulo  Kapas,  everything  depends  on  keeping  in 
shore  out  of  the  current,  and  taking  advantage  of  the  land  and  sea  breezes. 
{Lieut.  J.  Richards,  E.N.,  1858.) 

I.    A.  K 



In  N0ETH-EA.8T  Monsoon. — From  Cape  St.  James  shape  a  course  to  pass 
to  the  eastward  of  Pulo  Condore,  and  from  thence  direct  to  make  Pulo  Aor. 
From  Pulo  Aor  to  Singapore  proceed  according  to  directions  previously 

In  South-west  Monsoon. — Many  good  passages  have  been  made  by 
keeping  the  Cambodia  coast  aboard  as  far  as  the  Brothers  or  Pulo  Obi,  and 
then  crossing  the  Gulf  of  Siam  with  a  strong  north-westerly  wind  until  the 
Malay  coast  is  reached,  and  afterwards  working  with  the  tides,  keeping 
close  inshore,  by  passing  inside  of  Timoan  group,  Siribuat,  and  Pulo  Sibu,* 
and  thence  to  the  Strait  of  Singapore,  taking  advantage  of  the  regular  tides 
and  the  land  and  sea  breezes  which  prevail  during  settled  weather  in  this 

This  route  is  generally  adopted  by  ships  from  Siam,  and  sometimes  from 
Saigon  ;  but  the  passage  to  the  eastward  of  the  Great  Natuna  is  considered 
the  best,  particularly  for  large  vessels. 

Vessels  leaving  Cape  St.  James  should  take  every  advantage  of  the  North 
and  N.E.  winds,  which  frequently  blow  at  night,  and  in  some  parts  of  the 
day,  within  a  short  distance  of  the  coast,  by  running  to  the  south-westward, 
until  the  regular  monsoon  breaks  them  ofiP  to  the  S.E.  These-  local  winds 
often  carry  ships  40  or  50  miles  to  the  south-westward  of  Pulo  Condore 
without  any  interruption. 

While  standing  over  to  the  S.E.  the  full  strength  of  the  north-easterly 
current  will  be  met  with  about  the  Charlotte  Bank  ;  it  gradually  decreases 
and  becomes  slightly  favourable  when  the  Great  Natuna  is  brought  to  bear 
S.W.  Hereabouts  S.E.  and  easterly  winds  will  generally  be  met  with,  and 
smart  sailing  ships  frequently  pass  through  the  channel  between  Subi  and 
Low  Island,  and  fetch  direct  into  Singapore  Strait. 

Strong  westerly  winds  with  rain  frequently  happen  during  the  early  part 
of  this  monsoon,  and  from  this  cause  or  by  fetching  2°  or  3°  to  the  eastward 
of  the  Great  Natuna  with  scant  southerly  winds  alter  leaving  the  Cambodia 
coast,  dull  sailing  vessels  have  often  made  the  northern  part  of  Borneo 
about  the  meridian  of  Cape  Sirik.  When  this  is  the  case,  make  for  the  Api 
passage,  keeping  the  N.W.  coast  of  Borneo  aboard  from  Tahjong  Datu 
until  the  Boerong  Islands  are  reached. f     This  will  be  accomplished  without 

*  The  inside  chanDel,  extending  from  Pulo  Sibu  to  Siribuat,  and  formed  by  a  chain  of 
islands  and  rocks  parallel  to  the  main,  is  a  good  and  safe  one,  having  but  few  hidden 
dangers,  and  good  anchorage  all  the  way  through. 

t  Many  vessels,  through  leaving  the  coast  of  Borneo  too  soon,  have  fetched  no  higher 
than  Pulo  Aor  or  Pulo  Timoan. 


difficulty,  for  strong  land  and  sea  breezes  prevail,  and  the  current  is  weaker 
near  the  coast. 

The  current  in  the  offing  runs  strong  to  the  northward  and  through  the 
Api  passage.  Ships  coming  through  this  passage  should  never  shoal  their 
water  to  less  than  12  or  14  fathoms  between  Tanjong  Datu  and  Tanjong  Api, 
and  never  pass  them  nearer  than  2  or  3  miles,  but  should  be  ready  to  anchor 
in  it  off  any  other  part  of  the  coast,  as  the  tides  are  greatly  influenced  by  the 
currents,  which  often  change  without  warning. 

Leaving  the  Boerong  Islands,  pass  either  northward  or  southward  of  the 
Tambelan  group.  Should  the  wind  be  scant  from  the  S.W.  after  leaving 
these  islands,  steer  as  high  as  possible,  and  endeavour  to  make  Pulo  Pan- 
tang,  off  the  East  side  of  Bintang  Island.     ( Captain  Loftus.) 



Captain  Mc  Konzie  gives  the  following  remarks  on  this  passage :— The 
passage  to  Singapore,  &c.,  through  Balli  and  Lombok,  and  the  Eastern 
Straits,  late  in  the  S.E.  monsoon  is  often  tediuus,  as  the  S.E.  currents  begin 
to  prevail  in  October,  and  light  winds,  which  frequently  haul  to  West  and 
N.W.  after  passing  Pulo  Mancap  After  leaving  the  Straits  of  Lombok  or 
Balli,  easterly  winds  will  carry  you  past  Pulo  Mancap.  The  best  track  thus 
far  will  be  between  Pondy  and  Gallon  (safe  in  the  night  time),  and  then  to 
the"southward  of  Lubeck,  going  well  to  the  westward  of  the  Mancap  Shoal, 
and  just  giving  the  Discovery  Bank,  and  other  dangers  on  the  West  side  of 
the  passage,  a  fair  berth.  Steer  for  the  Eastern  Montaran  Island,  passing 
between  it  and  the  next  westerly  one,  the  passage  is  quite  clear  ;  steer  then 
to  the  W.N.W.  along  the  coast  of  Billiton.  It  is  best  not  to  go  inside  the 
Montaran  Shoals,  as  the  wind  there  at  that  time  of  year  is  seldom  more 
westerly  than  S.  W.,  consequently  a  vessel  will  lie  up  high  enough,  from  the 
East  Montaran,  to  pass  South  of  Pulo  Dogan,  Taya,  and  Sinkep  (if  possible 
to  weather  the  last),  if  not  the  Straits  of  Dasse  are  quite  safe,  and  quickly 
passed  through  with  the  tide. 

After  passing  through  either  of  these  straits,  run  for  Singapore  by  Durion 

As  to  beating  down  the  Carimata  against  the  S.E.  monsoon,  I  believe  the 
best  plan  is  to  go  through  Rhio  Strait,  then  stretch  over  to  the  Borneo  coast, 
and  work  down  it  close  in,  anchoring  for  the  tides.  From  Rendezvous  Island 
make  for  the  Java  shore,  and  if  bound  easterly  work  along  it.  This  passage 
is  easily  made  to  Sourabaya  in  tilteen  to  twenty  days.     But  it  is  beating  up 


from  Balli,  Lombok,  or  the  East  end  of  Java,  in  the  West  monsoon,  that 
requires  some  remarks  ;  and  for  vessels  usually  deeply  loaded  with  rice,  it  is 
a  difficult  thing  to  beat  up  against  a  strong  monsoon  and  lee  current.  Two 
routes  have  been  generally  adopted,  one  to  the  southward  of  Java,  and  the 
other  by  beating  up  the  Carimata.  By  both  these  routes  I  have  known  some 
vessels  get  to  Singapore  in  forty  days,  and  some  have  been  fifty,  sixty,  and 
eighty  days.  I  should  say  sixty  was  an  average  passage  from  Balli  or  Lom- 
bok ;  and  the  vessel  much  strained,  sails  worn,  and  cargo  probably  more  or 
less  damaged.  I  should,  therefore,  confidently  recommend  an  eastern  route, 
which  I  have  no  doubt  has  been  by  this  time  followed  by  the  commanders  of 
Balli  vessels,  at  my  suggestion.  This  is,  to  go  through  the  Molucca,  or  even 
Gillolo  passage,  and  then  with  the  North  and  N.E.  winds  through  the  straits 
of  Balabac  into  the  China  Sea,  and  thence  to  Singapore.  A  fair  wind  would 
be  secured  all  the  way,  and  the  passage  made  in  twenty-five  or  thirty  days, 
with  ease  and  comfort  to  the  vessel.  This  may  seem  a  very  circuitous  track, 
yet  I  am  certain  that  it  is  the  quickest  way  to  Singapore.  And  any  one  wha 
had  once  tried  either  of  the  other  routes  would  find  the  difference,  when 
comparing  with  the  eastern  route,  the  harassing  work  from  Pulo  to  Singa- 
pore, and  the  strong  rush  of  current  from  the  China  Sea  that  begins  so  early 
as  October  before  the  N.E.  monsoon  has  set  in. 


The  passages  hitherto  described  are  those  which  are  entered  by  the  Straits 
of  Malacca  or  Sunda,  the  two  principal  highways  into  the  China  Sea.  But 
during  the  adverse  N.E.  monsoon  it  may  be  thought  preferable  to  take  one 
of  the  channels  eadward  of  Borneo,  and  thus  avoid  the  wear  and  tear  of 
beating  up  the  China  Sea  in  the  teeth  of  the  monsoon.  In  this  case,  the 
former  universal  practice  was  to  follow  one  of  the  eastern  straits,  passing  to 
the  East  of  Borneo,  and  taking  the  Strait  of  Macassar,  which  leads  into  the 
Celebes  Sea,  from  thence,  according  to  circumstances,  from  this  sea  proceed- 
ing North,  and  passing  East  or  West  of  the  Philippines.  A  vessel  can  also, 
in  this  season,  take  Pitts  passage  to  the  East  of  the  Celebes,  crossing  the 
Moluccas,  and  entering  the  Pacific  Ocean  by  Pitts  Strait,  Dampier  Passage, 
or  that  of  Gilolo,  then  keep  to  the  eastward  of  the  Philippines,  entering  the 
China  Sea  by  the  Strait  of  Formosa. 

Thus,  in  a  general  way,  it  may  be  taken  as  a  rule,  that  when  the  mon- 
soon is  favourable  in  the  China  Sea,  ships  must  pass  to  the  West  of  Borneo, 
but  with  a  contrary  monsoon  must  pass  to  the  East  of  that  island. 

October  and  November  are  considered  the  two  most  favourable  months  in 
which  to  pass  the  Strait  of  Macassar  quickly.  This  is  the  first  of  the  eastern 
routes.  In  the  other  months  it  is  more  advantageous  to  take  Pitts  Passage^ 
especially  from  the  middle  of  December  to  February. 


On  arriving  at  the  eastern  straits  in  the  latter  part  of  January  or  in 
February,  the  Strait  of  Lombok  is  generally  taken,  and  generally  in  passing 
it,  cross  the  channel  East  of  Banditti  Island.  You  can  also  round  this 
island  to  the  West,  but  the  channel  is  very  narrow.  The  channel  between 
Lombok  and  Banditti  Island  is  generally  preferred,  and  then  the  East  coast 
of  this  strait  is  soon  reached.  From  there  ships  pass  to  the  strait  of  Ma- 
cassar, by  passing  to  the  East  of  Hastings  Island  and  Little  Pulo  Laut,  then 
the  coast  of  Celebes  must  be  passed  in  order  to  enter  the  strait  of  Macassar. 
If  instead  of  taking  Lombok  Strait  that  of  Balli  is  chosen,  with  the  intention 
of  passing  in  the  Macassar  Strait,  ships  return  to  the  North  by  passing  by 
the  channel  between  Pondy  and  Gallon  Islands  ;  then  round  to  the  West  at 
a  good  distance  from  the  islands  and  banks  of  Kalkoon,  and  pass  the  little 
island  of  Pulo  Laut  on  whichever  side  seems  best. 

On  coming  from  Alias  Strait  a  vessel  would  steer  for  Hastings  Island, 
and  pass  East  of  it,  the  same  as  if  coming  from  Lombok  Strait.  On  arriving 
from  Sapy  Strait  during  the  months  of  September  and  October,  a  ship 
would,  according  to  the  prevailing  winds,  pass  to  the  East  or  West  of  the 
Postilions,  and  proceed  to  the  North  between  Tanakeke  and  the  Tongu 
Islands  ;  then  pass  at  a  good  distance  the  isles  and  banks  of  Spermonde, 
which  are  N.W.  of  Macassar  Bay,  and  enter  the  strait  and  keep  on  the 
Celebes  coast  to  pass  through.  A  vessel  going  out  of  the  strait  in  March  or 
April  off  Cape  Donda  must  cross  the  sea  of  Celebes,  and  steer  for  the  ex- 
treme East  of  Bassilan. 

A  vessel  making  for  the  channel  between  Basilan  and  the  West  point  of 
Mindanao,  must  take  care  to  keep  well  to  the  East,  if  the  winds  will  permit, 
so  that  she  may  not  be  drifted  among  the  Sooloo  Islands  by  the  westerly 
currents.  If  she  gets  to  leeward  of  them,  she  will  find  good  channels  be- 
tween the  isles  situated  to  the  West  of  Sooloo  ;  and  then  crossing  the  sea  of 
Mindoro,  keep  near  the  coast  of  the  Philippines  (Mindanao,  Negros,  Panay, 
Mindoro,  and  Luzon).  At  the  opening  of  the  channel  between  Mindanao 
and  Negros,  and  also  between  Panay  and  Mindoro,  strong  winds  from  the 
N.E.  and  westerly  currents  are  generally  encountered.  A  ship  must  guard 
against  these  currents  in  passing  from  one  island  to  another,  so  as  not  to  be 
set  to  leeward. 

If  a  ship  leaves  Basilan  Strait  with  steady  winds  from  S.W.  and  South, 
she  may  steer  directly  for  Point  Naso,  or  keep  rather  to  the  East  of  its 
meridian  ;  but  if  the  winds  are  variable  or  uncertain,  she  should  keep  close 
to  Mindanao  till  Point  Galera  is  reached,  and  then  cross  to  Naso  Point,  tak- 
ing care  to  keep  near  Negro  Point  in  crossing  from  one  point  to  another. 

From  Naso  Point  steer  North  along  the  coast  West  of  the  island  of  Panay, 
taking  every  precaution  against  the  dangers  which  lie  to  the  West  of  this 
coast.  Then  passing  the  islands  lying  near  the  S.W.  point  of  Mindoro, 
she  will  enter  the  channel  either  East  or  West  of  them  and  the  Apo  Bank. 


With  easterly  winds  in  entering  the  eastern  channel,  keep  2  or  3  leagues 
from  the  coast  of  Mindoro  ;  but  with  a  westerly  wind,  take  care  not  to  go 
more  than  9  or  10  milts  from  the  coast  until  you  are  North  of  the  Apo 
Banks,  thus  clearing  the  Strait  of  Mindoro  ;  and  after  having  doubled  the 
promontory  ot  Calavite,  and  passed  Luban  and  Goat  Island,  you  must  fol- 
low the  coast  of  Luzon  as  far  as  Cape  Bolinao.  Having  reached  this  cape, 
you  may  be  pretty  sure  of  passing  East  of  the  Pratas  and  reaching  Macao. 
However,  it  is  more  prudent  to  steer  North  as  far  as  Cape  Bojeador  before 
crossing  for  the  coast  of  China.  Also,  at  this  season,  a  vessel  may  enter  the 
Pacific  Ocean  by  passing  South  of  Mindanao,  when  the  sea  of  Celebes  has 
been  reached.  For  which,  if  the  wind  permit,  steer  direct  for  the  Serangani 
Islands,  passing  between  them  and  Mindanao,  or  else  South  of  the  former. 
From  thence  pass  between  the  Meangis  and  Tulour  Isles,  in  order  to  double 
the  North  cape  of  Morty  Island  with  the  wind  at  N.E.  If  any  difficulty  arise 
in  taking  this  route,  the  channel  between  the  Tulour  and  Sangir  Islands 
may  be  adopted. 

But  after  having  proceeded  from  the  Strait  of  Macassar,  and  passed  be- 
tween Siao  and  Tagolanda,  or  one  of  the  neighbouring  Sangir  Channels, 
steer  to  the  East,  so  as  to  double  the  North  cape  of  Morty.  For  the  same 
reason,  ships  that  have  passed  South  of  Siao  must  run  N.E.  if  the  wind  will 
permit.  When  she  has  entered  the  Pacific  Ocean  from  the  Philippine 
Islands,  passing  to  the  West  of  the  Pelew  Islands,  afterwards  sail  towards 
the  North,  so  as  to  enter  the  China  Sea  by  the  Formosa  Channel. 

Pitt  Channel,  which  leads,  as  has  been  already  stated,  into  the  Pacific 
Ocean  by  either  Pitt,  Gilolo,  or  Dampier  Channels,  is  preferable  to  the 
Macassar  Strait  during  the  months  of  December,  January,  and  February. 
On  arriving,  at  this  season,  at  the  Strait  of  Sunda,  on  the  way  from  Bengal, 
or  at  the  eastern  straits  on  the  way  from  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  I  would 
adopt  this  channel  when  bound  to  China.    This  is  the  Second  Eastern  Route. 

If,  as  often  happens,  a  ship,  in  coming  from  the  Bay  of  Bengal,  passes 
through  the  Strait  of  Sunda  instead  of  along  the  South  coast  of  Java,  in 
going  out  of  this  strait  she  should  pass  North  of  the  Thousand  Isles,  and  then 
steer  to  the  East,  leaving  the  Watcher  Isle  to  the  North,  on  her  way  to  the 
Strait  of  Salayer.  In  case  of  touching  at  Batavia,  after  having  passed  Edam 
Island  on  leaving  this  port,  she  would  steer  so  as  to  leave  Burakin  Island  to 
the  North,  and  after  having  passed  it,  would  steer  for  Salayer  Strait.  With 
a  N.W.  wind  the  best  course  through  this  strait  is  to  pass  South  of  Mansfield 
Shoal.  At  night,  or  when  the  wind  is  not  steady,  it  is  better  to  keep  to  the 
North  of  it,  along  the  coast  of  Celebes.  From  the  Strait  of  Salayer  make 
for  Bouton  Strait ;  or,  if  the  wind  is  West,  it  would  be  better  to  pass  South 
of  this  island,  keeping  the  S.W.  point  well  on  board,  with  the  view  of 
avoiding  the  rocks  off  it  to  the  southward  of  Tonkan  Bessy.  You  then  pass 
along  the  eastern  coast  of  Bouton  Island,  and  having  reached  the  N.E.  end 


of  it,  if  the  wind  is  fresh  from  N.W.,  steer  North  from  the  island  of  Waigiou, 
and  from  thence  for  the  Xulla  Bessy  Island.  This  is  an  indispensable  pre- 
caution for  slow  sailing  vessels  in  December  and  the  early  part  of  January, 
because  about  this  period  the  wind  becomes  variable,  and  veers  to  N.N.W., 
causing  strong  southern  currents.  The  winds  and  currents  in  Eitt  Channel 
are  very  variable,  and  it  may  be  crossed  almost  anywhere.  It  is  prudent, 
however,  when  northerly  winds  prevail,  to  keep  the  weather  shore. 

In  the  case  of  a  vessel  falling  to  leeward  of  the  N."W.  point  of  Bouro 
Island,  every  exertion  should  be  made  to  pass  it  quickly.  Instead  of  work- 
ing to  windward  to  do  this,  it  is  better  to  run  southward  of  the  island,  and 
pass  into  Eitt  Strait  to  the  eastward  of  it.  During  the  N.W.  monsoon 
vessels  which  leave  Amboyna  make  to  the  northward  along  the  East  coast 
of  Bouro,  where  the  wind  is  variable,  and  squalls  come  from  off  the  land. 
Strong  currents  are  rare,  and  are  sometimes  favourable  for  the  run  north- 
wards ;  while  beyond  Manipa  and  the  channel  which  separates  it  from 
Ceram,  southerly  currents  prevail  in  this  season.  Having  reached  Eitt 
Eassage  by  the  foregoing  routes,  a  vessel  will  be  guided  by  the  directions 
hereafter  given. 

A  vessel  wishing  to  pas8  through.  Eitt  Strait  should  take  either  the  strait  of 
Bally,  Lombok,  Allass,  or  Sapy,  and  make  for  that  of  Salayer  on  leaving 
them  ;  crossing  the  eastern  part  of  the  Java  Sea,  afterwards  steer  for  Eitt 
Channel.  In  coming  from  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  the  Ombay  Strait  is  pre- 
ferable, it  being  the  most  direct  and  more  open  than  those  farther  West,  and 
the  winds  being  generally  less  variable  there. 

In  making  for  Ombay  Strait,  pass  either  North  or  South  of  Sandalwood 
Island  ;  but  it  is  better  to  pass  South  of  it,  and  then  between  Ombay  and 
Timor,  and  after  having  steered  to  the  eastern  extremity  of  the  first  of  these 
islands,  then  steer  North,  keeping  to  windward,  so  as  to  pass  West  of  Bouro 
Island  ;  but  if  this  is  impracticable,  pass  to  eastward  of  this  island,  between 
it  and  Manipa,  and  then  take  the  Eitt  Channel.  After  having  entered  Eitt 
Channel  steer  East,  passing  between  Xulla  Bessy  and  Bouro  ;  but  in  case 
you  should  pass  to  the  West  of  this  island,  if  no  current  be  found,  then  steer 
direct  through  Eitt  Strait ;  if  the  current  sets  northward,  keep  off  the  islands 
which  border  the  northern  side  of  this  strait. 

When  near  the  meridian  of  the  East  point  of  Oby  Major,  and  wishing  to 
take  Dampier  Strait,  keep  on  to  eastward.  This  strait  seems  favourable 
for  good  sailing  vessels,  especially  in  January  and  February,  when  N.E. 
winds  are  getting  more  easterly.  In  March,  when  the  N.E.  winds  become 
weaker,  the  Strait  of  Gilolo  is  preferable  for  entering  the  Facific  Ocean. 

This  last  strait  is  wider,  and  a  ship  can  work  both  night  and  day  in  it, 
and  the  currents  are  seldom  very  strong.  On  leaving  Eitt  Strait,  and  also 
that  of  Dampier,  you  must  take  great  care  not  to  be  drifted  on  the  North 
coast  of  New  Guinea,  and  should  therefore  contrive  to  round  Eoint  Eigot 


close,  looking  out  sharply  for  Buccleugh  Bank,  whicli  lies  to  the  East  of  the 
East  coast  of  Waigiou. 

Pitt  Strait  should  only  be  taken  when  it  cannot  be  avoided.  In  this  case, 
a  ship  should  keep  in  the  middle  of  the  channel  to  avoid  being  set  to  either 
side  by  the  tides,  and  should  therefore  make  short  boards,  not  approaching 
either  shore,  and  should  try  to  make  Jackson  Isle,  and  pass  5  miles  to  north- 
ward of  it.  When  a  ship  has  passed  the  reef,  which  lies  to  the  northern 
extremity  of  Batanta  Island,  she  must  steer  northward  for  Point  Pigot. 

To  enter  Dampier  Strait  on  passing  the  meridian  of  the  East  point  of  Oby 
Major,  steer  East,  to  pass  between  the  Canary  Isles  and  Pulo  Popo.  Some- 
times vessels  pass  between  the  Bou  Islands  and  Pulo  Popo.  This  last  chan- 
nel is  advantageous  with  the  winds  from  the  N.W.,  and  then  run  for  Fisher 
Island  and  Mabo  Cape,  and  from  thence  pass  between  Pigeon  Island  and 
Foul  Island,  always  keeping  a  good  lookout  for  the  dangers  which  exist  on 
the  North  shore  of  Dampier  Strait.  In  coming  out  keep  nearer  Pigeon  Isle 
than  Foul  Island,  and  steer  so  as  to  sight  Pigot  Point,  so  as  not  to  be  horsed 
on  to  the  coast  of  New  Guinea  by  the  northerly  swell  which  prevails  in  the  Vessels  should  always  carefully  avoid  the  Buccleugh  Bank.  The 
tides  are  very  strong  in  Dampier  Strait,  and  the  currents  very  irregular, 
their  rate  varying  from  1  to  5  miles  an  hour.  In  the  height  of  the  N.W. 
monsoon,  in  the  narrow  part  of  the  strait  between  Pigeon  Isle  and  Foul  Isle, 
the  ebb  at  the  time  of  the  spring  tides  runs  4  or  5  knots  to  the  E.N.E.  for 
six  or  eight  hours,  and  between  1  and  3  miles  in  neaps.  The  flood  sets  S.W. 
for  three  or  four  hours,  but  is  weak.  During  the  height  of  the  S.E.  monsoon 
in  this  part,  the  flood  runs  to  the  West  for  eight  or  ten  hoiu-s  at  a  time,  and 
turns  successively  to  W.S.W.,  S.W.,  and  S.W.  by  S.  ;  it  then  attains  its 
greatest  velocity,  which  at  springs  sometimes  exceeds  5  miles  an  hour,  and 
is  reduced  to  4  miles  an  hour  in  neaps.  The  ebb  at  this  season  runs  to 
E.N.E.  or  N.E.  ;  it  is  not  strong  or  of  long  duration. 

On  leaving  Dampier  Strait,  when  a  ship  is  in  the  Pacific  Ocean,  she 
should  run  down  her  easting  quickly,  keeping  in  a  low  latitude,  or  between 
the  parallels  of  1°  30'  and  3°  N.,  which  she  can  easily  do.  Sometimes  even 
in  December  and  January  easterly  currents  are  frequently  found  in  that 
track,  being  that  eastward  counter  current  on  the  equator  which  has  been 
spoken  of  in  the  chapter  on  this  subject.  She  will  thus  be  enabled  con- 
veniently to  pass  either  East  or  West  of  the  Pelew  Isles,  but  this  depends 
up'in  the  sailing  powers  of  the  ship,  and  the  strength  of  the  N.E.  monsoon. 
A  vessel  must  not  go  too  far  to  eastward,  for  fear  of  falling  in  with  the 
islands  of  Goulou  and  Guap,  near  which,  in  November  and  December,  heavy 
squalls  from  the  westward  are  encountered.  From  the  Pelew  Islands,  steer 
for  the  Bashee  Islands,  allowing  for  the  westerly  currents,  which  run  at  a 
rate  of  12  or  15  miles  a  day.  From  December  to  the  middle  of  February  it 
is  most  prudent  to  pass  to  the  East  of  the  Pelew  Islands. 


Should  a  vessel  leave  Dampier  Strait  towards  the  end  of  the  N.E.  mon- 
soon, she  should  not  run  far  East  into  the  Pacitic  Ocean.  At  the  end  of 
February  and  in  March  ships  can  pass  to  the  West  of  the  Pelew  Islands,  as 
the  winds  at  this  time  often  vary  and  shift  to  E.N.E.  When  the  North  part 
of  Luzon  is  reached  the  China  Sea  can  be  entered  by  either  of  the  great 
routes,  or  the  channel  of  Balingtang,  or  any  of  the  good  channels  formed  by 
the  Bashee  Islands  and  the  Babuyanes.  However,  with  the  winds  from  the 
N.E.,  and  at  the  commencement  of  the  monsoon,  it  is  necessary  to  pass  to 
the  North  of  the  Bashee  Islands,  and  either  North  or  South  of  the  Cambrian 
and  Gadd  Recks.  The  South  point  of  Formosa  is  thus  approached,  and  it 
is  best  with  daylight  and  the  weather  fine  to  pass  between  this  point  and 
the  Vele  Rete  Rock.  During  the  night,  or  in  bad  weather,  if  prevented 
from  taking  this  route,  a  vessel  should  pass  to  the  North  of  the  Bashee 
Islands,  keeping  close  to  them.  Whichever  may  be  the  channel  by  which 
she  enters  the  China  sea,  a  course  should  be  adopted  to  sight,  if  possible, 
Ty-Sing-  Cham,  or  Pedro  Blanco,  and  enter  the  Canton  River  by  the  Lema 

The  Strait  of  Gilolo,  the  third  which  connects  Pitt  Passage  with  the 
Pacific  Ocean,  is  divided  into  two  parts  by  the  island  of  Geby,  and  the  part 
between  this  island  and  that  of  Gilolo  takes  the  name  of  Gilolo  Strait.  That 
part  between  Geby  and  Waigiou  has  been  called  the  Bougainville  Strait,  as 
that  ofiicer  passed  through  it  in  1772.  All  the  channels  leading  from  Pitt 
Channel  to  the  Strait  of  Gilolo  are  free  from  danger  ;  but  during  the  N.W. 
monsoon  that  between  Pulo  Gass  and  Kakik  Island  is  preferable,  as  being 
the  widest ;  for  the  other  broad  channel  between  Pulo  Pisang  and  the  Bou 
Islands  is  too  much  to  leeward  at  this  season.  To  enter  the  Gilolo  Strait, 
passing,  as  we  have  already  said,  between  Pulo  Gass  and  Kakik,  sail  closely 
roimd  the  southern  point  of  the  first  of  these  islands,  so  as  not  to  get  to  the 
eastward  of  the  channel  by  the  current  which  often  prevails  there.  After 
having  passed  Pulo  Gass  to  eastward  or  westward,  according  to  the  channel 
taken,  continue  on  between  Cape  Tabo  and  Geby  Island  ;  and  if  at  night, 
give  a  good  berth  to  the  Fairway  Bank  and  Widda  Island  ;  however,  it  is 
prudent,  if  the  wind  is  light,  to  keep  as  close  as  possible  to  the  islands  on 
the  West  coast  of  the  strait,  on  account  of  the  N.E.  and  easterly  currents. 
Should  the  winds  be  contrary,  no  time  should  be  lost  in  trying  to  pass  North 
of  Geby  ;  afterwards,  passing  South  between  this  island  and  Gagy,  and 
entering  the  Pacific  by  one  of  the  channels  near  Syang.  However,  when  it 
can  be  done,  the  West  channel  between  the  coast  of  Gilolo  and  the  Shampi 
Isles,  or  one  of  those  comprised  between  these  islands  and  Syang  is  prefer- 
able, as  with  a  northerly  wind  a  ship  would  be  able  to  pass  to  windward  of 
the  Aiou  and  Asia  Islands.  Should  there  be  any  difficulty  in  passing  to  the 
West  of  Asia  Isles,  the  channel,  which  is  formed  by  them  and  Aiou,  can  be 

I.  A.  I. 

74  .  PASSAGES. 

adopted,  or  even  between  this  latter  and  the  North  coast  of  Waigiou. 
Having  gained  the  Pacific  Ocean,  a  vessel  should  endeavour,  as  soon  as 
possible,  to  make  her  easting  in  the  zone  comprised  between  the  parallels  of 
1°  30'  and  3°  N.,  as  southerly  and  S.E.  currents  are  found  there,  and  she 
must  not  pass  North  of  the  parallel  3°  N.,  and  she  will  thus  attain  the  latter 
part  of  the  route  which  we  have  previously  indicated  from  Dampier  Strait  to 
the  Ciiina  Sea. 


The  foregoiug  remarks  refer  chiefly  to  those  routes  through  the  Archi- 
pelago which  lead  to  the  different  por';s  for  vessels  bound  from  Europe  or 
India.  The  reverse,  or  homeward  voyage,  is  generally  subject  to  the  same 
influences,  and  requires  the  same  consideration,  in  reference  to  the  seasons, 
that  is  called  for  in  the  outward  voyage. 

As  a  first  principle  it  may  be  stated  that  a  vessel  bound  to  an  Atlantic 
port  should  endeavour  to  gain  the  S.E.  trade  wind  as  soon  as  possible,  by 
■which  she  may  gain  the  coast  of  Africa,  Mauritius,  or  Madagascar,  and 
thence  proceed  roiind  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.  This  portion  of  the  subject 
and  that  relating  to  the  passage  from  the  Strait  of  Sunda  to  Aden  is  detailed 
in  our  Indian  Ocean  Directory,  pages  162 — 166  and  201 — 202. 

A  vessel  bound  to  the  Bay  of  Bengal  should  take  the  readiest  course  for 
the  straits  of  Singapore  and  Malacca,  and  thence  as  directed  in  the  Indian 
Ocean  Directory,  pages  179,  184,  &c. 

These  remarks  refer  to  both  monsoons.  The  best  way  of  reaching  the 
Strait  of  Malacca,  or  the  Southern  Indian  Ocean,  necessarily  requires  a 
difi'erent  route  in  the  opposite  seasons.  For  the  China  Sea  and  the  Strait  of 
Sunda  this  reverse  voyage  has  been  considered  in  former  pages  ;  but  a  few 
remarks  from  Capt.  Kerhallet  may  be  here  appended. 

When  a  ship  leaves  China  during  the  N.E.  monsoon  for  Europe  or  India, 
she  should  make  for  the  Straits  of  Banka  and  Gaspar,  or  for  that  of  Singa- 
pore. In  March  and  April  the  outer  route  is  the  quickest  by  the  Macclesfield 
Bank.  She  ought,  during  these  two  months,  to  keep  out  to  sea  as  far  as  the 
latitude  of  Pulo  Sapata,  or  take  the  route  proposed  by  Capt.  Stephens  down 
the  West  coast  of  Luzon,  Palawan,  and  Borneo,  as  described  in  a  foot-note 
on  p.  62.     Some  useful  remarks  by  Capt.  Polaek  will  also  be  found  on  p.  86. 

On  the  contrary,  during  the  other  months  than  March  and  April,  a  vessel 
should  take  the  inner  channel,  which  is  comprised  between  Hainan  and  the 
Paracel  Islands,  when  she  would  without  difficulty  reach  the  Straits  of  Sin- 
gapore, Banka,  and  Gaspar.  From  these  two  latter  a  course  should  be 
steered  for  the  strait  of  Sunda.  On  leaving  this  strait  the  parallel  of  10°  N. 
should  be  crossed  in  100°  E.  longitude,  and  then  shape  a  direct  course  for 
the  South  point  of  Madagascar,  as  is  described  in  the  Directions  for  the 
Indian  Ocean.  This  route  crosses  the  area  of  the  course  of  hurricanes  ;  con- 
sequently they  are  often  encountered  by  vessels  from  the  eastern  seas. 


The  In'xer  Route  is  the  most  direct  for  reaching  the  straits  leading  from 
the  China  Sea ;  it  has  also  this  advantage,  that  vessels  have  the  wind  aft  as 
soon  as  the  Great  Ladrone  has  been  passed.  A  ship  taking  this  route  should 
steer  from  the  Great  Ladrone,  so  as  to  pass  near  the  islands  of  Taya  and 
Paracels  at  a  convenient  distance  to  the  West.  It  is  estimated  that  the 
current  sets  westward  at  the  rate  of  15  or  20  miles  a  day,  for  the  currents 
are  strong  near  the  coast  of  China,  although  it  may  not  be  the  case  out  at 
sea.  If  it  should  be  observed  that  the  ship  is  drifted  much  towards  the 
West,  she  must  shape  her  course  to  allow  for  it,  until  she  has  reached  the 
parallel  of  17°  W.,  and  entered  the  channel  between  the  Paracels  and  Cochin 
China.  Having  reached  the  parallel  indicated,  and  the  meridian  of  106°,  a 
course  should  be  steered  so  as  to  sight  Cape  Yarela,  or  the  Pagoda.  With 
clear  weather  and  an  E.N.E.  or  N.E.  wind,  a  ship  may  sight  Pulo  Canton 
(also  called  Callao  Kay)  or  the  coast  situated  South  of  this  island,  and  then 
keep  a  moderate  distance  from  the  shore  ;  if  the  weather  be  cloudy,  and  the 
wind  has  a  tendency  to  become  easterly,  it  would  be  more  prudent  not  to 
approach  the  coast  till  she  is  in  the  latitude  of  Cape  Varela,  nor  enter  the 
Bay  of  Phouyin  to  the  North  of  this  cape. 

In  case  the  conical  mountain  be  visible  on  the  North  shore  of  this  bay,  it 
will  indicate  the  position  of  the  cape,  for  as  night  approaches,  the  pagoda  on 
the  height,  which  commands  it,  is  obscured  by  clouds.  Having  passed  to 
the  South  of  the  parallel  of  15°  N.,  it  will  be  found  that  the  current  sets 
southward  near  the  land;  for  between  14°  30'  and  11°  30'  it  often  sets  at  the 
rate  of  40,  50,  and  even  60  miles  a  day  ;  but  it  is  very  variable.  It  is  indis- 
pensable to  make  for  Cape  Varela  when  land  has  not  been  seen  to  the  North 
of  this  point,  from  whence  the  coast  may  be  kept  at  a  distance  of  12  or  15 
miles.  When  a  ship  is  East  of  Cape  Varela,  distant  about  4  or  5  miles,  she 
can  steer  along  the  shore  by  day  ;  but  at  night  must  be  careful  to  avoid 
Pyramid  Isle,  and  those  near  to  it.  If  the  night  be  fine,  she  can  sight  these 
islands,  as  they  may  be  made  out  at  a  few  miles  distant.  Water  Islands 
should  then  be  steered  for,  which  are  21  miles  to  the  southward,  and  can 
also  be  seen.  When  these  islands  are  reached,  if  the  land  is  more  than  12 
miles  off,  it  will  be  necessary  to  approach  it,  to  sight  the  mountain  of  False 
Cape  Varela,  which  can  be  distinguished  among  the  high  lands  of  the  coast 
by  its  elevation  and  gentle  slope  towards  the  sea. 

In  order  to  keep  inshore  and  pass  to  the  West  of  the  Dutchman  Bank,  a 
vessel  should  cross  Padaran  Bay  as  soon  as  she  is  abreast  of  the  high  lands 
of  Cape  Varela.  This  is  necessary,  because  the  currents  in  this  part  take  a 
S.S.E.  direction,  and  it  is  very  difficult  for  ships  out  at  sea  to  approach  this 
coast.  When  a  vessel  is  in  a  good  position  for  crossing  the  bay,  the  sound- 
ings will  be  found  to  be  40  and  50  fathoms.  Then,  during  the  night,  Cape 
Padaran  should  be  made  on  the  starboard  bow.  On  recognizing  this  cape, 
great  care  should  be  taken,  as  it  is  difficult  to  distinguish  it  from  the  high 


lands  in  the  bay.  On  having  sighted  Cape  Padaran,  it  may  be  passed  at 
about  3  or  6  miles  ;  and  Pulo  Ceicir  may  be  doubled  at  the  same  distance  on 
keeping  this  island  to  the  West.  In  case  ships  are  only  1  or  2  miles  from  the 
cape,  a  course  should  be  steered  to  pass  at  a  convenient  distance  from  Pulo 
Ceicir.  When  this  island  is  doubled  in  the  day,  at  4,  6,  or  6  miles  to  sea- 
ward, it  should  be  brought  to  bear  N.N.E.  ^  N.  before  being  lost  sight  of 
from  the  deck,  and  then  steering  18  or  21  miles  between  W.S.W.  and  S.W. 
by  W.,  as  most  convenient,  will  pass  West  of  Dutchman  Bank,  when  a 
South  course  may  be  steered  for  Pulo  Aor. 

This  route  is  not  dangerous  when  the  night  is  clear  enough  to  admit  of 
distinguishing  the  cavern  of  Padaran.  In  this  case,  when  a  ship  is  3,  4,  or 
5  miles  from  the  cape,  she  must  take  the  most  convenient  route  till  she  sights 
the  Cavern  ;  and  when  it  bears  N.  by  E.,,she  will  be  off  Pulo  Ceicir.  If 
in  this  case  soundings  are  found  at  11  or  20  fathoms,  she  should  stand  off 
from  it  a  little,  because  the  island  is  too  low  to  be  seen  at  night,  and  in  thia 
part  of  the  channel  the  soundings  are  too  irregular  to  serve  as  a  guide. 
The  Cavern  bearing  N.  16°  E.,  Pulo  Ceii  ir  is  in  the  same  direction  ;  and  by 
running  18  or  20  miles  nearer  between  W.S.W.  and  S.W.  by  W.,  Dutch- 
man Bank  may  be  passed  on  the  West,  and  then  steer  for  Pulo  Aor.  If 
the  night  should  be  dark  when  near  Padaran,  and  the  Cavern  not  to  be 
distinguished,  the  vessel  must  be  kept  between  South  and  West  till  she  is 
about  12  or  13  leagues  from  the  cape,  and  in  this  case  it  is  best  not  to  ap- 
proach the  coast  or  Pulo  Ceicir  with  less  than  6  fathoms  of  water,  and 
Dutchman  Bank  should  not  be  approached  in  less  than  18  or  20  fathoms. 
Between  the  western  edge  of  this  bank  and  the  eastern  edge  of  Britto  Shoal, 
which  is  nearest  to  it,  there  is  a  distance  of  14  or  15  leagues,  between  which 
there  is  a  large  channel,  which  may  be  taken  in  the  night.  A  ship  should 
keep  in  soundings  of  15  or  16  fathoms,  until  she  is  5  or  6  leagues  more  to 
the  South  of  Pulo  Ceicir  ;  and  when  she  is  13  leagues  to  the  S.W.  of  Cape 
Padaran  it  will  be  best  to  run  again  between  the  South  and  West  to  the  dis- 
tance of  2  or  3  leagues,  so  as  to  give  a  wide  berth  to  the  Holland  Bank.  A 
vessel  should  not  take  more  than  20  fathoms  depth,  till  she  has  passed  thia 
bank,  nor  less  than  16  fathoms  when  she  is  near  Britto  Bank,  if  she  is  a 
little  to  the  West. 

In  taking  the  route  between  these  two  banks  the  soundings  will  be  found 
to  vary  between  10  and  11  fathoms;  and  when  the  western  part  of  the 
Holland  Bank  is  passed  a  vessel  should  keep  in  10  or  11  fathoms,  and  steer 
towards  Pulo  Aor.  The  route  between  Pulo  Ceicer  and  Holland  Bank  cannot 
be  taken  in  the  night,  except  by  captains  who  are  well  acquainted  with  these 
parts,  consequently,  often  while  waiting  for  days,  a  vessel  is  obliged  to 
lay  off  Cape  Varela.  Besides  the  loss  of  time  which  is  thus  occasioned,  a 
ship  has  to  contend  with  a  heavy  sea,  when  the  breeze  is  strong ;  and  for 
this  reason  mariners  generally  preter  passing  through  the  passage  outside 


Pulo  Ceicir  and  Pulo  Sapata.  When  a  vessel  finds  herself  near  Ealse  Cape 
Varela  at  nightfall,  with  a  wind  too  strong  to  haul  up  to,  or  bad  weather, 
and  not  wishing  on  account  of  the  darkness  to  pass  between  Holland  Bank 
and  Pulo  Cecir  de  Mer,  she  should  steer  a  course  to  the  East  of  Pulo  Cecir 
de  Mer,  and  then  outside  Pulo  Sapata  the  next  morning.  She  may  run  far 
enough  out  to  sea  if  the  weather  is  gloomy,  after  passing  a  good  distance 
from  these  isles.  When  the  wind  is  strong  the  currents  run  to  the  S.  W.  and 
W.S.W.  with  great  rapidity,  and  sometimes  towards  Pulo  Sapata.  A  ship 
would  then  be  obliged  to  pass  the  night  in  the  narrow  channel  between  this 
island  and  the  Little  Catwik. 

In  the  day,  in  fine  weather,  a  ship  may  keep  as  near  as  she  likes  to  Pulo 
Cecir  de  Mer,  and  pass  between  Pulo  Sapata  and  the  Large  Catwik ;  she 
can  also  pass  between  the  two  Catwicks,  only  it  must  be  remembered  that 
the  Paix  Rock  is  in  the  channel  formed  by  these  two  islands ;  from  there 
she  may  steer  direct  for  Pulo  Aor.  On  arriving  at  Pulo  Timoan  during  a 
fog,  you  must  keep  in  soundings  of  28  or  30  fathoms,  afterwards  passing 
East  of  this  island  for  Pulo  Aor.  As  these  islands  are  often  concealed  in  the 
fog,  great  care  must  be  taken  to  avoid  them,  and  attend  to  the  reckoning, 
especially  during  the  night.  Near  the  Anambas,  and  to  the  North  of  them, 
a  vessel  generally  has  36  to  44  fathoms.  When  she  is  between  5°  30'  and 
6°  N.,  these  depths  decrease  in  the  western  part  of  the  channel,  and  26  to 
28  fathoms  on  the  meridian  of  Pulo  Timoan.  Having  passed  East  of  Pulo 
Aor  at  a  distance  of  2,  3,  or  4  leagues,  bound  to  the  Strait  of  Banca, 
steer  to  the  eastward  of  South,  according  to  the  wind  and  prevailing 
currents,  and  pass  outside  the  Geldria  Bank,  which  she  may  avoid  by  keep- 
ing in  a  depth  of  not  less  than  10  or  11  fathoms  when  between  the  parallels 
of  0°  56'  and  0°  40'  N.  When  this  bank  has  been  passed,  a  course  should 
be  steered  so  as  to  cross  the  equator,  and  pass  4  or  5  leagues  from  the 
East  point  of  Lingin,  if  the  current  will  admit.  In  all  cases  a  vessel  should 
guard  against  westerly  currents,  which  are  sometimes  encountered  in  these 

Outer  Eoute. — When  the  outer  channel  is  adopted  in  coming  from  China 
towards  Pulo  Aor,  a  vessel  ought  to  pass  at  a  short  distance  West  of  the  La- 
drones  and  neighbouring  islands.  In  general,  strong  winds  and  a  heavy  sea 
with  strong  currents  are  found  on  leaving  Great  Ladrone,  and  a  vessel  should 
steer  to  eastward  of  South  for  the  Macclesfield  Bank ;  and  when  the  winds 
are  moderate  she  should  endeavour  to  reach  the  East  part  of  it,  When  20 
leagues  East  of  the  meridian  of  the  Great  Ladrone,  and  a  vessel  has  difiiculty 
in  obtaining  soundings,  she  may  consider  herself  East  of  the  Macclesfield 
Bank.  When  a  vessel  has  adopted  the  outer  route  in  November  and  De- 
cember, with  strong  winds  and  no  observations  for  several  days,  she  should 
endeavour  to  strike  soundings  on  the  Macclesfield  Bank ;  but  if  she  is  certain 
of  her  position,  these  may  be  neglected,  because  from  East  to  West  on  the 


bank  being  very  wide,  and  the  soundings  being  very  irregular,  the  depth 
can  only  be  an  uncertain  guide  as  to  her  real  position.  On  leaving  the 
Macclesfield  Bank,  she  should  steer  for  Pulo  Sapata,  and  should  have  sound- 
ings on  that  bank,  and  it  being  on  the  same  parallel  it  would  be  well  for  her 
to  shape  her  course  for  that  of  Pulo  Sapata.  If  she  should  not  sight  this 
island,  she  should  steer  West,  so  as  to  obtain  soundings  in  32  or  37  fathoms. 
With  thick  weather,  when  ships  are  uncertain  of  their  position,  it  would  be 
dangerous  to  run  straight  for  Pulo  Sapata  and  round  the  island  in  the  night, 
as  it  is  difiieult  to  distinguish.  As  a  general  rule,  they  should  keep  well  to 
the  East  of  Pulo  Sapata  until  on  the  parallel  of  10°  N.,  and  by  standing 
West  by  South  to  obtain  soundings.  Some  captains,  on  leaving  the  Mac- 
clesfield Bank,  run  as  far  as  the  parallel  of  Pulo  Sapata,  keeping  well  off  to 
the  eastward  of  the  island  ;  this  can  be  done  in  March,  April,  or  May.  How- 
ever, in  adopting  this  route  care  must  be  taken  to  allow  for  the  S.E.  currents 
which  might  set  a  ship  on  the  banks  to  the  E.N.E.  and  East  of  Pulo  Sapata. 
When  a  vessel  has  reached  the  parallel  of  10°  N.,  she  would  steer  between 
West  and  South  until  soundings  are  found  in  30  fathoms  ;  then  steer  a  course 
for  Pulo  Aor  or  Pulo  Timoan.  If  she  is  bound  for  the  Strait  of  Singapore, 
to  avoid  the  Charlotte  Bank,  the  soundings  should  not  be  more  than  26  or  28 
fathoms  when  in  latitude  7°  6'  N.  In  March  and  April  vessels  returning  to 
Europe  should  keep  well  to  the  eastward,  so  as  to  pass  between  the  Natunas 
and  Anambas  Islands,  and  take  the  Strait  of  G-aspar. 

Further  remarks  on  these  passages  have  been  given  on  pp.   62  and  85, 
as  has  been  alluded  to. 


A  more  full  description  of  the  passages  between  Australia  and  China  will 
be  found  in  our  Directory  for  the  South  Pacific  Ocean.  As  described  by 
Captain  Allen,  harbour-master  at  Newcastle,  N.S.W.,  there  were  four  prin- 
cipal routes  in  use  by  vessels  between  the  years  1869 — 1873: — 1.  The 
Eastern  Poute,  passing  eastward  of  New  Caledonia,  the  New  Hebrides,  and 
Santa  Cruz  Groups,  and  crossing  the  equator  in  166°  E.  2.  The  Middle 
Route,  westward  of  New  Caledonia,  and  between  the  Santa  Cruz  and  Solo- 
mon Islands,  crossing  the  equator  in  159°  E.  3.  The  Western  Route, 
N.E.  from  Newcastle  to  the  157°  meridian,  thence  North  on  that  meridian 
to  the  Pocklington  Reef  in  11°  S.,  crossing  the  equator  in  153°  E.  4.  The 
Torres  Strait  Route,  also  from  Newcastle,  N.E.  to  the  157th  meridian,  then 
North  on  that  meridian  to  the  latitude  of  the  Mellish  Reef,  and  N.  W.  for 
Bligh's  entrance  to  Torres  Strait.  When  through  Torres  Strait  the  route  is 
between  the  Tenimber  and  Arrou  Islands,  and  by  the  passage  between 
Ceram  and  Bouro  into  the  Molucca  Channel,   then  round  the  N.E.  end  of 


Celebes  Island  into  the  Celebes  Sea,  through  the  Basilan  Channel  into  the 
Sulu  Sea,  and  through  Mindoro  Strait  into  the  China  Sea.  The  distance 
from  Nevvcastle  to  Hong  Kong  by  this  route  is  5,300  miles,  and  it  has  been 
taken  by  one  ship,  between  the  years  1869  and  1873,  the  England,  which 
made  the  passage  in  41  days,  in  the  month  of  July.  Some  further  remarks 
as  to  the  best  route  through  the  Archipelago  will  be  found  below. 

Much  depends  on  the  sailing  qualities  of  the  vessel,  but  as  a  general  rule, 
ships  leaving  Australia  in  the  months  of  January,  February,  or  March,  for 
China  or  Japan,  should  adopt  the  Middle  Route,  and  may  expect  to  make 
the  passage  in  about  40  days  ;  leaving  in  April,  May,  or  June,  they  should 
adopt  the  Western  Route,  and  may  expect  to  make  the  passage  in  about  36 
days ;  leaving  in  July,  August,  or  September,  they  should,  if  they  can  reach 
Torres  Strait  before  the  end  of  August,  take  that  route  ;  and  if  not,  either 
the  Western  or  Middle  Route,  and  may  expect  to  make  the  passage  via 
Torres  Strait  in  40  days,  and  by  the  other  routes  in  55  days ;  and,  finally, 
ships  leaving  in  October,  November,  and  December,  should  adopt  the  Middle 
Route,  and  may  expect  to  make  the  passage  in  about  44  days. 

Eeom  Sydney  to  Yedo. — Vessels  bound  from  Sydney  to  Japan  during 
the  S.W.  monsoon  should  pursue,  as  far  as  lat.  8°  N..  and  long.  160°  E.,  the 
same  course  as  those  bound  for  Hong  Kong ;  from  that  position  a  course 
should  be  shaped  to  pass  to  the  northward  of  the  Mariana  Islands  and  to 
the  south-westward  of  the  Volcano  Islands,  after  passing  which,  steer  to 
make  0  Sima  lights,  remembering  that  the  ship  must  pass  the  strength  of 
the  Kuro  Siwo,  and  wiU,  when  in  its  stream,  be  set  to  the  north-eastward 
from  2  to  3  knots  an  hour. 

North  Coast  of  Australia  to  China. — The  following  remarks  are  by 
Mr.  Greorge  Windsor  Earl : — 

A  ship  proceeding  from  the  North  coast  of  Australia  to  China,  from  April 
to  September,  when  the  S.E.  monsoon  prevails  to  the  southward,  and  the 
S.W.  monsoon  to  the  northward  of  the  equator,  should  pass  to  the  southward 
of  Timor  and  Sandalwood  Island,  and  through  the  straits  of  Alias  or  Lom- 
bok  into  the  Java  Sea ;  and  from  thence  through  the  Carimata  Passage,  and 
up  the  China  Sea  to  Canton,  by  which  course  she  will  have  a  stronger  mon- 
soon and  a  clearer  sea  than  by  passing  to  the  northward  of  Timor,  and 
through  the  Flores  Sea ;  or  than  by  running  at  once  to  the  northward, 
through  the  Molucca  Passages.  By  this  latter  route,  instead  of  a  fair  and 
steady  wind  all  the  voyage,  difficulty  would  be  experienced  in  passing  be- 
tween Borneo  and  Palawan  into  the  China  Sea,  from  the  variable  winds,  and 
from  the  numerous  shoals  which  lie  to  the  westward  of  the  Balabak  Passage. 
The  passage  by  the  North  of  Palawan  to  China  is  also  often  attended  with 
difficulty  during  the  S.W.  monsoon ;  and  an  additional  inconvenience  of 
these  routes  is,  that  the  navigation  of  the  Molucca  Sea  will  be  performed 
during  the  bad  monsoon. 


Ships  returning  from  China  to  the  North  coast  of  Australia  during  this 
season  should  pursue  the  track  frequently  adopted  by  ships  bound  to  Europe, 
namely,  by  standing  to  the  eastward,  round  the  North  end  of  the  Philippines 
into  the  Pacific,  and  so  to  the  southward  towards  New  Guinea.  When  past 
the  parallel  of  5°  N.,  S.E.  and  S.S.E.  winds,  with  a  strong  current  to  the 
westward,  will  probably  be  felt,  by  which  she  may  easily  pass  through  Dam- 
pier  Strait,  or  the  Gilolo  Passage,  into  the  Molucca  Sea.  She  may  then  pass 
between  Coram  and  Bouro,  and  across  the  Banda  Sea  to  Wetta,  when  no 
difficulty  will  be  found  in  getting  to  the  eastward  along  the  North  side  of  the 
Serwatty  Islands,  as  the  current  there  sets  to  the  eastward  during  the  S.E. 
monsoon.  When  off  Baba,  she  may  stand  to  the  southward  for  the  coast  of 
Australia,  and  if  she  should  fall  to  leeward  of  her  port,  she  may  easily  gain 
her  easting  by  taking  advantage  of  the  land  and  sea  breezes. 

Again,  if  a  vessel  is  bound  from  the  North  coast  of  Australia  to  China 
from  October  to  March,  when  the  western  monsoon  prevails  to  the  southward 
of  the  equator,  and  the  N.E.  monsoon  in  the  China  Sea,  she  should,  on  leav- 
ing the  coast,  keep  close  to  the  wind,  and  as  the  monsoon  often  blows  8.W. 
and  even  S.S.W.  between  Australia  and  Timor,  she  may  be  enabled  to  pass 
between  Timor  and  the  Serwatty  Islands  and  through  Pitt  Passage  into  the 
Pacific,  and  thus  pursue  the  eastern  route  to  China  adopted  by  ships  at  this 
season.  If  unable  to  get  far  enough  to  windward  to  pass  between  Ceram  and 
Bouro,  she  may  run  at  once  to  the  northward,  between  Ceram  and  Ceram 
Laut,  and  from  thence  into  the  Pacific  by  Pitt  or  Damj)ier  Straits.  The  only 
difficulty  that  an  indifferent  ship  would  be  likely  to  encounter  in  this  route 
would  be  on  the  passage  between  Ceram  Laut  and  the  N.W.  end  of  New 
Guinea,  where  the  winds  would  probably  be  from  the  N.W. ;  but  even  then 
she  would  have  the  advantage  of  fine  weather.  The  route  from  the  North 
coast  of  Australia,  through  the  Flores  and  Java  Seas,  and  up  the  China  Sea 
to  Canton,  would  be  impracticable  at  this  season,  even  for  a  fast  sailing 
vessel,  as  she  would  have  a  dead  beat  and  a  lee  current  the  whole  way. 

A  ship  returning  from  China  during  this  season  may  steer  a  direct  course 
through  the  Mindoro  Sea,  and  thence  by  the  Molucca  Passage,  and  past  the 
N.E.  end  of  Timor  to  the  North  coast  of  Australia. 



A  vessel  bound  to  Singapore  from  April  to  September  may  pursue  the 
route  recommended  above  for  ships  bound  to  China  at  this  season,  namely  to 
the  southward  of  Timor,  through  the  Straits  of  Alias  and  Cariraata,  and 
thence  through  Rhio  Strait  to  Singapore.  The  return  voyage  at  that  season, 
through  the  Java  Sea,  against  the  S.E.  monsoon,  would  be  tedious  and  diffi- 


cult,  even  for  a  smart  ship  ;  it  would,  tlierefore,  be  most  advisable  to  run 
across  the  China  Sea,  and  round  the  North  end  of  Borneo,  where  she  would 
probably  have  the  advantage  of  S.AV.  and  S.S.W.  winds,  to  traverse  the 
Sooloo  Archipelago.  When  near  the  Molucca  Passage,  though  the  winds 
will  be  mostly  from  the  southward,  yet  but  little  difficulty  will  be  experienced 
in  passing  through  it ;  and  when  through,  the  route  to  the  North  coast  of 
Australia,  already  recommended  for  vessels  returning  from  China  at  this 
season,  should  be  adopted. 

From  October  to  March,  the  passage  to  Singapore  through  the  Java  Sea, 
against  the  N.W.  monsoon,  will  be  tedious  and  difficult ;  a  ship  bound  there 
during  that  season  should  therefore  proceed  to  the  northward  by  the  Molucca 
or  Gilolo  Passage,  where  she  would  have  the  advantage  of  tine  weather,  and 
when  to  the  northward  of  Grilolo  the  wind  would  probably  come  from  the 
northward  and  eastward,  with  a  westerly  current,  which  would  enable  her  to 
proceed  round  the  North  end  of  Borneo,  and  so  with  the  N.E.  monsoon, 
down  the  China  Sea  to  Singapore.  A  ship  returning  at  this  season  should 
pass  through  the  Carimata  Passage,  through  the  Java  and  Floras  Seas,  and 
then  to  the  southward  of  Wetta,  and  between  Timor  and  the  Serwatty 
Islands,  to  the  North  coast  of  Australia.  It  would  be  advisable  to  proceed 
through  the  Strait  of  Alias,  and  to  the  southward  of  Timor,  as  light  airs  and 
calms,  with  squalls  from  the  South  and  S.S.W.,  are  often  encountered  to  the 
southward  of  the  islands  East  of  Java,  while  in  the  Flores  Sea  the  N.W. 
monsoon  blows  steadily. 

In  the  S.W.  Monsoon. 

The  adverse  voyage  against  the  S.W.  monsoon  is  best  followed  by  adopt- 
ing one  of  the  ensuing  routes,  according  to  the  time  when  the  southern  part 
of  China  is  left. 

First  Eastern  Eoute. — Quitting  Macao,  or  Hong  Kong,  in  the  end  of 
April  or  beginning  of  May  for  the  first  Eastern  Eoute,  that  is,  the  Mindoro 
Strait,  a  ship  should  run  to  the  South  as  far  as  the  Macclesfield  Bank,  if  the 
wind  allows,  so  as  to  reach  the  N.W.  extreme  of  Mindoro  without  tacking 
in  case  of  the  wind  shifting  to  S.W.  From  near  the  Macclesfield  she  should 
stand  S.E.,  holding  her  wind  if  it  is  at  all  to  the  S.W.,  and  should  it  not 
admit  of  her  weathering  the  point  of  Calavite  she  should  work  along  the 
coast  of  Lu^on  with  the  variable  winds,  with  which  she  will  come  up  to  the 
N.W.  extremity  of  Mindoro. 

The  channel  to  the  East  of  the  Apo  Bank  should  be  chosen  for  crossing 
the  Mindoro  Strait,  giving  the  Mindoro  coast  a  berth  of  some  miles,  if  the 
wind  is  variable ;  a  distance  of  9  or  10  miles  is  necessary  if  the  S.W.  wind  is 

I.    A.  M 


steady ;  she  will  then  pass  the  islands  of  Ambolon  and  Ilin  at  a  distance  of 
about  15  miles. 

Should  the  wind  allow,  she  may  cross  the  Strait  of  Mindoro,  passing  West 
of  the  Apo  Lank,  in  the  Northumberland  Channel,  formed  by  this  bank  and 
the  Calamianes.  Then  keep  along  the  coast  of  Panay,  working,  if  necessary, 
at  some  distance  from  this  island,  according  to  circumstances,  and  approach 
the  island  of  Quiniluban,  so  as  to  pass  the  dry  sandbank  between  this  island 
and  the  coast  of  Panay. 

Having  reached  Cape  Naso,  stand  for  the  strait  of  Basilan,  making  it  well 
to  the  southward  and  westward,  when  the  wind  is  from  these  quarters  :  but 
steering  direct  for  it  if  the  wind  is  easterly.  The  S.W.  extreme  of  Min- 
danao being  gained,  it  will  be  better  to  take  the  strait  of  Basilan  than  those 
formed  by  the  islands  to  the  S.W.,  the  former  route  being  the  shortest ;  the 
Celebes  Sea  will  thus  be  entered,  and  the  ship  will  make  fur  the  strait  of 

Instead  of  persevering  in  working  at  the  entrance  of  the  strait  of  Basilan 
against  S.E.  winds,  it  may  be  better  to  steer  West,  in  order  to  pass  West  of 
the  Sooloo  Archipelago,  between  the  point  of  Unsang  and  the  island  of 
Tawee-Tawee.  There  are  two  small  islands  close  off  the  S.W.  point  of  this 
island,  bearing  S.W.,  near  Sibutu  Island,  and  forming  a  good  channel  lead- 
ing direct  to  the  Celebes  Sea.  This  channel  is  safe,  and  easy  of  navigation 
both  by  night  and  day,  four  hours  sufl&cing  for  passing  from  one  sea  to 
the  other  by  it,  while  under  similar  circumstances  it  has  sometimes  occupied 
four  days  in  going  from  one  sea  to  the  other  by  the  strait  of  Basilan. 

To  leave  the  Celebes  Sea,  a  vessel  may  either  take  the  Macassar  Strait  or 
the  Molucca  Channel.  Some  navigators  prefer  the  latter  when  the  S.E. 
monsoon  prevails  North  of  the  equator.  In  fact,  it  is  difficult,  without  a 
tedious  passage  to  windward,  to  reach  Allass  Strait  from  the  strait  of  Ma- 
cassar ;  while  by  taking  the  Molucca  Channel  the  S.E.  monsoon  is  found  in 
a  latitude  sufficiently  to  the  eastward  to  enable  you  to  take  whichever  eastern 
channel  is  preferred.  But  vessels  bound  to  Batavia,  or  the  strait  of  Sunda, 
will  find  the  strait  of  Macassar  the  best. 

On  leaving  the  strait  of  Basilan,  if  the  easterly  wind  is  well  established,  a 
vessel  should  steer  so  as  to  make  Cape  Donda  to  the  S.S.E.  or  South  ;  but 
most  generally,  from  the  winds  veering  westward  near  the  northern  entrance 
of  the  strait,  and  the  current  setting  eastward,  it  is  prudent  to  keep  as  much 
as  possible  to  the  westward,  in  order  to  sight  Point  Kanneeungan.  A  ship 
off  Cape  Rivers  is  sometimes  set  to  the  eastward  by  the  current  along  the 
coast  of  Celebes,  and  after  fruitless  contest  with  it,  is  sometimes  obliged  to 
take  the  Molucca  Channel. 

A  ship  having  entered  the  strait  of  Macassar,  should  keep  along  the  West 
coast  of  Celebes,  passing  East  of  the  Little  Paternosters,  being  very  cautious, 
on  account  of  the  dangers  North  of  the  islands  of  Nusa  Seras,  in  passing  be- 


tween  them  and  the  Grreat  Pulo  Laut.  From  thence  she  should  steer  for  the 
strait  of  Alias,  or  one  of  the  straits  leading  into  the  Indian  Ocean.  If 
bound  to  Batavia  or  the  strait  of  Sun  da  from  the  strait  of  Macassar,  she 
should  steer  South,  if  the  wind  will  permit,  and  pass  North  of  the  Little 
Paternosters  for  the  coast  of  Borneo,  keeping  along  this  coast  and  guarding 
against  the  dangers  off  it,  as  well  inshore  as  to  seaward.  She  would  then 
enter  the  Java  Sea,  and  reach  Batavia  or  the  strait  of  Sunda  without  diffi- 
culty ;  and  thence  the  Indian  Ocean,  and  make  for  the  Cape,  or  the  western 
coast  of  India,  by  the  routes  before  alluded  to. 

A  ship  taking  this  route,  and  meeting  with  contrary  winds  from  the  strait 
of  Basilan,  so  as  to  be  unable  to  reach  the  strait  of  Macassar,  may  take  the 
Molucca  Passage,  and  should  then  steer  for  the  islands  near  the  N.E.  end  of 
Celebes  ;  and  passing  between  the  islands  of  Banka  and  Bejaren,  will  clear 
the  N.E.  point  of  that  island,  and  tlien  steer  to  the  southward,  through  the 
channel  formed  by  Lissa  Matula  and  Oby  Major,  which  is  the  most  fre- 
quented ;  or,  if  the  wind  should  not  permit  her  reaching  it,  should  take  the 
Grreyhound  Channel,  between  the  islands  Albion  and  Hammond  (West  of 
Xulla  Tally abo). 

When  it  is  difficult  to  get  to  the  southward  in  the  Molucca  Channel,  dull 
sailing  vessels  might  try  to  do  so  by  keeping  near  the  West  coast  of  Gilolo  ; 
thence  they  might  enter  the  strait  of  Patientia,  between  GiLdo  and  Batchian, 
or  the  strait  of  Batchian,  formed  by  the  island  of  this  name  and  Tawally  and 

However,  a  ship  having  reached  the  northern  extremity  of  Gilolo  or 
Morty  in  the  height  of  the  S.  W.  monsoon,  should  rather  pass  through  the 
Grilolo  Channel  than  that  of  the  Moluccas,  because  it  leads  more  directly  to 
Pitt  Channel,  by  which  she  can  gain  the  eastern  straits. 

On  leaving  the  Molucca  Channel  the  Timor  Strait  or  the  strait  of  Ombay 
may  be  adopted  if  desirable.  A  ship  should  then  pass  close  to  Oby  Mnjor, 
in  order  easily  to  round  the  East  coast  of  Bourou,  and  so  pass  between  this 
island  and  that  of  Manipa.  She  would  then  run  to  the  southward  into  the 
Banda  Sea,  whei'e  the  winds  are  generally  from  E.S.E.  ;  on  leaving  Manipa 
she  would  endeavour  to  pass  to  the  East  of  Ombay,  and  having  crossed  the 
channel  formed  by  this  island  and  Wetta,  would  follow  the  West  coast  of 
Timor,  and  enter  the  Indian  Ocean  between  Semao  and  Savu.  This  is  the 
shortest  route  during  this  season  from  Pitt  Passage  to  the  Indian  Ocean. 

Segokd  Easterk'  Route.  — The  second  eastern  route  for  the  Cape  or  West 
coast  of  India  from  China,  with  the  S.W.  monsoon,  is  adopted  from  the 
middle  of  May  to  the  end  of  July.  This  route  is  by  taking  the  Pacific  Ocean 
East  of  the  Philippines,  and  passing  through  Pitt  Passage.  In  August  it  is 
too  late  to  adopt  this  route,  and  a  ship  obliged  to  leave  the  S.W.  of  China 
thou,  should  follow  the  coasts  of  Cochin  China  and  Cambodia,  as  before  di- 


rected,  unless  from  being  a  bad  sailer  it  may  be  better  to  defer  her  departure 
until  September. 

With  southerly  or  S.W.  winds,  a  ship  to  pass  East  of  the  Philippinea 
should  steer  South  in  order  to  enter  the  Pacific  Ocean  with  tacking.  If  the 
wind  admits,  the  channel  between  the  Bashees  and  Babuyanes  should  be 
adopted.  Having  reached  the  Pacific  Ocean,  S.W.  winds  at  this  season  will 
generally  be  found,  with  easterly  or  N.E.  currents  ;  she  should  then  steer 
8.E.  in  order  to  avoid  Cape  Engano  and  Lugon,  tacking  if  necessary  so  aa 
to  pass  neither  too  far  out  nor  too  close,  and  taking  care  not  to  round  the 
Pelew  Islands  farther  to  the  eastward  than  is  necessary. 

The  best  route  for  making  southing  is  then  East  of  the  isles  of  St,  Andrew, 
Current,  Mariere,  Lord  North,  and  the  dangerous  Helen  Shoal.  If  the 
easterly  drifts  of  the  equatorial  counter  current  are  met  they  will  not  be 
strong  as  far  as  the  Pelew  Islands ;  but  between  lat.  5°  and  2°  N.  they  set 
at  the  rate  of  30  or  60  miles  per  day.  This  part  must  therefore  be  crossed 
as  quickly  as  possible  if  the  wind  is  West,  as  it  frequently  is ;  and  if  the 
wind  is  light,  a  ship  may  be  set  far  to  the  eastward  by  this  current.  But 
from  the  lat.  of  2°  N.  to  the  equator  a  westerly  current  will  be  found,  while 
near  Dampier  Strait  it  is  again  running  to  the  eastward. 

Having  rounded  to  the  eastward  the  island  of  St.  Andrew,  a  ship  should 
endeavour  to  keep  between  the  meridians  of  132°  and  133°  E.,  and  when 
in  1°  N.  lat.,  if  Dampier  Strait  is  to  be  taken,  she  should  make  for  Point 

The  strait  of  Gilolo  being  broader  than  that  of  Dampier,  is  often  preferred 
for  that  reason,  and  it  has  few  difficulties  to  overcome  in  reaching  Pitt 

When  Gilolo  Strait  is  to  be  adopted,  on  leaving  the  parallel  of  2°  N,  a 
ship  should  steer  for  the  Asia  Isles,  and  round  them  on  the  North,  if  the 
wind  permits,  unless  she  passes  between  these  islands  and  Ayou. 

Having  passed  the  islands  of  Eye  and  Syang,  she  would  then  go  North 
or  South  of  the  island  of  Greby,  and  if  the  weather  be  not  favourable,  instead 
of  the  strait  of  Bougainville  she  might  take  that  of  Grilolo,  which  is  North  of 
it ;  and  in  crossing  this  strait  she  should  keep  near  the  eastern  coast,  and 
enter  Pitt  Channel  between  Pulo  Pisang  and  the  Boo  Isles,  or  else,  accord- 
ing to  circumstances,  between  Kekek  and  Pulo  Gass. 

A  vessel  entering  Dampier  Strait  should  round  Point  Pigot  at  a  distance 
of  6  or  12  miles,  and  then  steer  for  King  William  Island,  keeping  it  West 
of  her  ;  when  about  9  miles  from  it  she  should  steer  for  Pigeon  Island,  and 
pass  2  or  3  miles  South  of  it ;  she  may  then  cross  the  strait,  taking  care  to 
avoid  any  dangers  in  her  way. 

On  leaving  Dampier  Strait  she  would  go  close  round  Cape  Mabo,  so  as  if 
posssible  to  pass  South  of  Pulo  Popa  ;  or  she  may  pass  North  of  this  island 

CHINA  SEA.  85 

and  enter  Pitt  Channel  bet'veen  the  Boo  Islands  and  Pulo  Popa.  In  Pitt 
Channel  she  should  keep  mid-channel,  borrowing  rather  on  the  southern 
than  on  the  northern  side.  Having  reached  West  of  Pulo  Popa,  and  cleared 
Pitt  Passage,  passing  between  Ceram  and  Bourou,  the  Indian  Ocean  may  be 
entered  by  the  strait  of  Ombay  or  one  of  those  westward  of  it. 

The  strait  of  Ombay  is  the  most  direct  route  to  the  Indian  Ocean  in  the 
S.E.  monsoon.  If  intending  to  take  the  strait  of  Salayer,  or  those  of  Alias 
or  Sapie,  the  N.W.  part  of  Bourou  should  be  gained,  and  thence  the  most 
northerly  of  the  Toukan  Bessy  group  should  be  rounded  at  2  or  3  miles 
distance ;  and  from  thence  enter  the  strait  of  Salayer. 


In  pages  28  to  30,  are  given  some  remarks  on  the  currents  experienced  in 
the  China  Sea  ;  and  in  pages  55  to  63  are  directions  for  the  various  routes, 
according  to  the  season,  between  Singapore  and  Hong  Kong. 

The  following  important  notes  are  the  result  of  the  experience  and  obser- 
vation of  Captain  A.  Polack,  master  of  the  Hamburgh  barque  Madeira, 
gained  during  thirty-five  voyages  up  and  down  the  China  Sea,  previous  to 
November,  1867.  They  appeared  in  the  Nautical  Magazine  for  June,  1861, 
and  are  here  given  for  the  benefit  of  the  mariner. 

Although  there  is  a  fast  and  still  increasing  trade  from  China  to  Saigon, 
it  is  astonishing  how  very  little  this  voyage  up  and  down  the  China  Sea 
against  the  monsoon  is  yet  known  and  understood  in  general,  for  the  greatest 
difference  of  arriving  in  China  (as  to  time)  exists  in  this  little  Saigon  voyage 
of  only  about  1,100  miles  distance.  Ships  which  are  acquainted  with  the 
voyage  here  make  it  in  nineteen  to  twenty-three  days,  while  the  greater  part 
not  being  well  acquainted  with  it,  require  between  thirty  and  forty-five  days. 
A  barque  in  1865  took  one  hundred  and  ten  days,  and  worse  than  all,  another 
actually  returned  this  year  to  Hong  Kong,  after  having  been  out  about 
sixtj'  days,  declaring  it  impossible  to  reach  Saigon  in  the  S.  W.  monsoon.  As 
I  have  made  now  fifteen  voyages  from  Hong  Kong  to  Saigon  and  back,  and 
traversed  the  South  China  seas  up  and  down,  and  in  all  seasons  of  the  year, 
thirty-five  times,  I  hope  you  will  hold  me  competent  enough,  and  will 
allow  me  to  give  my  brother  sailors,  who  do  not  know  the  voyage,  a  little  of 
my  experience. 

Leaving  Hong  Kong  in  the  S.W.  Monsoon,  our  first  object  ought  to  be 
to  make  southing,  and  try  to  reach  the  North  Danger  of  the  Palawan  Shoals 
as  soon  as  possible.  But  as  the  wind  is  most  generally  between  S.S.E.  and 
S.S.W.  at  starting,  I  nearly  always  stood  W.S.W.  and  S.S.W.  between  Isle 


Hainan  and  the  Paracels  even  to  the  East  coast  of  Cochin  China,  and  worked 
along  this  coast  as  far  as  Cape  Varela  {not  False  Varela),  always  trying 
to  be  a  good  distance,  say  40  miles  oflE  shore  at  noon,  to  stand  in  with 
the  S.S.E.  winds  generally  blowing  in  the  aftf-rnoon,  until  7  or  10  p.m. 
Then  stand  off  with  the  wind,  then  veering  a  little  off  land,  or  about  South 
and  S.S.W.  {solar  winds).  From  Cape  Varela  I  invariably  stood  to  the 
south-eastward  over  to  the  Palawan  Shoals,  never  thinking  of  going  about, 
for  here  my  greatest  endeavour  was  to  cross  the  Padaran  stream  of  40  to  70 
miles  a  day  to  the  N.E.  as  quickly  as  possible.  I  then  worked  along  the 
shoals  down  to  7°  N.,  and  111°  or  110°  E.  long.,  and  between  7°  and  8° 
N.  lat. 

I  worked  from  two  to  four  days  to  the  westward,  until  St.  James  bore 
N.W.  by  N.,  which  I  then  generally  reached  in  one  or  two  days  in  one  tack. 
In  this  track  my  longest  voyage  was  twenty-three  and  my  shortest  nineteen 
days,  at  same  time  when  other  vessels  took  fifty  and  eighty-five  days.  In 
this  route  I  generally  had  the  current  from  Hong  Kong  (Taytang  Channel) 
and  Macao,  to  the  South  coast  of  Hainan  from  ten  to  twenty-four  miles  a 
day  to  the  N.W.  ;  from  there  to  the  East  coast  of  Cochin  China  the  current 
varies  between  North,  N.W.,  and  West,  from  15  to  25  miles  a  day,  but  on 
the  West  side  of  the  Paracels  an  East  current  of  12  to  30  miles  will  be  found. 
On  the  East  coast  of  Cochin  China  it  runs  from  10  to  20  miles  a  day  to  the 
N.N.W.  and  N.N.E.,  but  there  is  often  no  current  at  all.  From  Cape 
Varela  to  the  shoals  I  generally  had  the  first  day  when  right  in  the  Padaraa 
stream  from  30  to  50  (one  voyage  70')  miles  to  the  N.E.  by  E.,  but  from 
12°  N.  and  about  112°  E.,  its  set  is  from  12  to  40  miles  a  day  to  the  south- 

On  the  shoals  there  is  about  20'  to  the  S.E.,  and  sometimes  to  the  South, 
but  often  no  current  at  all.  Between  7°  and  8°  N.  lat,  and  110°  to  108°  E. 
long.,  there  is  little  or  no  current,  sometimes  even  a  slight  drain  to  the 
westward.  But  standing  over  to  Cape  St.  James  a  strung  N.N.E.  and 
N.E.  by  N.  current  of  36  miles  a  day  will  be  found,  while  South  of  St. 
James  it  runs  E.N.E.  along  the  coast  from  Pulo  Obi  to  Cape  Padaran. 

Should  the  wind  at  starting  from  Hong  Kong  be  from  the  S.W.,  stand 
down  S.S.E.  ;  never  think  of  going  about  till  in  15°  N.,  unless  the  wind 
should  break  off  too  much.  In  this  track  in  the  open  sea,  there  is  generally 
not  over  20  miles  a  day  of  a  N.E.  current,  especially  after  the  strong  E.N.E. 
China  coast  current,  extending  60  to  75  miles  South  of  Hong  Kong,  is 

South  of  15°  N.  lat.,  and  in  115°  E.  long.,  or  to  the  East  of  it,  is  very 
little  current.  I  always  give  the  preference  to  the  inside  track,  for  here 
the  winds  are  more  variable,  the  sea  smoother,  and  getting  the  chance  of  a 
West  or  N.W.  squall  from  land.  Besides  this,  a  vessel  reaches  the  Palawan 
Shoals  60  or  80  miles  farther  West,  and  westing  is  very  difficult  to  make 

CHINA  SEA.  87 

there,  especially  after  July,  when  the  S.W.  monsoon  blows  from  W.S.W. 
or  West. 

This  voyage,  as  explained  here,  is  quite  plain  and  simple,  but  if  asked, 
"  Where  were  the  other  vessels  who  took  from  fifty  to  eighty-five  days  in 
their  passage  ?"  There  is  but  one  general  answer.  They  tried  to  round 
Cape  Padaran.  Here  they  were  lying  for  forty  consecutive  days,  sometimes 
with  a  dozen  and  more  ships  together.  This  year  a  barque  took  thirty-five 
days  from  Japan  to  Padaran,  but  sixty  days  from  there  to  Cape  St.  James, 
running  short  of  everything,  and  had  to  be  provisioned  by  other  vessels. 
They  sometimes  go  as  far  as  Sapata,  but  never  thinking  that,  bound  to  St. 
James  in  10°  10'  N.,  they  ought  to  go  due  South  as  far  as  7°  N.  lat.,  and 
even  ships  on  the  shoals  in  9°  or  10°  N.  and  about  111°  E.,  get  tempted  to 
stand  W.N.W.,  intending  to  pass  between  Pulo  Sapata  amd  Pulo  Ceicer. 
But  when  making  the  land,  they  find  themselves  between  Padaran  and 

I  know  several  instances  of  this.  Or  that  a  ship  made  a  N.N.E.  course 
sailing  W.N.W.  Although  some  vessels  did  make  Padaran,  and  made  a 
good  passage  (assisted  perhaps  by  a  N.W.  squall),  they  form  an  exception, 
and  may  not  do  the  same  again  in  ten  more  voyages.  AVhereas  the  track 
along  the  shoals,  and  although  about  300  miles  longer,  is  pretty  certain. 

My  short  advice,  therefore,  is,  go  either  East  or  West  of  the  Paracels,  and 
make  the  shoals  of  Palawan  as  soon  as  possible.  A  ship  taking  the  inside 
route  should  work  between  the  Cochin  China  coast  and  40'  off  it,  but  should 
not  remain  there  in  the  night,  as  there  is  seldom  a  land  breeze,  but  much 
calm.  Having  reached  the  shoals  as  aforesaid,  work  along  them,  standing 
to  60  miles  off.  Never  think  of  Padaran  or  Sapata,  and  do  not  leave  the 
shoals  unless  in  8°  or  7°  N.  lat.,  as  stated  before,  or  you  will  surely  be  dis- 

Bound  from  Saigon  to  China  in  the  N.E.  Monsoon. — Stand  out  to  the 
S.E.  and  tack,  even  if  the  wind  should  be  from  East  40'  off  the  land.  The 
wind  will  haul  up  to  E.N.E.  and  N.E.,  then  try  to  pass  the  S.W.  current 
(which  runs  the  first  day  at  the  rate  of  30  to  40  miles)  as  fast  as  you  can  ; 
for  about  150  miles  S.E.  by  E.  from  St.  James,  in  about  8°  30'  N.  and  109° 
E.,  the  current  runs  already  to  the  East  and  E.N.E.  AVorking  along  the 
shoals,  between  them  and  60  miles  off  from  lat.  9°  N.,  as  far  as  North 
Danger,  about  75  miles  off,  will  be  right  in  the  fair  N.E.  and  northerly 
current  (right  against  the  wind),  but  I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  a  ship 
should  not  go  nearer  the  shoals  than  about  20  miles  from  them,  because  the 
northerly  current  extends  not  so  far  East,  for  I  have  often  found  there  no 
current  at  all.  From  North  Danger  to  about  119°  E.,  an  easterly  current 
from  about  10  to  40  miles  will  be  found.  But  in  the  early  part  of  October 
the  current  off  the  North  Danger  runs  from  10  to  15  miles  to  the  S.E. 


Along  the  West  coast  of  Lugonia  the  wind  is  from  N.N.W.  to  N.E,  and 
East,  with  fine  weather  and  15  to  24  miles  current  to  the  North,  but  from 
Bolina  it  blows  generally  heavy,  with  a  high,  short  northerly  sea.  If  the 
first  puff  off  Bolina  is  passed,  and  100  or  150  miles  are  made  to  the  N.W., 
the  wind  and  sea  are  getting  more  handy  and  regular,  and  change  one  or  two 
points  farther  to  the  East.  But  the  ship  wants  canvas  here,  and  must  be  in 
good  and  sound  condition,  for  the  sea  rises  here  in  short  and  high  pyramids, 
on  account  of  the  hitherto  uninterrupted  northerly  current,  assuming  here  a 
velocity  of  52  miles  a  day  to  the  N.W.  by  N.  and  N.W.,  and  running  oblique 
to  the  N.E.  sea.  My  longest  voyage  in  this  track  was  twenty-two  days,  and 
my  shortest  nineteen  days  from  Saigon  to  Hong  Kong.  In  February  and 
October,  a  ship  should  not  go  East  of  the  Scarborough  Shoal,  for  in  Febru- 
ary it  is  not  necessary,  and  in  October  there  will  be  nothing  but  calms  and  a 
high  northerly  sea  running. 

This  voyage  against  the  N.E.  monsoon  is  sometimes  very  easy,  and  done 
in  less  than  nineteen  days.  But  it  is  in  general  a  difficult  task,  especially  in 
November,  December,  and  January,  and  requires  a  good  ship  and  plenty  of 
canvas  on  her,  especially  on  the  West  side  of  the  Palawan  shoals,  where  the 
sea,  running  right  against  a  North  and  N.E.  current,  is  as  high  and  short 
here  as  from  Bolina  to  the  Pratas.  But  many  ships  in  this  voyage  commit  a 
great  error  in  working  along  the  South  coast  of  Cochin  China  and  try  to  get 
out  of  Padaran,  which  is  nearly  impossible  on  account  of  the  strong  W.S.W. 
current  and  always  very  short  sea. 

After  reaching  Cape  Bolina,  and  finding  the  above  mentioned  stiff  gale  and 
tremendous  high  cross  sea,  and  thinking  it  blows  a  heavy  gale  all  over  to 
China,  ships  make  a  second  mistake  by  creeping  under  the  land  again  and 
waiting  there  sometimes  for  a  fortnight,  expecting  better  weather.  And  this 
is  the  same  case  with  many  ships  South  of  Formosa  when  bound  North  along 
its  East  coast. 

My  advice,  therefore,  is  stand  boldly  out,  and  remember  that  the  current 
will  assist  you  first  with  50,  and  afterwards  with  20  miles  a  day  to  the 
N.W.  by  N.,  as  far  as  the  Pratas.  And  at  60  miles  from  the  China  coast 
the  wind  will  be  about  E.N.E.,  and  sea  moderating  as  you  close  the  South 
China  coast.  But  keep  the  first  day  from  Cape  Bolina  good  rap  full,  even  if 
you  head  the  first  day  to  leeward  of  Hong  Kong,  and  should  a  ship  really 
fall  to  leeward  of  Taytang  Channel,  let  her  proceed  in  at  the  Ladrones,  from 
which  Hong  Kong  will  be  reached  in  one  day.  If  bound  to  Swatow,  Amoy, 
and  the  northern  ports  of  China,  work  as  far  as  Cape  Bayadere,  and  then 
stand  out  N.W.  or  N.N.W.,  making  long  legs  to  the  North,  and  short  ones 
to  the  East,  especially  for  the  first  150  miles,  where  the  strong  N.N.W. 
current  will  be  under  your  lee.  South  Formosa  will  generally  be  reached 
in  three  to  four  days,  from  whence  to  South  Pescadores,  and  over  to  Swatow 
and  Amoy,  is  plain  sailing,  and  will  be  reached  in  one  tack. 

CHINA  SEA.  89 

Bound  to  l^'ou-Chou-Foo  and  further  North,  ships  have  to  pass  round  the 
South  Cape  of  Formosa,  and  work  to  the  northward  East  of  the  island,  where 
the  Kuro  Si  wo  current  will  assist  them  40  miles  a  day,  decreasing  to  20 
miles  as  they  advance  to  the  northern  boundary  of  the  current  in  about  28°  N. 
and  125°  E.  long.,  from  where  Shanghae  is  reached  without  diificulty.  But 
always  remember  that  the  cold  water  current  runs  strong  to  the  South  on  the 
East  coast  of  China.  Bound  to  Fou-Chou-Foo  they  may  cross  over  from 
26°  N.  lat.,  and  about  122J°  E.  long,  in  one  tack. 

A  voyage  up  and  down  the  China  Sea  with  the  monsoon  presents  no  diffi- 
culty, but  I  would  advise  captains  of  ships  to  pass  East  of  the  Paracels,  for 
in  the  S.W.  monsoon  the  winds  there  are  more  steady  and  fresh  than  inside, 
or  West  of  them,  and  a  vessel  has  more  sea  room  in  case  of  a  cyclone.  After 
having  passed  to  the  West  of  Macclesfield  Bank,  steer  a  N.  by  W.  or  N.  by 
W.  ^  W.  course,  on  account  of  a  N.E.  current,  and  the  winds  blowing  often 
from  W.S.W.  and  West.  December  and  January,  and  in  some  years  the 
latter  half  of  November,  are  the  only  months  in  the  N.E.  monsoon  that  I 
would  advise  to  pass  inside  the  Paracels  when  bound  South,  but  which  ou^ht 
never  to  be  done  from  February  to  the  end  of  May  on  account  of  calms,  and 
always  lighter  winds  than  in  the  open  sea.  I  never  went  inside  in  these 
months,  but  gained  on  ships  which  did  so,  from  eight  days  to  a  fortnight  in 
the  months  of  March,  April,  and  May,  bound  South,  as  well  as  in  the  S.W. 
monsoon  from  June  to  September  when  bound  North. 

Every  one  who  has  perused  the  foregoing  attentively  will  perceive  that  it 
is  not  the  wind  only  that  causes  the  long  and  troublesome  passage,  but  that 
we  have  to  consider  the  current  as  our  greatest  enemy.  And  as  it  has  been 
my  principal  object  from  the  beginning  to  make  myself  thoroughly  acquainted 
with  the  subject,  I  beg  leave  to  trouble  you  a  little  longer,  and  give  you  a 
slight  illustration  of  my  views  about  it,  founded  on  the  experience  of  my 

Currents. — In  the  first  place,  I  am  positive  when  I  assert  that  the  whole 
current  of  the  South  China  Sea  is  nothing  but  a  large  circular  stream,  in 
which  the  waters  running  from  South  have  to  pass  North,  in  order  to  return 
down  South  again.  Coming  from  the  North  through  the  Formosa  Channel, 
and  from  the  East  by  the  Bashees,  the  first  getting  propelled  by  difi'erence 
of  specific  gravity,  and  accelerated  by  the  N.E.  monsoon,  it  rushes  down  to 
the  S.W.,  without  finding  material  obstruction,  until  met  by  Capes  Varela 
and  Padaran.  Here  its  waters  are  turned  oS"  to  the  South,  part  of  them  or 
the  northern  branch  runs  W.S.W.  along  the  Saigon  coast  to  Pulo  Obi,  and 
crossing  the  Gulf  of  Siam  to  Malacca ;  the  main  body,  after  having  passed 
Padaran,  resumes  its  course  to  the  S.S.W.,  but  the  south-eastern  part 
branches  off  to  the  South  as  far  as  8°  N.  and  109°  20'  E.,  from  where  it  runs 
to  the  E.  and  E.N.E.  as  far  as  9°  N.  and  110°  E.     There  it  turns  N.N.E. 

I.  A.  N 


and  from  10°  30'  N.  111°  20'  E.  to  the  N.N.W.  into  its  own  whirl  again,  to 
give  place  to  new  waters  of  the  great  counter  stream  or  whirpool.  This  ex- 
planation may  be  new,  but  it  is,  I  fully  believe,  quite  true,  for  I  found  it 
every  voyage,  bound  North  in  the  N.E.  monsoon,  only  differing  a  little  in 
force  and  direction  according,  perhaps,  to  the  prevailing  strange  or  light 
original  main  current.  The  E.N.E.  and  N.E.  cui-rent  or  the  first  bend  in 
this  whirl  runs  strongest,  and  from  20  to  51  miles  a  day,  decreasing  as  it 
advances  North  to  about  25  and  15  miles  when  its  direction  is  N.N.W.  I 
Consider  this  branch  50  miles  broad,  and  the  diameter  of  the  whole  whirl, 
from  Padaran  to  its  southern  extremity,  about  180  miles,  and  from  Padaran 
to  the  S.E.  about  140  miles. 

If  this  whirl  did  not  exist,  how  should  we  account  for  the  strong  N.E. 
current  against  a  strong  N.E.  monsoon  (and  for  the  always  sharp  set  about 
Sapata  which  we  experience,  and  which  Horsburg  and  the  China  Pilot  men- 
tion), sometimes  when  the  China  Sea  current  to  the  North  and  S.W.  of  this 
whirl  runs  at  the  rate  of  40  to  80  miles  a  day  to  the  south-westward.  This 
latter  current  I  had  in  October,  1866,  coming  down  from  Hong  Kong  with 
the  commencement  of  the  N.E.  monsoon,  or  why  is  there  not  a  N.E.  current 
in  the  N.E.  monsoon,  for  instance,  on  the  Macclesfield  Bank,  or  at  Pulo 
Condore  as  well  ?  After  this  current  of  the  aforesaid  main  branch  has  run 
down  to  the  Natunas,  &c.,  it  gets  obstructed  again  on  the  coast  of  Borneo, 
by  which  a  slight  drain  to  the  East  is  caused,  running  along  the  North 
coast  of  Borneo,  through  the  Palawan  Passage  (assisted  perhaps  by  a  part 
of  the  aforesaid  eastern  counter  current  of  the  Palawan  whirl),  and  along 
the  West  coast  of  Lugonia,  to  run  from  Capes  Bolina  and  Bayadere  N.N.W. 
in  the  great  China  circular  current,  and  commence  its  round  via  Padaran 

This  circular  whirl-current  about  Padaran  is  the  same  in  the  S.W.  mon- 
soon, but  in  a  contrary  direction,  but  not  so  constant  and  regular  as  in  the 
N.E.  monsoon.  H.B.M's.  surveying  vessel  the  Rifleman  found  the  same 
amongst  the  Palawan  shoals,  where  the  commarder  says,  "The  stronger 
the  monsoon,  the  stronger  the  current  to  windward,^''  and  this  is  according  to 
the  whirl  theory  quite  conclusive,  for  the  greater  and  stronger  the  counter 
current  and  the  larger  the  whirl  (and  the  stiffer  the  monsoon,  the  stronger  is 
the  China  Sea  current).  I  have  often  seen  and  noticed  in  the  Saigon  River, 
where  the  ebb  tide  runs  at  the  rate  of  A  knots  an  hoar,  in  the  middle  of 
the  river,  after  turning  a  sharp  corner  it  causes  a  great  counter  current  or 
whirl,  in  which  the  waters  run  2  or  3  knots  up  the  river  close  alongside 
the  5-knot  ebb  tide,  so  that  a  boat,  and  often  my  own  vessel,  when  in  it, 
drifted  up  the  river  at  the  above  rate.  And  when  a  small  river  can  pro- 
duce such  a  strong  whirl,  what  may  not  the  mighty  mass  of  the  China  Sea 
current  be  able  to  do  ?  At  all  events  I  never  found  it  necessary  with  the 
above  N.E.  current  in  the  N.E.  monsoon  to  take  the  Palawan  Route,  and 

CHINA  SEA.  91 

my  results  have  shown  that  I  never  was  behind,  but  generally  ahead  of  those 
vessels  which  did  take  that  dangerous  Palawan  Route. 

This  whirl  current  to  the  West  of  the  Palawan  shoals  may  also  account 
for  the  different  currents  found  by  vessels  which  are  working  there  at  the 
same  time,  where  one  ship  beats  right  in  the  counter  stream,  whilst  the  other 
is  too  far  West  or  inside  the  whirl,  or  too  far  East  and  out  of  its  influence 
altogether.  And  these  little  whirls  are  to  be  found  around  all  the  shoals  in 
the  China  Sea,  and  although  Horsburg  recommends  passing  to  leeward  of 
all  shoals,  I  have  great  reason  from  my  own  experience  for  cautioning  cap- 
tains even  there.  To  leeward  of  the  Pratas  I  found  on  two  voyages  the 
current  setting  East,  or  right  on  the  shoals,  against  a  stiff  N.E.  monsoon  in 
the  months  of  December  and  January.  Although  this  is  the  general  current 
it  is  nevertheless  liable  to  irregularities  and  changes,  in  force  and  direction, 
and  perhaps  more  than  anywhere  else,  which  is  not  at  all  surprising  in  a 
small  sea  like  this,  full  of  islands  and  shoals,  and  entirely  enclosed  by  land, 
causing  different  winds  on  either  side  of  it,  and  on  which  the  current  so 
much  depends.  For  sometimes  it  blows  a  stiff  N.E.  gale  to  the  North,  while 
it  is  calm  South  of  the  Paracels,  and  commanders  expecting  perhaps  a  slight 
current  are  surprised  to  find  one  sometimes  of  50  miles  by  observation,  but 
in  eight  cases  out  of  ten  the  above  explained  current  will  be  found  pretty 

And  lastly,  I  take  the  opportunity  to  caution  captains  against  trusting  too 
much  to  red  or  green  lights  when  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Pratas  and  Paracels, 
for  they  are  often  exhibited  by  wreckers  and  pirates,  especially  at  the  Pratas. 
I  once  observed  a  green  light  to  windward  of  me  on  the  West  side  of  the 
Pratas.  I  kept  four  points  off,  and  being  a  clear  night,  I  went  aloft  with  my 
glass,  and  saw  two  junks,  one  of  which  carried  the  light. 


The  following  remarks  on  the  passages  along  the  Coast  of  China  and  be- 
tween China  and  Japan  are  taken  chiefly  from  the  China  Sea  Directory, 
and  are  supplementary  to  those  previously  given  which  describe  the  best 
routes  for  approaching  the  southern  ports  of  China. 


Passage  East  of  Formosa. — When  bound  from  Hong  Kong  to  Ning-po, 
or  Shanghai,  or  even  to  Fu-chau  fu,  during  the  N.E.  monsoon,  a  vessel 
should  be  in  good  condition  for  contending  with  rough  weather  and  for 
carrying  sail.     The  best  plan  appears  to  be,  to  work  along  the  coast  as  far 


as  Breaker  Point,*  and  then  stretch  across  to  the  South  end  of  Formosa,  and 
work  up  eastward  of  that  island.  By  remaining  in  with  the  coast  of  China, 
she  will  have  the  advantage  of  the  land  wind  at  night,  of  smoother  water, 
and  the  ebb  tide  out  of  the  deep  bays,  which  will  generally  be  under  her  le© 
on  the  starboard  tack,  and  in  the  event  of  its  blowing  too  hard  to  make  way, 
there  are  numerous  convenient  anchorages.  It  will  be  prudent  to  keep  within 
10  miles  of  the  coast,  to  avoid  being  swept  to  the  southward  whilst  standing 
off  the  land;  but  as  this  cannot  be  done  at  night  without  risk,  a  vessel 
should,  if  possible,  anchor  in  the  evening,  and  weigh  in  the  middle  watch, 
when  the  wind,  generally  coming  more  off  the  land,  will  enable  her  to  make 
a  good  board  on  the  off  shore  tack.  By  passing  eastward  of  Formosa,  also, 
a  heavy  short  sea  in  the  Formosa  Channel  will  be  avoided,  as  well  as  the 
constant  set  to  the  southward  during  the  season. 

After  rounding  the  South  end  of  Formosa,  off  which  there  is  generally  & 
troublesome  sea,  a  vessel  should  make  short  tacks,  if  requisite,  to  keep  with- 
in the  influence  of  the  Kuro  siwo  or  Japan  stream,  which  has  sometimes 
been  found  running  northward  at  the  rate  of  30  or  40  miles  per  day. 

There  are  no  harbours  on  the  East  coast  of  Formosa,  except  Su-au  Bay, 
tow^ards  the  North  end  of  the  island,  and  deep  water  will  be  found  close  to 
the  land.  The  mountains  rise  almost  immediately  from  the  sea  ;  their  sides 
in  some  places  are  cultivated,  and  a  good  many  houses  will  be  seen.  H.M. 
brig  Plover  anchored  on  an  uneven  bottom  in  Black  Rock  Bay,  the  vessel 
swinging  from  13  to  22  fathoms,  and  rode  out  a  gale  from  the  S.W. ;  but  it 
is  by  no  means  to  be  recommended. 

Having  weathered  the  North  end  of  Formosa,  it  will  be  still  advisable  to 
keep  to  the  eastward,  and  not  approach  the  continent  until  the  parallel  of 
lat.  30^°  N.  is  gained.  Should,  however,  a  vessel  be  driven  to  the  westward, 
she  may  always  calculate  on  smooth  water,  and  be  able  to  tide  it  through 
the  southern  part  of  the  Chusan  Archipelago  ;  and  if  disabled  and  in  want  of 

*  Towards  the  close  of  the  N.E.  monsoon,  and  still  later,  it  would  seem  preferable  to 
cross  over  towards  Luzon  rather  beat  up  to  Breaker  Point  against  tresh  N.E.  breezes, 
as  the  following  remarks  of  Captain  David  W.  Stephens,  of  the  British  ship  Sarkaway, 
tend  to  show;—"  Ships  from  Hong  Kong,  bound  through  the  Bashee  or  any  of  the  other 
channels  between  Formosa  and  Luzon,  from  March  to  June  inclusive,  but  more  particularly 
in  March  and  April,  during  brisk  N.E.  winds  and  a  strong  westerly  current,  frequently 
take  a  week  beating  along  shore  to  reach  Breaker  Point  before  standing  off;  whereas,  if 
after  clearing  the  Lema  Channel  the  vessels  had  stood  off  on  a  wind,  clean  full  to  the  S.E., 
they  would  soon  have  got  out  of  the  westerly  current,  and  on  nearing  Luzon  would  expe- 
rience the  wind  more  from  the  eastward  and  sometimes  from  S.E.,  enabling  them  to  tack  to 
the  N.N.E.  with  a  strong  current  in  their  favour,  and  thus  would  probably  get  to  the  east- 
ward of  Formosa  in  less  time  than  it  would  have  taken  to  reach  Breaker  Point  by  keeping 
along  the  Coast  of  China." 

CHINA  SEA.  93 

spars,  she  can  remain  at  the  southern  side  of  Duffield  Pass,  and  supply  her- 
self from  the  Fu-chau  wood  junks. 

Upon  this  part  of  the  voyage  the  following  remarks,  which  appeared  in 
the  "Mercantile  Marine  Magazine"  for  1865,  will  be  interesting.  They 
are  by  Capt.  James  Turnbull,  of  the  Glen  Clune,  of  Glasgow,  and  relate  to 
an  outward  voyage  made  in  September,  1864. 

The  object  of  nearing  Formosa,  is  to  get  into  an  easterly  set  in-shore, 
working  round  and  joining  the  permanent  great  stream  from  the  Pacific  on 
the  East  side  near  Botel  Tobago.  This  set  is  found  as  soon  as  the  N.E. 
monsoon  has  set  down  the  Formosa  Channel,  impelling  the  water,  and  thus 
making  it  perform  the  entire  circuit  of  the  island,  down  the  West  and  up 
the  East  coast.  While  working  off  the  South  coast,  wind  northing,  stood 
right  for  the  Bashees,  there  tacked  and  fetched  Botel  Tobago,  when  we 
were  fairly  in  the  Japan  current,  temperature  of  water  83°,  average  daily 
set  30  to  36  miles  N.N.E..  and  made  70  to  80  miles  per  diem.  From  the 
East  cape,  too  many  vessels  still  commit  the  mistake  of  working  to  the 
northward,  direct  for  Shanghai,  whereas  the  current  sets  north-easterly 
right  over  the  Hoa-pin-su  Group.  Follow  it,  drawing  for  its  western  edge 
a  curve  line  from  the  E&st  cape  to  30  miles  West  of  Hoa-pin-su,  and  on  to 
the  East  side  of  the  Linschoten  or  Cecille  Group.  Its  eastern  edge  cannot 
be  so  well  defined,  but  draw  a  line  from  Kumi  to  East  of  Raleigh  Rock,  and 
then  past  Sulphur  Island  and  West  of  Lu-chu  Group.  The  reason  the 
western  edge  is  better  defined  is,  that  it  follows  a  sudden  rise  of  the  bottom, 
from  ocean  depth  to  about  50  fathoms.  If  you  have  an  atlas  on  board,  you 
will  find  the  Japan  stream  placed  2°  and  3°  further  south-easterly,  that  is 
just  where  a  vessel  woiild  get  the  back  eddies  southwards, — any  representa- 
tion that  I  have  seen  nf  it  being  merely  from  the  guesswork  of  generalisa- 
tion, not  from  actual  observation.  When  the  winter  has  set  in  the  tempera- 
ture is  a  good  guide  on  its  N. W.  side ;  but  in  summer  and  fall,  the  heat  of 
the  water  right  up  to  the  in-shore  set  of  the  China  coast  is  nearly  the  same, 
81°  to  82°.  From  Botel  Tobago  to  off  Sulphur  Island  I  beat  up  in  six  days, 
then  tacked,  heading  N.W.  by  W.,  and  in  two  days  fetched  the  Jight-ship, 
The  Anglo  Saxon  and  Sir  W.  F.  Williams  did  the  same  with  somewhat  similar 
success,  while  of  those  who  fought  away  North  of  Formosa,  one  went  down, 
others  sought  refuge  at  Amoy  to  refit,  and  some  came  dropping  in  towards 
the  middle  of  October,  assisted  by  the  southerly  winds  that  often  succeed 
the  first  six  weeks  of  the  N.E.  monsoon.  The  sea  is  much  the  same  as  in  the 
American  Gulf  Stream,  and  vessels  that  cannot  stand  it  ought  not  to  be  sent 
to  China. 

On  making  the  Barren  Islands,  as  nearly  the  whole  flood  tide  sets  S.W., 
keep  to  windward,  and  do  not  be  tempted  to  seek  shelter  under  the  Saddle 
Islands.  Either  work  in  the  open  sea  under  a  press  of  sail ;  or,  if  possible, 
stand  on  until  near  the  Amherst  Rocks,  when,   if  dark,  anchor.     You  will 


have  rough  riding,  but  the  pilot  boats  and  coasters  do  so  at  all  times  in  pre- 
ference to  seeking  shelter  to  leeward,  as,  in  spite  of  the  sailing  directions,  it 
is  difficult  to  get  back.  Pilots  are  now  in  abundance,  and  in  the  N.E.  .mon- 
Boon  ships  run  up  to  Wusung,  and  there  take  steam. 

Amoy  to  Rivbr  Min. — If  bound  from  Hong  Kong  to  Amoy,  or  the  ports 
between  that  place  and  the  River  Min,  a  vessel  will  generally  find  a  diffi- 
culty in  getting  round  Breaker  Point ;  for  the  tide  here  is  of  no  use,  and  all 
there  is  to  assist  is  the  likelihood  that  the  wind  will  draw  off  the  land  after 
midnight,  when,  by  being  in-shore,  a  good  board  can  be  made,  and  possibly 
the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  reached.  Haimun  Bay  cannot  be  recommended,  but 
still  it  would  be  better  to  anchor  there  than  to  be  carried  round  the  point. 
In  this  case,  should  West  Hill  be  obscured,  run  in  under  the  point,  lower  a 
boat,  and  let  her  find  the  sunken  rock,  and  then  come  in  with  good 
way  to  windward  of  Parkyns  Eock — if  drawing  less  than  13  ft. — and  shoot 
up  round  the  boat  into  Fort  Bay. 

Having  reached  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  the  flood  will  assist  a  vessel  to 
round  it,  and  the  ebb  out  of  the  Han  River  will  be  a  weather  tide ;  in  the 
latter  case,  and  not  intending  to  go  inside  Namoa  Island,  endeavour  to  get 
along  the  South  side  of  the  island,  where  there  is  an  eddy  tide,  and  anchor 
in  South  Bay,  should  the  weather  prove  too  bad  to  proceed  on  the  flood  ; 
both  tides  will  be  found  strong  off  Three  Chimney  Point,  and  the  same  may 
be  said  of  Jakako  Point,  round  which  vessels  should  take  the  first  of  the 
flood  on  the  port  tack. 

Further  northward  about  Rees  Island,  the  flood  tide  in  strong  winds 
causes  an  uneasy  sea,  which  will  distress  a  vessel  much.  Red  and  Ting-tae 
Bays  will  be  found  good  stopping-places  ;  and  the  latter  should  be  preferred, 
though  at  the  loss  of  2  or  3  miles,  to  anchoring  in  an  exposed  position  in  the 
entrance  to  Amoy  Harbour;  as  when  the  N.E.  winds  freshen  off  here  on  the 
flood,  they  generally  bring  a  mist  in  with  them,  which  makes  it  difficult  to 
find  the  entrance,  and  at  the  same  time  a  vessel  will  have  trouble  to  get  out 
of  the  harbour  against  the  tide. 

To  the  northward  of  Amoy  or  Leeo-lu  and  Hu-i-tau  Bays,  both  of  which 
afford  good  shelter.  Chimmo  Bay  is  not  so  good ;  but  with  plenty  of  good 
ground  tackle  vessels  may  ride  in  it.  The  current  in  the  monsoon  over- 
comes the  tide  here  ;  and  advantage  must  be  taken  of  every  slant  of  wind, 
bearing  in  mind  that  it  is  likely  to  draw  off  the  land  in  the  middle  watch, 
pnd  in  the  event  of  anchoring  for  shelter,  this  is  the  time  to  start,  should  the 
wind  moderate ;  by  waiting  for  daylight  vessels  lose  their  offing,  and  will 
have  to  make  an  off-shore  board  at  a  loss.  The  fogs  are  at  times  thick,  but 
the  lead  is  not  a  bad  guide,  as  the  soundings  generally  change  from  sand 
to  mud  as  the  shore  is  approached.  There  is  also  fair  anchorage  under 
Pyramid  Point,  but  not  so  good  as  that  under  the  South  Yit ;  and  if  the 


vessel  is  looking  up  North,  or  anything  East  of  it,  the  ebb  out  of  Meichen 
Sound  will  be  of  assistance. 

From  the  Lam-yit  Islands  or  the  South  end  of  Hai-tan  Strait  to  the  Whit© 
Dogs  is  beyond  doubt  the  most  difficult  part  of  the  passage.  With  steamers 
the  strait  will  afford  the  best  route  ;  but  sailing  vessels  should  decidedly 
keep  outside,  and  stretch  over  to  the  N.W.  coast  of  Formosa,  where  they 
are  likely  to  get  a  slant  of  wind,  and  the  advantage  of  a  weather  tide  j 
and  as  this  portion  of  the  coast  has  been  surveyed,  by  attention  to  the  sound- 
ings no  vessel  can  come  to  any  harm. 

EivER  Mm  TO  Chusajj-  Archipelago. — North  of  the  Eiver  Min  the  ebb 
is  generally  a  weather  tide  (unless  the  wind  is  far  to  the  North),  and  out 
of  the  river,  and  off  Ting-hai  and  Sam-sah  Bays,  vessels  will  get  a  good 
lift ;  and  with  the  flood,  the  indraught  into  the  latter  will  be  sensibly  felt 
as  far  out  as  Larne  Islet,  and  increases  to  2  and  3  knots  as  the  main  ia 
closed.  As  a  general  rule,  tack  for  the  in-shore  tide,  when  the  moon  is  on 
the  meridian, 

Tung-ying  Island  will  be  found  a  strong  anchorage,  and  here  the  coast 
should  be  forsaken  (unless  the  vessel  is  under  12  ft.  draught),  and  the  deep 
water  to  the  eastward  kept  in.  The  tide  will  afford  but  little  assistance  un- 
til the  vessel  arrives  at  the  Chusan  Archipelago  ;  the  flood  causes  an  un- 
easy sea  in  the  shallow  water,  while  the  ebb  has  too  much  southing  in  it;, 
unless  the  wind  is  eastward  of  E.N. E. ;  but  Nam-ki  and  Pih-ki-shan  Islands 
will  afford  good  shelter. 

On  reaching  the  Chusan  Archipelago,  take  the  Beak  Head  Channel,  unless 
the  tide  is  nearly  done,  in  which  case  there  is  Harbour  Eouse  and  the  South 
side  of  Luhwang  Island  as  anchorages  under  the  lee  ;  and  as  the  first  of  th© 
ebb  runs  to  the  northward  through  the  Foto  Channels,  the  tide  through 
may  be  saved,  and  anchorage  gained  on  the  Ketau  shore.  From  hence,, 
if  bound  to  Ting-hai  Harbour,  contrive  to  arrive  at  the  West  end  of  Tower 
Hill  Island  about  slack  water  ;  otherwise,  in  light  winds,  the  vessel  is 
liable  to  be  carried  on  to  Just-in-the-Way,  and  even  through  the  Blackwall 

In  working  through  the  North  part  of  the  Chusan  Archipelago,  as  the  set 
of  the  ebb  and  flood  trends  nearly  East  and  West,  advantage  can  always  be 
taken  of  the  tide,  and  vessels  may  count  on  feeling  the  influence  of  the  ebb 
within  an  hour  of  the  moon's  meridian  passage.  When  in  the  vicinity  of 
Gutzlaff  Island  the  first  of  the  flood  takes  a  direction  to  the  southward  of 
West,  running  into  Hang-chu  Bay. 

The  eddy  tide,  generally  speaking,  will  carry  vessels  clear  of  the  large 
islands  ;  but  when  they  are  approaching  detached  rocks,  great  attention  is 
required  to  prevent  being  set  in  amongst  them. 


In-shoke  Passage  from  Hong  Kong  to  the  Yang-tse  Kiang.— These 
directions  for  making  the  in-shore  passage  from  Hong  Kong  to  the  Yang-tse 
Kiang  by  vessels  of  moderate  steam  power,  during  the  N.E.  monsoon,  are 
drawn  up  from  a  report  by  Commander  C.  E.  Buckle,  H.M.S.  Frolic,  1876, 
aided  by  Mr.  T.  E.  Cocker,  commanding  the  Chinese  Eevenue  Cruiser  Ling- 


A  vessel  should  leave  Hong  Kong  in  time  to  anchor  under  Tam-tu  Island 
for  the  night,  if  necessary,  or  by  leaving  earlier,  to  reach  the  well  sheltered 
anchorage  in  Samun  Road,  between  Tuni-ang  and  Samun  Islands ;  or  in 
Harlem  Bay.  Leaving  Tam-tu  at  daylight,  pass  out  through  Tathong 
Channel ;  after  rounding  Tam-tu  Island,  steer  to  the  westward  of  Nine-pin 
Group  for  Basalt  Island,  thence  North  of  Tuni-ang  Island  for  Harlem  Bay. 
If  in  fine  weather,  and  keeping  to  the  southward,  pass  near  to  Single  Island. 
Prom  Harlem  Bay,  pass  on  either  side  of  Middle  Rock,  round  Eokai  Point, 
and  North  of  Pauk-Piah ;  thence  steer  for  Goat  Island,  where  good  anchor- 
age may  be  obtained  on  the  N.  W.  side  of  the  island. 

A  vessel  may  either  proceed  to  the  southward  of  Goat  Island  and  North  of 
Reef  Islands  for  Chelang  Point,  or  pass  to  the  southward  of  Reef  Islands, 
and  thence  for  Tong-mi  Point  (good  anchorage  wiU  be  found  in  Chino  Bay). 
Pass  to  the  northward  of  Si-ki  Island,  and  South  of  Tung-ki,  thence  for 
Hutung  Point  and  Turtle  Rock,  from  which  steer  in-shore  for,  and  through, 
Tungao  Roads,  tolerably  near  White  Rock  and  to  the  southward  of  Corea 


Having  rounded  Breaker  Point,  not  nearer  than  2  miles,  steer  to  pass  near 
Tong-lae  Point  into  Haimun  Bay,  South  of  Parkyns  Rock  into  Hope  Bay, 
where  there  is  good  anchorage  during  the  N.E.  monsoon.  From  abreast 
Swatow,  steer  to  pass  about  half  a  mile  to  the  eastward  of  Fort  Island 
(giving  Dove  Rock,  off  Swatow,  a  good  berth),  being  careful  not  to  mistake 
either  of  the  cones  or  hummocks  of  Fort  Island,  which  appear  detached,  for 
the  more  distant  Brig  Island.  If  it  be  desirable  to  pass  South  of  Namoa, 
the  best  anchorage  for  small  vessels  will  be  found  in  South  Bay.  When 
rounding  the  S.E.  point  of  Namoa  Island,  care  is  necessary  to  avoid  Glen- 
gyle  Rock. 

Passing  North  of  Namoa,  keep  a  good  look-out  for  the  heavy  fishing 
stakes  extending  from  Clipper  Point,  and  proceed  for  Breaker  Island.  From 
Fort  Head,  steer  towards  Chauan  Head  for  Owick  Bay,  where  good  anchor- 
age will  be  obtained,  with  the  rock  off  Owick  Point  bearing  S.S.E.  ^  E.,  and 
Jokako  Peak  N.E.  f  E.  In  this  bay  it  will  be  almost  calm  when  there  is  a 
good  breeze  outside. 

From  Owick  Bay  steer  for  Bell  Island  ;  or,  if  keeping  in-shore,  haul  out 
when  closing  this  island,  and  pass  to  the  southward  of  it.  Between  Bell  and 
Square  Islands  a  very  disturbed  sea  and  tide  rip  will  be  experienced  ;  keep 
towards  Jokako  Point  and  into  Jokako  Bay,  gradually  hauling  out  to  paes 


about  half  a  mile  from  the  rocks  off  Cone  Point,  from  which  steer  for  Pagoda 
Island,  gradually  hauling  out  to  pass  close  under  Thunder  Head,  thence 
steer  to  the  southward  of  Rees  Rock.  From  Rees  Pass,  steer  for  the  Hu- 
tau-shan  River  bar,  and  gradually  haul  out  to  pass  about  half  a  mile  off 
Black  Head  and  Tagau  Point ;  passing  tolerably  close  to  and  eastward  of 
Hut  Islet,  thence  westward  of  Spire  Islet,  and  mid-channel  between  Crab 
Point  and  Cleft  Islet,  which  is  a  desirable  channel.  Between  Spire  Islet 
and  Cork  Point  there  is  usually  a  rough  sea,  and  the  coast  should  be  fol- 
lowed as  closely  as  Shun  Rock  will  admit.  Anchorage  may  be  obtained  in 
Red  Bay. 

The  distance  from  Cork  Point  to  the  outer  anchorage  of  Amoy  may  easily 
be  run  during  a  fine  night,  the  islands  and  headlands  showing  out  plainly  : — ■ 
Leaving  Red  Bay,  give  Cork  Point  a  good  berth,  and  steer  to  the  westward 
of  House  Hill  Point,  edging  out  when  closing  the  latter  point ;  thence  for 
Notch  Island  and  along  the  coast  for  Table  Head  (off  which  some  rocks  are 
said  to  exist),  and  Chin-ha  Point. 

Proceeding  to  the  northward,  outside  Amoy,  steer  for  Leeo-lu  Bay,  in 
which,  by  passing  close  to  Leeo-lu  Head,  good  anchorage  will,  if  required, 
be  found.  Prom  Leeo-lu,  steer  to  clear  Dodd  Ledge  thence  along  the  coast, 
keeping  inshore.  Safe  anchorage  may  be  found  under  Tongbu  in  addition 
to  the  many  good  anchorages  shown  on  the  chart.  Sorrel  Rock  may  be 
passed  either  on  the  East  or  West  sides,  and  with  a  strong  breeze  a  vessel 
may  pass  North  of  Loutz  Shoal,  through  Lamyit  Channel,  and  make  for 
Hai-tan  Strait.  If  the  weather  be  fine,  pass  to  the  southward  of  Sorrel 
Rock,  skirt  Lamyit  Islands,  thence  for  Turnabout  Island"*  and  Hai  Head. 
Good  anchorage  will  be  obtained  under  Hai  Head,  with  Turnabout  Island 
shut  in. 

Prom  Hai  Head,  steer  towards  the  White  Dog  Islands,  passing  westward 
of  that  group  thence  to  Matson  Diplo,  and  Spider  Islands,  between  Spider 
and  Cony  Islands,  or  to  the  westward  of  Spider  Island,  and  through  Seaon 
Channel,  thence  to  Fuh-yan  or  through  the  Chuh-pi  Pass,  to  anchorage  in 
Lishan  Bay.  From  Fuh-yan,  keep  along  the  coast,  and  pass  between  Tung- 
pwan  and  Shroud  Islands,  thence  into  Bullock  Harbour,  if  necessary. 
Leaving  Bullock  Harbour,  pass  out  between  Pwan-peen  and  the  northern 
Tseigh  Islands,  eastward  of  Coin  Island,  and  southward  of  Hea-chu,  off  the 
Tai-chou  Islands: — With  a  strong  breeze  a  vessel  may  steer  from  Coin 
Island  to  pass  between  Taluk  and  Chin-ki,  thence  between  San-shi  Islands 
and  Stragglers,  to  good  anchorage  under  Shetung.  Proceed  between  Chik- 
hok  and  Low  Chikhok,  West  of  Squall  Islands,  and  between  Fir  Coin  and 

*  A  sunken  rock,  on  which  the  S.S.  Sunda  struck,  in  1875,  is  said  to  be  situated  from  1 
to  1^  mile  northward  of  Turnabout  Island, 

I.  A.  O 


Chuh-sen,  to  good  anchorage  westward  of  Gau-tau  Island.  Proceeding  to 
the  northward  from  this  anchorage,  pass  between  Kinmen  and  Gau-tau 
Islands.  In  fine  weather  pass  to  the  eastward  of  Heroine  Rock  (the  ac- 
cepted position  of  this  rock,  as  given  by  the  U.S.S.  Ashuelot,  being  S.E.  by 
E.  f  E.,  4  miles  from  the  S.W.  end  of  Lea-ming  Island)  and  Twins,  or  in  a 
strong  wind  steer  for  Cape  Conway  and  through  Sheipoo  Roads. 

Fair  anchorage  in  a  N.W.  wind  will  be  obtained  under  the  northern 
Kweshan  Island,  but  there  is  a  better  anchorage  to  the  N.W.  of  Castle  Rock. 
It  is,  however,  advisable  to  get  as  close  to  Gough  Pass  for  the  night  as  pos- 
sible, ready  to  go  through  at  daylight,  or  if  in  time,  go  through  the  pass  and 
anchor  for  the  night  near  Sing-lo  Island.  After  passing  Sing-lo  Island  pro- 
ceed through  Tower  Hill  and  Blackwall  Channels  ;  anchorage  may  be  found 
under  Dunsterville  or  Volcano  Islands,  both  of  which  should  be  left  to  the 
eastward  on  passing,  thence  steer  for  Rug:ged  Islands. 

Care  is  necessary  when  navigating  this  part  of  the  coast,  as  the  tides  run 

It  should  be  borne  in  mind,  that  at  all  times  during  the  N.E.  monsoon 
the  weather  is  uncertain,  and  strong  breezes  set  in  without  any  warning, 
sometimes  lasting  for  two  or  three  days,  or  even  more.  Fogs  are  experienced 
in  the  early  part  of  the  year  in  the  same  manner. 

No  vessels  of  small  steam  power  should  attempt  to  proceed  northward 
during  the  N.E.  monsoon,  except  by  the  inshore  passage,  and  the  same 
might  be  said  of  the  typhoon  season. 

Passages  in  S.W.  Monsoon. — There  will  not  be  the  same  difB.culty  in 
getting  to  the  southward  against  the  southerly  monsoon,  as  there  is  in  going 
to  the  northward  against  the  other,  as  it  is  not  so  permanent  in  its  direction, 
and  land  and  sea  breezes  prevail ;  the  current  has  generally  been  found 
running  strong  to  the  northward  in  the  Formosa  Channel,  but  vessels  are 
not  liable  to  the  same  detention  which  they  often  experience  in  the  northerly 
monsoon.     Care,  however,  must  be  taken  not  to  overshoot  the  port. 

Fogs  prevail  in  the  early  part  of  the  season,  and  render  the  navigation  at 
times  as  harassing  as  it  is  in  the  N.E.  monsoon ;  they,  however,  generally 
lift  in  the  vicinity  of  the  land,  and  a  ship's  length  from  where  the  bowsprit 
can  hardly  be  seen  will  carry  her  into  sunshine. 

The  chief  difficulty  to  overcome  in  making  the  passage  between  the  Gulf 
of  Pe-chili  and  Hong  Kong  during  the  southerly  monsoon  is  the  strong 
easterly  or  north  easterly  current.  After  passing  the  parallel  of  the  Yang- 
tse  kiang,  it  will  be  advisable  to  keep  near  the  China  coast ;  for  although  a 
vessel  may  lie  up  South  or  S.  by  E.  on  the  starboard  tack,  it  should  be  re- 
membered that  she  is  making  little  better  than  a  S.E.  (ourse  in  consequence 
of  the  easterly  set.  A  stretch  to  the  north-westward,  though  apparently  a 
loss  of  ground,  will  ultimately  prove  useful. 


H.M.S.  Pique,  Capt.  Sir  Frederick  Nicolson,  C.B.,  in  making  this  passage 
in  July  and  August,  was  not  favoured  when  close  in  shore  by  any  land  and 
sea  breezes,  nor  had  the  least  slant,  but  generally  lost  the  wind.  A  weather 
tide  was  occasionally  felt  when  near  the  shore  in  the  Formosa  Channel. 

Although  the  constant  adverse  current  makes  this  a  tedious  passage 
against  the  monsoon,  there  is  nothing  to  prevent  a  vessel  of  moderate  sailing 
qualities  making  the  passage  at  this  season.  The  Pique  had  seldom  more 
than  single-reefed  topsails,  and  the  sea  was  generally  smooth  ;  she  made  the 
passage  from  the  Gulf  of  Pe-chili  to  Hong  Kong  in  31  days. 

It  would  appear  that  North  of  the  tropic  to  the  parallel  of  30°  N.,  North 
and  N.E.  winds  prevail  during  the  greater  part  of  the  year,  but  alternating 
with  calms,  variables,  and  S.W.  winds  during  the  summer  months. 


DUEING  THE  NOETH-EAST  MONSOON.— Hong  Kong  to  Yedo.— 
A  vessel  bound  from  Hong  Kong  to  Yedo  at  this  season,  should  work  up 
the  Coast  of  China  as  far  as  Breaker  Point  (or  see  note,  page  92),  taking  care 
to  be  always  under  the  land  at  nightfall,  the  wind  during  the  night  always 
hauling  to  the  northward  (off  the  land),  when  she  may  make  a  long  tack  off, 
standing  in  again  in  the  morning  when  the  wind  shifts  to  the  N.E.,  and  fre- 
quently more  easterly  still.  From  Breaker  Point  the  vessel  may  then  stand 
across  with  the  wind  free  tor  the  South  end  of  Formosa,  experiencing  a 
southerly  set  whilst  in  the  Formosa  Channel ;  but  on  nearing  the  island  she 
will  lose  it,  and  on  passing  South  Cape  fall  in  with  the  Kuro  Siwo  setting  to 
the  N.E. 

Having  passed  South  Cape  Formosa,  the  vessel  may  work  up  the  coast  of 
that  island,  passing  between  it  and  the  Meiaco  Sima  Group,  and  to  the  west- 
ward of  the  Liu-Kiu  Islands,  having  the  current  with  her  as  far  as  the 
parallel  of  26°  N.,  beyond  which  parallel  she  will  experience  no  current 
until  30°  N.,  where  a  strong  current  will  be  found  setting  to  the  eastward, 
the  wind  also  being  more  from  the  North  and  West.  She  may  then  pass 
through  any  of  the  channels  between  the  islands  lying  off  the  South  point  of 
Japan,  after  which,  keeping  at  about  from  50  to  10  miles  from  the  land,  in 
the  strength  of  the  Kuro  Siwo,  she  may  make  the  lights  at  Oo  Sima  (entrance 
of  the  Kii  Channel),  and  passing  them  at  a  distance  of  from  5  to  10  miles, 
may  steer  to  pass  just  outside  Mikomoto  (Eock  Island). 

From  Yedo  to  Hong  Kong. — On  leaving  the  Gulf  of  Yeao,  stand  to  the 
south-westward  as  far  as  28°  S.  and  135°  E.,  whence  a  course  may  be  shaped 
to  pass  northward  of  Kakirouma,  one  of  the  Liu-Kiu  Group,  thus  avoiding 
the  influence  of  the  Kuro  Siwo.  After  passing  Iwo  Sima,  a  straight  course 
may  be  steered  for  Tung  Ying,  on  making  which  island  stand  down  the 
China  coast  for  Hong  Kong- 


Fbom  Shanghae  to  Nagasaki. — At  this  season,  if  the  wind  is  to  the  east- 
ward of  North,  it  would  be  well  on  leaving  the  Yang-tse  to  stand  to  the 
north-westward  on  the  starboai'd  tack,  and  when  the  wind  hauls  round  to  the 
north-westward,  which  it  will  as  the  ship  advances  northward,  tack,  and 
steer  a  straight  course  for  Nagasaki,  making  allowance  for  the  south-easterly 
and  easterly  set  from  the  Yellow  Sea  and  Korea  Strait,  otherwise  the  ship 
may  be  swept  to  the  eastward  through  Van  Diemen  Strait.  During  the 
periodic  easterly  winds  (variable  between  E.N.E.  and  S.E.)  which  prevail  on 
the  China  coast  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Yang-tse,  from  March  to  June  inclusive, 
with  a  sailing  vessel,  every  opportunity  must  betaken  to  make  easting,  even 
with  a  fair  wind,  which  it  may  be  almost  surely  inferred  will  be  but  of  short 
duration.  In  May  and  June,  however,  the  set  of  the  current  will  be  changed, 
and  will  be  found  running  to  the  north-eastward ;  under  these  circumstances 
there  is  a  probability  that  a  vessel  kept  on  the  starboard  tack  would  be  set 
over  to  the  Korean  Archipelago.  With  these  considerations  the  navigator 
must  act  on  his  own  judgment,  there  being  only  difficulty  in  making  the 
passage,  when  baffling  winds,  and  thick,  rainy,  and  squally  weather  are  met 
with  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Meac  Sima,  the  Pallas,  or  the  Goto  Islands,  or 
they  are  passed  on  dark  nights.  If  not,  therefore,  sure  of  the  vessel's  posi- 
tion, it  would  be  well  to  make  them  in  the  daytime,  unless  the  nights  are 
moderatel}'  fine. 

Hakodate  through  Korea  Strait. — If  bound  on  to  Hakodate  at  the 
same  season,  or  even  as  late  as  the  end  of  June,  it  will  be  found  difficult 
with  a  sailing  vessel  to  make  easting  at  all  along  the  West  coast  of  Nipon. 
It  will  be  advantageous  in  April,  May,  and  June,  to  pass  well  East  of  Tsu 
Sima  in  the  strength  of  the  Japan  stream,  which  sets  N.E.  by  N.  through 
the  Korea  Strait,  attaining  at  times,  although  not  constant,  a  velocity  of  2 
knots  an  hour.  Should  a  S.W.  wind  occur  at  this  season,  it  may  be  ex- 
pected to  last  only  24  hours,  unless  it  follow  an  easterlj'  gale  with  depressed 
barometer.  During  the  winter,  gales  from  North  and  N.W.  are  very  fre- 
quent in  the  Korea  Strait,  lasting  three  or  four  days,  and  are  sometimes 
violent.  A  rapidly  falling  barometer  indicates  their  approach,  the  wind  in- 
creasing in  force  after  the  mercury  commences  to  rise,  and  not  attaining  its 
height  until  24  hours  after.  In  such  weather,  if  making  for  Nagasaki  on  the 
purt  tack,  beware  of  being  blown  to  leeward  into  Van  Diemen  Strait,  for  if 
set  through  by  the  Japan  stream  it  will  take  a  long  time  to  regain  the  lost 
ground  against  the  current  (one  vessel  having  been  nearly  three  weeks  en- 
deavouring to  beat  round  Cape  ChichakofF) ;  and  if  on  the  starboard  tack, 
there  is  probability  of  being  set  up  the  Korea  Strait  to  the  northward  of  Ose 
Saki.  As  both  cases  have  happened  to  vessels,  it  is  recommended  that  they 
should  endeavour  to  make  the  land  in  daylight,  and  find  anchorage,  or  secure 
a  knowledge  of  their  position. 

In  winter,  when  N.W.  and  West  winds  prevail,  a  direct  course  should  be 


Bteered  from  the  Korea  Strait  when  bound  to  Hakodate ;  but  if  bound  from 
Hakodate  southward,  it  is  necessary  to  endeavour  to  make  westing  when 
possible,  and  keep  a  long  offing,  for  the  coast  of  Nipon  is  a  lee  shore.  After 
passing  Korea  Strait  as  well  to  windward  as  possible,  the  winds  will  be 
found  more  liable  to  change  when  arrived  at  lat.  32°  N.,  long.  125"^  E.,  but 
sometimes  they  continue  so  steadily  between  N.W.  and  "SV.S.W.  as  to  set  a 
vessel  to  leeward  of  the  Tang-tse. 

Shaxgitae  to  Yedo. — On  leaving  the  Yang-tse,  the  wind  will  be  rarely 
found  as  far  to  the  eastward  as  N.E.  ;  it  is  best,  therefore,  to  keep  the  ship 
on  the  starboard  tack,  remembering  that  she  will  be  set  to  the  eastward 
towards  Yan  Diemen  Strait,  after  passing  which,  pursue  the  same  route  as 
directed  in  the  passage  from  Hong  Kong. 

DUEING  THE  SOUTH-WEST  MONSOON.— Hong  Koxg  to  Yedo.— 
A  vessel  bound  from  Hong  Kong  to  Yedo  should  run  up  the  China  coast  aa 
far  as  Tung  Ying,  then  shape  a  course  for  Akusi  Sima,  one  of  the  Linschoten 
group.  On  passing  the  meridian  of  125''  E.  the  set  will  be  strong  to  the 
north-eastward.  Pass  through  any  of  the  channels  between  the  islands 
South  of  Japan  in  preference  to  Yan  Diemen  Strait,  as  the  dense  fogs  which 
hang  over  the  coast  at  this  season  render  the  navigation  of  this  strait  diffir 
cult,  whilst  farther  seaward,  when  in  the  warm  stream  of  the  Kuro  Siwo, 
the  atmosphere  is  bright  and  clear.  After  passing  the  channel  steer  to  make 
the  lights  at  Oo  Sima,  remembering  the  current  sets  along  the  coast  of  Japan 
to  the  north-eastward  at  this  season  from  2  to  4^  knots  an  hour.  After 
passing  Oo  Sima  at  a  distance  of  from  5  to  10  miles,  steer  for  Mikimoto  (Eock 
Island)  light.  If  bound  from  Hong  Kong  to  Nagasaki,  after  leaving  Tung 
Ying  steer  for  Meac  Sima,  passing  between  which  group  and  the  Pallas 
Rocks,  a  course  E.N.E.  80  miles  will  place  the  ship  off  the  lighthouse  on 
Signal  Head  (the  North  point  of  Iwo  Simaj  at  the  entrance  to  Nagasaki 
Harbour,  on  nearing  which  it  should  not  be  brought  to  bear  northward  of 

From  Yedo  to  Hong  Kong. — This  passage  is  so  seldom  made  by  sailing 
vessels  that  very  little  is  known  of  the  best  route  to  be  pursued  ;  the  follow- 
ing, however,  is  recommended  : — 

On  leaving  the  Gulf  of  Yedo  shape  a  course  to  the  south-eastward,  to 
cross  the  parallel  of  30°  N  in  about  145°  E.,  and,  passing  East  of  St.  Mar- 
garet's Island,  cross  the  meridian  of  140°  E.  in  lat.  21°  N.,  thence  steer 
(with  a  favourable  current)  for  the  N.E.  point  of  Luzon,  on  passing  which 
enter  the  China  Sea,  when  a  direct  course  may  be  shaped  for  Hong  Kong, 
taking  care  to  allow  for  the  drift-current  setting  to  the  N.E.  at  this  season. 
It  may  here  be  remarked,  that  this  route  lies  directly  across  the  paths  of  the 
typhoons,  which  are  prevalent  in  the  tropics  at  this  period. 

This  voyage  is  rarely  made,  as  sailing  vessels  so  take  advantage  of  the 
monsoons  that  they  leave  Hong  Kong  for  the  northern  ports  and  Japan  at 


the  commencement  of  the  S.W.  monsoon,  and,  remaining  at  the  ports  of  the 
latter  islands  until  the  monsoon  takes  oflF,  leave  for  the  South  at  the  com- 
mencement of  the  N.E.  monsoon. 

Steamers,  however,  run  at  all  times  between  the  two  places,  and  at  this 
season  usually  on  leaving  Yedo  Gulf,  and,  passing  Mikomoto,  keep  well  in 
shore  to  Oo  Sima,  passing  which  they  keep  up  the  Kii  Channel  through 
Isumi  Strait  and  the  Inland  Sea.  On  passing  Simonoseki  Strait,  if  not 
bound  to  Nagasaki,  they  keep  to  westward  of  the  Goto  Islands,  and  making 
the  Saddle  Islands  off  the  Yang-tse,  keep  close  to  the  shore,  and  from  thence 
pursue  the  same  course  to  the  southward  as  vessels  bound  from  Shaghae  to 
Hong  Kong. 

From  Shanghae  to  Nagasaki. — On  leaving  the  Yang-tse,  steer  to  pass 
between  the  Pallas  Eocks  and  Meac  Sima  (Asses'  Ears),  which  last  is  visible 
in  clear  weather  at  a  distance  of  30  miles.  The  current  will  bo  found  setting 
to  the  north-eastward  through  Korea  Straits  ;  cai-e  must  be  taken,  therefore, 
to  avoid  being  set  to  the  northward  of  Ose  Saki,  the  South  point  of  the  Goto 
Islands,  as  the  current  during  the  S.W".  monsoon  is  often  strong  in  this 
locality.  Passing  the  Amherst  Eocks,  a  course  E.  f  N.  390  miles  will  lead 
midway  between  the  Pallas  Eocks  and  Ose  Saki  (Cape  Goto). 

The  foregoing  is  a  general  account  of  the  tracks  most  usually  followed  in 
traversing  the  Indian  Archipelago  or  the  China  Sea.  The  more  particular 
instructions  for  each  locality  will  be  found  in  their  respective  places  here- 

In  such  a  variety  of  routes  there  is  necessarily  some  diversity  of  opinion 
as  to  which  is  best,  and  this  has  not  been  lessened  of  late  years  by  the 
increased  variety  in  the  build  and  trim  of  the  vessels  employed  in  oriental 
commerce.  The  route  practicable  and  advantageous  to  the  swift  sailing 
clipper  cannot  be  followed  by  the  heavy-laden  and  slow-sailing  ship  of 
former  years.  In  what  is  here  given,  these  different  routes  are  each  given, 
some  from  older  authorities,  some  from  recent  experience.  Some  of  the 
best  tracks  have  been  avoided  from  our  ignorance  of  their  nature,  and  their 
supposed  dangerous  character.  This  is  fast  disappearing  before  increased 
kno^vledge,  and  it  may  be  predicted  that  some  settled  system  for  the  naviga- 
tion wiU  be  established  in  the  course  of  a  few  years. 

PART    IT, 


In  the  succeeding  pages  will  be  found  a  detailed  description  of  the  shores 
and  seas  of  the  Indian  Archipelago  and  China,  commencing  with  the  Strait 
of  Malacca,  and  proceeding  thence  southward  and  eastward  in  regular  suc- 
cession. This  arrangement  has  been  preferred  to  that  of  following  a  parti- 
cular voyage  in  one  direction,  as  the  present  exigences  of  Oriental  commerce 
require  the  subject  to  be  considered  in  such  varied  aspects,  that  no  other 
than  a  strictly  geographic  arrangement  can  be  applicable  to  every  case.  The 
plan  of  the  future  pages  will  be  thus  readily  understood. 

Physical  Geography. — The  Indian  Archipelago  presents  many  remarkable 
features,  worthy  of  the  consideration  of  the  passing  navigator,  as  some  of  ita 
peculiarities  will  thereby  become  better  understood.  This  subject  was  well 
treated  by  Mr.  Geo.  W.  Earl,  and  more  recently,  in  its  relation  to  animal 
and  vegetable  life,  by  Mr.  Alfred  Russell  Wallace. 

The  first  great  feature  of  its  constitution  is  the  line  of  active  volcanoes 
which  encircle  the  whole  of  the  north-western  and  most  extensive  area.  A 
line  of  spiracles  and  rugged  mountains  from  which  they  issue  may  be  fol- 
lowed from  Cheduba,  in  the  Bay  of  Bengal,  to  the  Andaman  Islands,  pass- 
ing through  the  entire  length  of  Sumatra,  nearer  to  its  S.  W.  coast ;  is  con- 
tinued along  the  southern  part  of  Java,  and  passes  through  the  chain  of 
islands  to  the  eastward,  which  are  separated  by  narrow  but  very  deep 
channels.  Thence  past  the  North  part  of  Timor  towards  New  Guinea, 
where  it  is  met  by  another  chain  running  from  N.N.W.,  where  it  may  be 
traced  along  Kamscharka  through  the  Kurile  Islands,  Japan,  Loo  Choo,  and 
the  Philippines,  after  which  it  divides  into  two  branches,  the  western  passing 
down  to  the  Moluccas,  &c.,  past  Celebes,  and  joining  the  first-named  line  at 
the  West  end  of  New  Guinea,  and  hereabout  its  greatest  efiects  are  evident, 
in  the  fantastic  forms  it  has  given  to  Celebes  and  Gillolo  and  other  islands. 
These  rise  abruptly  from  immense  depths,*  and  to  this  and  other  causes 
may  be  attributed  that  want  of  fertility  which  characterises  them  :  the  rich  soil 
caused  by  the  decomposition  of  the  rocks  and  vegetation  being  washed  away 
from  their  arid  surfaces  into  the  deep  ocean.  The  two  lines  of  volcanic  action 

*  H.M.S.  6Vja//e«/7er  found  a  depth  of  2,150  fathoms  between  Celebes  and  Gilolo,  2,550 
fathoms  off  the  S.W.  end  of  Mindanao,  and  similar  depths  in  most  parts  of  her  track  from 
Torres  Straits  through  the  Molucca  Passage,  Celebes  and  Sulu  Seas,  to  Manila. 


thus  united  may  be  followed  to  the  eastward  along  the  North  coast  of  New 
Guinea,  along  the  Louisiade  Archipelago,  to  New  Ireland  along  the  Solomau 
Group  towards  the  New  Hebrides,  and  may  be  seen  in  detached  spots  as  far 
as  New  Zealand,  and  the  islands  South  of  it. 

This  volcanic  band  is  of  a  totally  distinct  character  in  its  productions  to 
the  other  parts  of  the  Archipelago.  As  in  all  other  parts  of  the  world,  the 
volcanic  rocks,  which  are  easily  and  rapidly  decomposed  by  atmospheric  in- 
fluences, form  a  soil  of  unparalleled  fertility  when  cultivated,  although  there 
are  few  useful  natural  productions,  unless  the  nutmeg  be  so  considered.  This 
feature  has  attracted  the  numerous  European  settlements  which  are  scattered 
along  the  bases  of  these  chains,  where  the  sugar  and  coffee  plantaions  of 
Java,  and  the  spice  groves  of  the  more  eastern  islands,  afford  such  materials 
for  commercial  enterprise,  which  would  seem  to  be  almost  illimitable.  Mineral 
treasures  are  not  to  be  hoped  for  in  these  ranges  ;  the  action  of  the  volcanic 
heat  has  so  altered  the  character  of  the  superimposed  rocks,  that  they  afford 
nothing  to  the  metallurgist. 

The  second  great  feature  which  may  be  noticed  are  those  parallel  lines  of 
primary  rocks  which  trend  in  a  N.N.W.  and  S.S.E.  direction  across  the 
archipelago,  as  well  as  in  the  countries  of  Asia  to  the  northward,  and  across 
the  continent  of  Australia  to  the  southward.  The  chain  which  forms  the 
backbone  of  the  Malayan  Peninsula  is  perhaps  the  most  conspicuous  of 
these  ;  it  may  be  traced  southwards  through  Banka,  &c.  It  is  in  this  forma- 
tion where  the  great  deposits  of  metal  are  most  abundant,  or  at  least  most 
easily  worked,  as  in  the  famous  gold  and  tin  mines  of  Malaya,  and  the 
Banka  tin  mines.  Sumatra,  apart  from  its  volcanic  ridge,  affords  another 
example  of  these  primary  ridges.  A  third  traverses  Cambodia,  &c.,  showing 
itself  at  Pulo  Condore  and  the  Natunas,  and  then  reappears  at  the  N.W. 
end  of  Borneo,  and  is  lost  on  the  North  coast  of  Borneo.  Another  passes 
along  the  coast  of  Cochin  China,  traverses  a  portion  of  Borneo  and  the 
southern  part  of  Celebes.  One  feature  of  these  ridges  is  the  existence  of  the 
teak  tree,  which  only  flourishes  on  them.  When  this  important  tree  is 
transplanted  on  to  the  rich  volcanic  soil,  it  languishes. 

A  third  feature  is  the  great  banks  which  extend  from  Asia  and  Australia, 
but  do  not  join.  This  was  first  pointed  out  in  their  relation  to  their  pro- 
ductions by  Mr.  Windsor  Earl.  He  says :  These  banks  of  soundings,  which 
extend  from  the  continents  of  Asia  and  Australia,  form  very  remarkable 
features  in  the  geography  of  this  part  of  the  world,  and,  as  such,  are  de- 
serving of  more  attention  than  has  hitherto  been  bestowed  upon  them,  since 
it  will  be  found  that  all  the  countries  lying  upon  these  banks  partake  of  the 
character  of  the  continents  to  which  they  are  attached;  while  those  which 
are  situated  on  the  deep  sea  which  separates  them  are  all  of  comparatively 
recent  volcanic  formation,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  small  coral  islands, 
which  are  in  all  probability  constructed  upon  the   summits  of  submerged 


volcanoGS.  The  depths  on  these  banks  average  about  30  fathoms,  deepening 
rapidly  as  the  ed^e  is  approached,  and  shoals  gradually  toward  the  land. 
The  great  Asiatic  Bank  extends  into  the  archipelago  to  a  distance  of  nearly 
1,000  miles;  in  fact,  to  within  50  miles  of  Celebes,  and  perhaps  farther. 

The  great  bank  which  fronts  the  North  and  N.W.  coasts  of  Australia 
commences  near  the  N.W.  cape,  and  extends  in  a  N.E.  direction  to  New 
Guinea,  where  it  terminates  at  the  base  of  the  high  but  narrow  mountain 
range  that  unites  the  western  with  the  eastern  part  of  that  great  island,  and 
separates  the  Banda  Sea  from  the  Pacific.  It  is  at  this  point  that  the  edge 
of  the  bank  is  most  remote  from  Australia,  its  edge  being  400  miles  distant 
from  it.  It  appears  ap:ain  on  the  South  coast  of  New  Guinea,  near  Torres 
Strait,  and  extends  along  the  N.E.  coast  of  Australia. 

The  Arru  Islands  and  New  Guinea  are  thus  united  to  Australia,  and 
possess  in  common  some  features  hitherto  supposed  to  belong  exclusively  to 
Australia,  such  as  the  kangaroo,  «S:c. 

The  volcanic  islands  between  these  great  shoals  appear  to  have  a  world  of 
their  own,  different  from  the  countries  on  either  side.  This  remarkable 
feature  cannot  be  dilated  on,  but  may  be  followed  in  the  excellent  papers 
given  by  Mr.  A.  R.  Wallace.  It  would  seem  as  if  the  animal  life  especially 
belonged  to  a  different  order  generally  from  that  found  on  the  neighbouring 
continents,  and  is  even  different  between  adjacent  islands,  so  that  these 
anomalies  have  given  rise  to  some  interesting  speculations. 

Respecting  our  knowledge  of  the  coasts  and  seas,  it  is  of  varied  character. 
Although  much  more  perfect  than  it  was  a  few  years  since,  there  are  some 
serious  defects  in  the  hydrography  of  the  archipelago,  especially  in  the 
eastern  portion  of  the  area.  The  surveyors  of  the  East  India  Company  in 
former  years,  and  our  Admiralty  hydrographers  in  later  times,  have  examined 
the  principal  passages  leading  into  the  China  Sea,  as  the  StrHits  of  Malacca 
and  Singapore,  Banka,  &c.  The  Dutch  Government  have  given  charts  and 
directions  for  the  ct;untries  adjacent  to  these  possessions,  such  as  Sunda 
Strait  and  the  coasts  of  Java,  and  the  nautical  world  owes  much  to  the 
Dutch  commission  for  the  improvement  of  charts  and  navigation.  Under 
the  auspices  of  this  body  a  fine  series  of  charts,  of  various  and  extensive  por- 
tions of  the  archipelago,  were  published.  These  have  since  been  mostly  copied 
by  our  Admiralty.  For  the  Spanish  possessions  in  the  Philippine  Islands, 
&c.,  we  have  the  older  and  modern  surveys  of  that  nation.  The  coast  of 
China  has  been  excellently  surveyed  by  our  Admiralty.  All  these  authorities 
will  be  generally  enumerated  in  the  course  of  the  ensuing  pages. 

Before  proceeding  with  the  descriptions,  we  must  make  our  general  ac- 
knowledgement of  indeotedness  to  the  China  Sea  Directory,  published  by  the 
Admiralty.  This  work,  derived  from  many  sources,  gives  a  correct  picture 
of  our  present  knowledge,  and  is  therefore  deserving  of  all  confidence. 

I.    A.  P 



This  great  highway  into  the  China  Sea  may  be  considered  to  be  limited  on 
the  N.W.  by  a  line  joining  Acheen  Head  and  the  South  point  of  Junksey- 
lon,  which  would  be  about  225  miles  in  length ;  and  from  this  limit  to  the 
Carimon  Isles,  at  its  S.E.  end,  is  500  miles,  so  that  it  has  more  the  character 
of  an  inland  sea  than  a  channel  between  Sumatra  and  the  Malay  Peninsula. 
In  a  more  contracted  sense  it  may  be  said  to  commence  at  Diamond  Point  on 
Sumatra,  and  Pulo  Penang  on  the  Malayan  side,  and  these  are  164  miles 
apart  East  and  West. 

The  monsoons,  interrupted  by  the  high  land  of  Sumatra  on  the  one  hand, 
and  that  of  the  Malay  Peninsula  on  the  other,  each  crossing  the  line  of  their 
normal  direction,  are  only  felt  for  a  short  distance  within  the  respective  en- 
trances, and  from  its  position  so  near  to  the  equator,  the  strait  is  subject  to 
baffling  and  light  winds  and  calms.  In  a  former  page  the  peculiarities  of 
the  winds  and  seasons  have  been  referred  to. 

Its  coasts  have  not  been  completely  surveyed,  but  partial  examinations 
have  been  made  by  Lieuts.  Woore,  W.  Eose,  and  Capts.  Moresby  and  C.  Y. 
Ward.  The  charts,  it  is  believed,  are  sufficiently  complete  for  the  safety  of 
its  navigation,  which,  under  proper  precaution,  is  free  from  danger. 

The  British  Possessions,  called  the  Straits  Settlements,  are  the  Province 
Wellesley,  a  strip  of  coast  on  the  Malay  Peninsula,  about  10  miles  broad 
and  35  miles  long,  at  the  back  of  Pulo  Penang^  also  a  British  possession, 
a  patch  of  country,  22  miles  in  length  from  North  to  South,  with  the  island 
of  Pancore  lying  off  its  southern  portion,  as  hereafter  described.  The  terri- 
tory of  Malacca,  about  40  miles  in  length,  and  25  miles  in  mean  breadth, 
•with  its  capital  of  the  same  name,  and  the  great  commercial  emporium 
Singapore.  These  form  a  governorship,  which,  till  the  year  1S51,  was  sub- 
ject to  the  jurisdiction  of  Bengal.  In  that  year  it  was  placed  under  the 
Indian  Board ;  and  on  January  1st,  1867,  it  was  transferred  from  that  of 
India  to  the  Colonial  Office,  and  some  changes  were  made  in  their  constitu- 
tion. Each  of  these  settlements  is  largely  peopled  with  Chinese  immigrants, 
who  are  the  most  industrious  of  the  people.     The  Malay  States  from  North 

PENANG.  107 

to  South  are  named  as  follows — Quedah  (Wellesley),  Perak  (Dinding),  Sa- 
langore  (Malacca),  and  Johore.  The  maritime  population  of  these  would  be 
formidable  pirates,  were  it  not  for  the  vigilance  of  the  states  cruizers,  and  gun- 
boats of  light  draught,  which  can  follow  the  delinquents  into  the  shelter  of 
their  rivers.  Notwithstanding  this,  small  vessels  and  boat  parties  should  be 
on  their  guard,  as  among  a  population  of  this  character,  where  morality  is 
at  so  low  an  ebb,  it  is  only  a  fear  of  being  overpowered  in  the  attempt,  or 
found  out  and  punished  after  the  act  is  committed,  which  deters  them  from 
similar  acts  of  violence  to  those  committed  in  years  gone  by. 

In  recent  years  British  Residents  have  been  placed  as  advisers  to  the  rulers 
of  the  different  native  states,  and  it  is  hoped  by  these  means  to  increase  the 
trade  and  otherwise  improve  the  government  of  the  peninsula. 

The  greatest  mineral  production  of  the  country  is  tin,  which  seems  to  be 
met  with  in  almost  every  part  of  the  interior,  and  in  very  great  abundance. 
The  tin  districts  which  have  been  most  worked  of  late  years  are  situated  at 
Klang,  in  Salangore ;  at  Laroot,  in  Perak  ;  and  at  Linghie,  near  Malacca. 
"The  mines  in  these  districts,"  says  Mr.  Braddell,  in  1874,  "are  so  rich, 
and  the  profit  of  working  them  has  been  so  great,  that,  notwithstanding  the 
difficulties  in  dealing  with  the  Malay  chiefs  as  to  the  royalty  to  be  paid,  and 
notwithstanding  the  oppression  of  the  chiefs,  and  the  frequent  massacres  of 
the  Chinese  miners,  they  are  still  attracted  to  the  place,  and  succeed  yearly 
in  sending  large  quantities  of  tin  to  Singapore  and  Penang." 


Province  Wellesley  extends  from  the  state  of  Queda,  or  Keddah,  on  the 
North  to  the  river  Krean,  or  Karian,  S.E.  of  the  South  point  of  Penang. 
In  1851  its  population  was  64,801,  a  number  five  times  as  great  as  in  1824  ; 
and  in  1873  it  had  reached  to  160,000,  of  whom  about  450  were  Europeans. 
It  resembles  Penang  in  its  geologilal  structure,  granite,  over  which  is  found 
the  cellular  clay  iron-stone,  so  abundant  in  these  regions,  and  known  by  the 
name  of  laterite. 

The  settlement  produces  sugar,  rice,  and  cccoanuts  in  abundance,  and 
among  many  other  products  a  great  variety  of  delicious  fruits.  Its  chief  im- 
portance, however,  arises  from  the  fact,  that  the  capital  of  the  island  is 
a  great  emporium  for  the  manufactures  of  Britain,  and  for  the  products  of 
the  countries  of  the  Malay  Peninsula  on  the  one  hand,  and  of  Sumatra  on 
the  other. 

PULO  PENANG,  or  Prince  of  Wales  Island,  is  about  14  miles  long  and 
9  miles  broad,  and  separated  from  the  Malay  coast  by  a  channel  from  2  to  5 
miles  broad.     It  is  intersected  by  a  range  of  granitic  hills,  the  highest  peaks 


of  which  are  Government  Hill,  to  the  West  of  the  fort,  2,550  ft. ;  West  Hill, 
2,713  ft.  ;  and  Mount  Elvira,  near  the  centre,  2,384  ft.  It  was  ceded  by  the 
KingofQuedah  to  the  East  India  Company,  July— August,  1786,  for  a 
naval  station.  It  has  answered  every  expectation  of  its  founder,  Captaia 
Li"-ht,  and  is,  like  the  other  straits  settlements,  entirely  free  from  any  impost 
on  shipping.* 

Pulo  Penang,  or  Prince  of  Wales  Island,  is  justly  termed  the  Eden  of  the 
East,  and  the  northern  part  especially  is  an  immense  spice  garden.  Fruit 
and  vegetables  are  in  great  abundance,  and  in  fact  all  Eastern  delicacies, 
not  forgetting  the  water,  which  may  be  considered  the  best  in  or  out  of  the 


The  N.W.  part  of  the  island  is  lofty  and  irregular,  but  been  from  a  distance, 
as  far  as  20  leagues  off,  it  has  a  regular  oblong  appearance.  The  West  coast 
forms  a  slender  bay,  with  low  wooded  land  reaching  to  the  foot  of  the  inte- 
rior hills.  The  southern  part  of  the  island  is  lower.  The  town  is  on  the 
East  side.     The  climate  is  hot,  but  considered  healthy. 

The  exceeding  magnificence  of  its  mountain  views,  the  richness  and  variety 
of  their  component  parts,  and  the  coolness  and  transparency  of  the  atmos- 
phere which  this  country  enjoys,  give  a  freshness  and  elasticity  to  the  mind 
never  e:5perienced  in  the  sultry  plains  of  India.  It  is  almost  inconceivable 
how  nature,  in  so  small  a  compass,  has  contrived  to  crowd  such  a  wonderful 
diversity  of  pleasing  objects. — Logan. 

Tanjong  Puchat  Muka.— The  N.W.  point  is  in  lat.  5°  28'  40"  N.,  long. 

*  Port  Rules,  1872. — The  limits  of  the  Port  of  Penang  are  as  follows : —From  an  obe- 
lisk built  at  Klarwey  in  a  straight  line  to  Bagan  Jermal,  along  the  western  shores  of 
Province  Wellesley,  to  an  obelisk  at  Bagan  Luar.  and  in  a  straight  line  to  Penang  Bridge, 
thence  along  the  eastern  shores  of  Prince  of  Wales  Island,  to  the  obelisk  at  Klarwey,  in- 
cluding the  mouth  of  Prangin  Eiver,  as  far  as  the  second  Teetee  Papan  Bridge. 

The  limits  of  the  South  Channel  are  as  follows* — From  the  North  bank  of  the  Penang 
Eiver  to  Nos.  8  and  5  red  buoys,  from  thence  along  the  eastern  bank  of  Pulo  Terajah  to  the 
south-easternmost  point  of  Pulo  Rimo,  thence  in  a  straight  line  to  No.  9  white  buoj'^,  then 
passing  close  to  Nos.  8,  7,  6,  4,  and  2  white  buoys,  and  in  a  straight  line  ending  at  the 
obelisk  built  at  Bagan  Luar. 

Signals  in  case  of  fire. — In  the  daytime,  the  Commercial  Code  signal  of  distress  indicated 
by  "  NC  :"  at  the  same  time,  when  possible,  two  guns  should  be  fired,  at  an  interval  of  one 
minute  ;  at  night  time,  two  rockets  fired,  and  two  blue  lights  burned  alternately  at  an  in- 
terval one  one  m.nute,  and  two  guns  fired  as  in  the  daytime. 

Requiring  the  assistance  of  the  Police. — In  the  daytime,  the  national  ensign  to  be  hoisted 
at  the  main-masthead  ;  at  night,  one  gun  to  be  fired,  and  one  blue  light  burnt. 

Masters  of  vessels  are  prohibited  from  anchoring  abreast  of  the  jetty,  or  in  any  place 
within  250  yards  on  either  side  thereof. 

Vessels  remaining  upwards  of  24  hours  are  to  moor  and  keep  a  clear  hawse.  No  sailing 
vessel  is  to  be  unmoored  or  shifted  about  without  permission  from  the  harbour-master,  and 
on  no  account  after  dark,  except  in  case  of  emergency. 

PENANG.  109 

100°  13'  E.  It  is  bokl-to  on  the  westward,  and  has  4  fathoms  close-to.  From 
it,  on  the  eastern  side,  a  shoal  bank  skirts  all  the  North  end  of  the  island  for 
11  miles  to  the  point  on  which  Geora:e  Town  stands,  the  3 -fathoms  edge 
being  from  1  to  2|-  miles  off  shore.  At  3J  miles  East  of  Muka  Point  is  the 
Feringi  Bock,  close  in-shore,  and  at  3J  miles  farther  is  Fulo  Tikus  (or  Tee- 
coos),  a  rocky  islet  with  some  rocks  around.  Between  this  islet  (on  which, 
is  a  white  obelisk)  and  the  Malay  shore  is  the  shoalest  part  of  the  channel 
"which  insulates  Penang,  not  having  more  than  4  fathoms. 

George  Town,  or  Penang. — The  chief  place  of  the  island  stands  on  its  eastern 
point,  the  extremity  of  which  is  occupied  by  Fort  Cornwallis.  It  contained 
probably  nearly  60,000  inhabitants  in  1873,  of  whom  a  very  large  propor- 
tion are  Chinese — many  of  them  merchants  and  shopkeepers.  It  is  situated 
on  a  low  plain  stretching  out  in  a  point  into  the  sea,  on  the  side  of  the  island 
next  to  the  mainland,  and  its  harbour,  which  is  simply  the  almost  landlocked 
strait  between  the  island  and  the  mainland,  is  of  great  extent  and  unrivalled 
calmness.  It  has  always  a  large  fleet  of  vessels  of  every  rig,  from  the  finest 
British  steamer  to  the  Chinese  junk. 

The  distance  from  the  fort  to  the  mainland  opposite  is  about  2  miles,  and 
this  forms  the  harbour.  The  Fort  Point  is  steej)-to,  having  9  and  10  fathoms 
near  to  it.  In  the  middle  of  the  strait  are  from  12  to  15  fathoms,  and  6  to  7 
fathoms  on  the  Malay  side.  The  best  berth  for  anchoring  is  about  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  South  of  the  fort,  in  9  or  10  fathoms,  or  less  for  small  vessels.  The 
tides  are  more  regular  here  than  close  to  the  point,  where  they  cause  eddies. 
It  is  high  water  off  the  fort  at  12'*,  at  full  and  change,  but  the  flood  runs 
southward  till  3  o'clock  in  the  main  stream.  Springs  rise  9  ft.,  and  neaps 
about  "il  ft. 

Channels. — Mr.  J.  G.  Maddock  remarks: — "Both  the  northern  and 
southern  channels  are  safe,  the  northern  shallows  being  well  marked  by 
fishing  stakes,  numbers  of  which  are  in  4  to  5  fathoms  water.  I  have  often 
passed  between  them,  but  a  stranger  having  any  regard  for  his  copper  ought 
to  give  them  a  good  offing,  as  there  are  many  old  stakes  broken  off  2  or  3  ft. 
under  water.  The  southern  entrance  is  well  buoyed,  and  also  marked  by 
beacons  ;  but  unless  you  have  a  good  commanding  breeze  from  the  southward 
or  S.W.,  which  is  not  often  the  case  except  in  the  first  of  the  rainy  season 
(August  and  September),  and  if  coming  from  the  southward,  I  should  always 
prefer  the  northern  channel.  I  recollect  once  coming  up  with  the  A.  J.  Kerr, 
from  Singapore.  I  had  a  good  stiff  breeze  from  the  southward  and  westward, 
which  I  made  available  for  the  southern  entrance.  I  had  got  to  within 
half  a  mile  of  my  anchorage  when  I  was  met  by  a  northerly  wind.  I  gave 
orders  to  clew  up  and  anchor,  and  left  the  two  winds  to  battle  the  match 
how  they  liked  ;  in  the  morning  I  found  the  northerly  wind  had  gained  the 
day  :  this  is  not  an  uncommon  occurrence  in  the  southern  channel." 

The  best  route  to  reach  the  anchorage,  as  above  stated,  is  by  the  North 


channel.  The  southern  one  is  intricate  and  also  dangerous  without  an  inti- 
mate knowledge,  and  with  a  large  ship.  With  westerly  winds,  steer  for  the 
North  end  of  the  island,  or  with  the  wind  from  N.E.  or  northward,  make  for 
the  mainland  to  the  northward,  and  approach  Pulo  Bunting  from  N.W.  by  W. 
or  W.N.W.  The  Bunting  (or  Boonting)  Isles  are  four  in  number,  with  an 
islet  between  them,  lying  about  12  to  15  miles  North  from  Penang.  The 
largest  is  the  northernmost,  and  is  opposite  to  the  peak  of  Quedah  ;  and  the 
southernmost  is  Bidan,  or  Biddan,  which  is  nearest  to  the  shore,  and  has  only 
2  or  2|^  fathoms  inside  of  it.  By  night  these  islands  may  be  neared  to 
within  depths  of  14  or  15  fathoms;  by  day  there  is  no  danger  but  what  may 
be  seen.  When  past  them,  steer  about  S.S.E.,  with  Pulo  Bidan  bearing 
about  N.  by  W.,  keeping  about  midway  between  the  North  part  of  Penang 
and  the  paain  to  avoid  a  flat  extending  off  the  Malay  shore,  and  also  that 
which  encircles  the  North  end  of  Penang,  as  before  mentioned.  The  bar,  or 
shoalest  part  of  the  channel,  will  be  found  when  abreast  of  Pulo  Tikus,  and 
is  only  24  ft.,  barely  sufficient  if  there  be  any  swell,  which  seldom  occurs,  if 
the  draught  be  more  than  20  ft. 

The  Port  Point  is  3^  miles  to  the  S.E.  of  Pulo  Tikus,  which,  as  before 
stated,  has  some  rocks  around  it ;  but  having  passed  it,  the  water  deepens 
towards  the  harbour.  The  N.E.  shore  of  the  island  forms  a  slender  bay,  filled 
with  a  muddy  shoal,  which  suddenly  drops  from  2  to  5  fathoms.  The  lead 
is  not  a  sufiioient  guide  in  thick  weather,  or  at  night,  in  passing  over  the 
flat  between  the  N.E.  point  and  the  Malayan  shore,  as  the  depths  are 
nearly  the  same  all  across  until  within  1^  mile  of  either  shore.  The  shore  of 
the  main  land  is  low,  and  covered  with  trees,  so  that  it  is  not  so  conspicuous 
as  the  high  land  of  Penang,  which  will  thus  appear  the  nearest  when  in 
mid-channel.  From  within  Pulo  Tikus  to  the  fort,  stand  off  again  when  5^ 
or  6  fathoms  is  reached.  By  daylight  there  is  no  difficulty  in  thus  reaching 
the  harbour,  as  the  rocks  of  Pulo  Tikus  are  bold-to.  In  the  N.W.  monsoon 
which  sets  in  in  August,  there  may  be  some  difficulty  in  beating  out  by  this 
North  channel,  but  at  all  other  times  it  is  preferable  for  large  ships.  A  good 
leading  mark  is  to  keep  the  West  end  of  Pulo  Jerajah,  which  lies  off  the 
East  coast  of  Penang,  clear  of,  or  just  open  of  the  point  on  which  Fort  Corn- 
wa)lis  is  built.  This  will  carry  you  clear  of  all  danger,  the  least  water  being 
4J  fathoms,  mud  and  sand.  Should  you  not  see  Pulo  Jerajah,  owing  to  hazy 
weather,  the  long  leading  mark  is  as  before  mentioned,  Pulo  Bidan,  the 
southernmost  of  the  Bunting,  bearing  N.  by  W.  until  you  get  sight  of  Pulo 

The  South  Channel,  though  intricate,  is  very  serviceable  during  adverse 
winds,  as  it  affords  a  ready  outlet  in  fine  weather  to  the  southward  for  ships 
drawing  under  17  ft.  water.  Pilots  are  stationed  at  Pulo  Jerajah.  It  is 
bounded  on  the  West  side  by  the  Middle  or  Long  Sand,  marked  by  three 
buoys  along  its  eastern  side,   which  begins  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile 


South  of  the  Fort  Point,  and  stretches  nearly  to  the  North  point  of  Pulo 
Jerajah.  On  the  East  side  it  is  bounded  by  the  northern  spit  of  the  Great 
Kra  Flat,  or  as  it  was  termed  the  Praya  (or  Pry)  Sand.  It  is  a  bank  of 
soft  mud,  which  stretches  from  the  Malay  shore  for  10  miles,  when  to  the 
South  of  Penang. 

Pulo  Jerajah,  or  Jeraga,  is  5  miles  S.  by  W.  from  Fort  Point,  and  is  734  ft. 
high.  It  has  a  narrow  channel  of  3  to  5  fathoms  between  it  and  Penang. 
Off  the  S.E.  point  of  Penang  is  Pulo  Peine,  or  Ramio,  close  to  the  South  of 
which  the  channel  passes. 

Buoys. — The  South  Channel  is  marked  by  ten  buoys,  numbered  from 
North  to  South,  each  placed  red  on  the  western,  and  white  on  the  eastern 
edge  of  the  channel,  in  about  2  fathoms  of  water.  Of  these,  three  painted 
red  mark  the  eastern  edge  of  the  Middle  Bank  ;  and  six,  painted  white,  the 
western  edge  of  the  Great  Kra  Flat;  a  fourth  red  buoy  lies  S.W.  of  Eomo 
Island.  No.  1,  a  red  buoy,  is  moored  on  the  North  end  of  the  Middle  Bank, 
a  mile  southward  of  Fort  Cornwallis.  No.  2,  white,  S.S.E.  ^  E.  1 J  mile 
from  No.  1,  marks  the  eastern  side  of  the  channel,  which  is  here  quite  clear, 
and  nearly  three-quarters  of  a  mile  in  width.  At  1 J  mile  below  No.  2  buoy 
the  channel  is  marked  on  either  side  by  red  buoy  No.  3  and  white  buoy  No. 
4,  which  are  two-thirds  of  a  mile  apart;  hereabouts  the  soundings  suddenly 
decrease  from  6  to  2f ,  3  and  4  fathoms,  the  deepest  channel  being  nearer  to 
the  white  buoy.  At  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  below  Nos.  3  and  4,  Nos. 
5  red  and  6  white,  three-quarters  of  a  mile  apart,  mark  the  opposite  sides  of 
the  channel.  The  deepest  part  of  the  channel  here  is  towards  No.  6,  as  a 
spit  projects  out  from  the  red  buoy.  No.  7  white  buoy,  1 J  mile  S.  by  W.  ^  W. 
from  No.  6,  marks  the  eastern  side  of  the  channel  opposite  the  highest  part 
of  Pulo  Jerajah.  Hence  to  the  southward  the  channel  is  broad  and  deep. 
No.  8  buoy,  white,  marks  its  eastern  side,  and  lies  8.  by  E.  \\  mile  from  the 
South  end  of  Pulo  Jerajah.  No.  9,  red,  marks  the  western  side  of  the 
channel,  2  miles  S.W.  of  Pulo  Eemo  ;  and  No.  10,  white,  marks  the  eastern 
side  at  its  South  extremity,  and  lies  IJ  mile  southward  of  No.  9  red  buoy. 

In  leaving  Penang  Harbour  by  the  South  channel,  get  under  weigh  about 
half  flood,  and  steer  S.  by  E.  and  South  to  enter  the  channel  between  the 
Middle  Sand  and  the  Pry  or  Praya  Sand.  When  the  bar  is  neared,  keep 
near  the  eastern  edge  of  the  Middle  (or  Long)  Sand,  the  depth  in  crossing 
it  is  nearly  5  fathoms,  between  the  North  end  of  Pulo  Jerajah  and  Kra 
Flat.  When  the  North  point  of  Pulo  Jerajah  bears  to  the  northward,  the 
soundings  will  decrease  to  6  and  7  fathoms,  then  haul  near  to  that  island, 
and  these  depths  will  continue  through  the  channel  in  steering  out  to  S.W. 
seaward,  past  the  S.E.  point  of  Penang  and  Pulo  Eemo.  The  greatest 
depths  are  near  the  East  sides  of  these  islands,  which  are  steep-to,  but  on  the 
East  side  of  the  channel  the  water  shoalens  suddenly  upon  the  edge  of  the 
Kra  Flat.     After  passing  Pulo  Eemo  close  on  the  East  side,  the  course  is 


about  S.S.W.,  or  S.  by  W.,  according  to  the  set  of  the  tide,  to  proceed  throngh 
the  channel  fairway  between  the  Kra  Flat  on  the  port  hand,  and  the  mud 
bank  off  the  South  end  of  Penang  to  starboard.  The  leading  mark  is  to 
keep  the  body  of  Pulo  Jerajah  on  with  the  East  end  of  Pulo  Eemo,  if  Pulo 
Jerajah  is  shutting  in  with  Pulo  Eemo,  a  ship  will  be  on  the  West  side ;  and 
if  entirely  open  with  it,  she  will  be  on  the  East  side  of  the  channel. 

The  mouth  of  the  River  Krian  is  in  about  lat.  5°  16'  N.  This  river  serves 
as  one  of  the  roads  down  which  the  tin  is  brought  from  the  mines  in  the 

The  State  of  Perak,*  extends  along  the  coast  from  Wellesley  Province 
to  the  State  of  Salangore,  or  from  1  to  2  miles  southward  of  the  mouth  of  the 
Kutong  Eiver  to  the  mouth  of  the  Bernam  Eiver,  a  distance  of  about  100 
miles.  A  portion  of  this  coast  line,  however,  belongs  to  Great  Britain, 
having  been  ceded  in  the  year  1826,  and  the  cession  again  ratified  in  the 
year  1874.  This  includes  the  Island  of  Pancore,  or  Binding,  and  coast  of 
the  mainland  at  the  back  of  the  island,  and  thence  for  about  20  miles  to  the 
northward.  The  Bruas  and  Binding  Eivers  enter  the  sea  within  its  bound- 

The  district  of  Laroot  is  situated  to  the  northward  of  this  British  territory, 
and  is  bounded  on  the  North  by  the  Krean  Eiver.  The  physical  aspect  of 
the  district  is  thus  described  by  Mr.  Birch  : — "  From  the  sea-shore  to  some 
20  miles  inland,  Laroot  is  a  great  level ;  here  it  begins  to  rise  in  uplands 
until  it  reaches  a  mountain-range  rising  to  an  altitude  of  some  3,000  ft. 
above  the  level  of  the  sea.  This  level  or  plain  is  well  watered  and  well 
suited  for  the  cultivation  of  sugar,  tapioca,  tobacco,  &c.  Eice  is  the  only 
cereal  now  cultivated.  The  whole  of  the  land,  comprising  a  strip  of  about 
50  miles  long  by  6  miles  broad,  along  the  Laroot  Eange,  is  more  or  less 
stanniferous,  and  the  supply  of  tin  is  inexhaustible.  At  present  (1872) 
about  4  square  miles  are  occupied  for  mining  purposes,  and  there  are  120 
mines  open.  It  is  unskilfully  worked,  and  only  about  600  tons  were  exported 
in  1874.  Of  the  Laroot  Eange,  Gunong  Buboo,  or  the  'Wild  Man,'  is  said 
to  be  the  loftiest.  It  is  said  to  be  the  most  conspicuous  landmark  to  mariners 
beating  up  the  Straits  for  the  mouth  of  the  Perak  Eiver,  which  is  several 
miles  South  of  this  mountain." 

The  population  of  the  State  of  Perak,  which  extends  eastward  as  far  as 
the  Malayan  chain  of  mountains,  was  estimated  to  number  25,000  in  1874, 
mostly  established  near  the  shores  of  the  Perak  Eiver,  which  passes  through 
the  country  in  a  direction  from  North  to  South  at  a  distance  of  about  30 
miles  from  the  coast.  It  is  from  this  Eiver  Perak  or  Pera  (silver)  that  the 
country  takes  its  name.  The  country  is  plentiful  in  fruit-bearing  and  timber- 

*  Pronounced  like  "  Pera,"  the  terminal  k  in  Malay   -words  being   scarcelj'  sounded 
at  all. 

MALA.Y  COAST.  113 

producing  trees,  among  the  latter  class  being  the  teak.  India-rubber  and 
gutta-percha  trees  are  also  found.  In  minerals,  iron,  saltpetre,  and  gold, 
ai*e  found,  besides  the  tin  before  mentioned. 

Pry  River  enters  the  sea  on  the  southern  side  of  the  point,  lying  E.S.E.  of 
Peuang,  Here  it  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  12\  Springs  rise  9  ft., 
neaps  1^  ft. 

The  Kutong  River,  in  lat.  5°  6'  N.,  is  merely  a  southern  outlet  to  the  Eiver 
Krean,  and  flows  along  the  South  side  of  the  North  Mound. 

The  River  Laroot,  rising  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Gunong  Hijau  in  the 
Laroot  Eange,  falls  into  the  Sea  in  4°  44'  N.,  28  miles  to  the  S.  of  the  Krean 
River.  Mr.  Irving  says  : — *'  Compared  with  other  rivers  on  the  coast,  it  is 
an  inconsiderable  stream,  as  the  range  of  mountains  which  forms  the 
watershed  of  the  peninsula,  at'  this  place,  approaches  the  coast.  The 
colonial  steamer  Pluto,  drawing  only  6  ft.  of  water,  was  not  able  to  do  more 
than  enter  the  river ;  but  the  small  steamers  belonging  to  the  Tunku  Man- 
trie,  or  headman,  are  able  to  get  up  to  the  town,  a  distance  of  2  miles  from 
the  coast."  The  town,  in  1872,  was  surrounded  with  stockaded  positions, 
and  Mr.  Irving  observed  that  there  was  an  excellent  road  all  the  way  to  the 
mines  in  the  Laroot  Eange,  about  10  miles  from  the  town.  The  coast  of 
Laroot  between  the  Kurow,  20  miles  northward  of  the  Laroot  Eiver,  and 
the  Jurom  Mas  (or  Gold  Needle),  12  miles  to  the  southward,  is  a  perfect 
network  of  rivers  and  rivulets,  and  indented  by  endless  creeks  and  bays, 
which  afford  countless  sheltering  places  for  pirates.  Most  of  these  creeks 
and  inlets  have  been  explored  by  the  boats  of  the  Thalia  and  the  Midge, 
when  in  search  for  pirates  in  1872,  under  Captain  Woolcombe. 

The  Kurow  Eiver  enters  the  sea  in  5°  N.,  and  10  miles  south-eastward  of 
it  is  the  mouth  of  the  Silensing.  This  latter  river  is  connected  with  the  six 
outlets  to  the  sea  between  it  and  the  Jurom  Mas  Eiver,  in  lat.  4°  33'  N. 
These  outlets  are  named  in  order,  Besar,  Kechil,  Larut,  Trong,  and  Jurom 
Mas.  About  1  mile  South  of  the  Jurom  Mas  is  the  mouth  of  the  small  river 
Hut.  Between  this  and  the  mouth  of  the  Bruas  Eiver,  which  is  situated  4 
miles  to  the  south-westward,  is  the  northern  boundary  of  the  British 

At  16i^  miles  S.E.  by  E.  from  the  S.E.  end  of  Penang  is  a  hill,  called  the 
North  Mound,  which  is  5  or  6  miles  South  of  the  Krean  Eiver,  and  at  13^ 
miles  further  to  S.E.  by  E.  is  another  called  the  South  Mound.  Further  in- 
land high  mountains  are  seen,  which  extend  to  the  southward. 

The  Coast  is  fronted  by  an  extensive  shoal,  which  commences  in  the  strait 
insulating  Penang,  and  which.  South  of  that  island,  is  called  the  Great  Kra 
Plat,  the  5-fathoms  line  being  as  much  as  12  miles  from  the  beach.  This 
extensive  mud-bank,  the  produce  of  the  many  rivers,  before  mentioned, 
which  enter  the  sea  from  the  adjacent  coast,  gradually  bhoalens  to  the  shore, 

1.   A.  Q 


leaving  a  wide  space,  which  covers  and  uncovers  with  the  tide,  and  continues 
with  varying  break  for  54  miles,  till  its  outer  edge  comes  close  to  the  land  at 
Pulo  Tallong,  near  the  hills  known  as  False  Binding,  or  False  Suggur.  The 
outer  edge  of  the  bank  is  steep-to,  decreasing  suddenly  from  13  to  12  fathoms 
to  2  or  3  fathoms,  so  that  it  would  be  imprudent  to  stand  nearer  than  that 
depth,  even  with  the  lead  kept  briskly  going,  especially  in  the  night.  There 
is  some  advantage  in  keeping  in  with  the  coast,  for  by  doing  so  the  westerly 
current  usually  prevailing  in  the  ofRag  will  be  partly  avoided.  The  winds 
will  also  be  more  favourable,  and  anchoring  easier  than  in  deeper  water. 

BINDING  ISLAND,  or  PULO  PANCORE,  before  mentioned  as  forming 
a  portion  of  British  Territory,  was  examined  together  with  the  channel  on 
its  eastern  side  by  Commander  Napier,  in  H.M.S.  Nassau,  in  1876.  The 
island  is  of  irregular  shape,  5  miles  long  N.W.  by  N.  and  S.E.  by  S.,  and  2 
miles  broad.  Off  its  S.W.  end  is  Little  Binding  Island,  sheltering  a  bay ; 
off  its  N.W.  end  runs  a  narrow  promontory,  1^  mile  long ;  and  midway  be- 
tween the  promontory  and  Little  Dinding  Island  a  narrow  island  1^  mile  long 
juts  out  on  its  western  side.  The  highest  part  of  the  island  is  1,318  ft.  high, 
and  situated  about  2  miles  S.E.  of  the  N.W.  point.  On  the  North  and 
South  extremes  are  two  hills,  respectively  748  and  992  ft.  high.  Two  other 
mountains  rise  near  the  centre  of  the  island,  and  attain  a  height  of  more 
than  1,000  ft. 

Great  Dinding  Island  is  densely  covered  with  jungle.  The  woods  consist 
of  ebony,  sandal  wood,  several  varieties  of  gum,  india-rubber,  and  palm- 
trees,  bamboo,  and  several  native  woods,  some  of  which  are  similar  to  ma- 
hogany ;  coffee  and  cotton  are  also  grown  here.  The  whole  of  the  woods 
are  farmed  out  by  the  colonial  government  at  an  annual  rental.  The  popu- 
lation in  1876  consisted  of  about  250  Bataks  or  Malayan  native  hill 
tribes,  and  100  Chinese.  A  Dutch  fort  formerly  existed  on  the  East  side  of 
the  island.  Poultry,  eggs,  and  occasionally  pigs,  may  be  procured  at  most 
of  the  native  villages  at  reasonable  prices.  Fish  and  fruit  are  plentiful ; 
turtle  in  the  season.  Fresh  water  of  good  quality  is  plentiful  at  almost  all 
the  villages,  but  owing  to  want  of  proper  conduits  can  only  be  obtained  in 
small  quantities. 

North  Entrance. — The  passage  between  the  North  side  of  Pulo  Pancore 
and  the  main  is  divided  into  two  channels  by  the  North  Bank,  which  shows 
breakers  in  places.  This  bank  is  4  miles  long  in  a  N.W.  and  S.E.  direction, 
and  from  half  a  mile  wide  at  its  southern  end,  opposite  the  mouth  of  Din- 
ding River,  on  the  mainland,  to  1^  mile  wide  at  its  North  end,  near  which 
lies  Wedge  Rock,  3  ft.  above  water,  N.  by  E.  i  E.,  If  mile  from  North  West 
Islet,  which  lies  5  cables  N.  by  W.  h  W.  from  the  North  point  of  Pulo  Pan- 
core,  is  wooded,  100  ft.  high,  and  difficult  to  discern  until  close.  A  3-feet 
rock  lies  nearly  a  cable  off  its  West  side,  otherwise  it  is  steep-to  all  round. 


A  smnll  islet,  7  ff.  liigli,  lies  iu  the  channel  nearly  midway  between  North 
West  Islet  and  Pulo  Pancore. 

Between  the  North  Bank  and  the  bank  skirting  the  shore  there  is  a  chan- 
nel, suitable  for  vessels  of  not  more  than  10  ft.  draught  of  water;  but  the 
passage  is  difficult,  and  should  not  be  attempted  without  local  knowledge. 
Pass  Tanjong  Hantu,  a  projecting  point,  11  cables  N.E.  by  N.  of  Wedge 
Island,  at  about  2  cables  distant  on  a  S.  ^^  E.  course,  after  which  steer 
S.S.E.  ^  E.  ;  this  course  will  lead  direct  to  the  centre  of  Dinding  Eiver 
passage,  and  in  not  less  than  4  fathoms  water.  H.M.S.  Nassau,  drawing  13 
feet,  passed  through  the  channel  at  three-quarters  flood. 

The  channel  westward  of  North  Bank  is  not  recommended  for  vessels  of 
large  draught,  for  although  with  care  and  attention  not  less  than  4  fathoms 
water  will  be  obtained,  the  passage  is  narrow,  being  only  2  cables  wide  in 
the  narrowest  parts,  and  the  leading  marks  are  not  of  the  best  description. 
The  eye,  however,  is  the  surest  guide. 

Give  a  wide  berth  to  North  bank,  the  western  limit  of  which  bears  North 
from  the  N.W.  point  of  Pulo  Pancore.  To  clear  this  and  the  outlying  3- 
fathoms  patch  7  cables  W.S.W.  of  Wedge  Eock,  the  North  peak  of  Pulo 
Pancore  should  not  be  brought  to  bear  southward  of  S.E.  ^  S.  North  West 
Islet  will  be  sighted  ahead  on  this  bearing,  and  passing  it  on  the  starboard 
hand  at  half  a  cable  distant,  steer  E.  by  S.  f  S.  for  Offlying  Rock,  2  ft.  high, 
near  North  Point.  Between  North-west  Point  and  North  Point,  which  are 
3  cables  apart,  a  rocky  bank  projects  1^  cable  to  the  northward,  at  the  ex- 
tremity of  which  is  Grasshopper  Islet,  120  ft.  high  and  wooded.  Pass  Off- 
lying  Rock  also  on  the  starboard  hand,  at  half  a  cable  distant ;  then  alter 
course  quickly  to  starboard,  and  bring  the  summit  of  North  West  Islet  to 
bear  W.  by  N.  f  N.,  and  midway  between  Offlying  Rock  and  North  Point. 
This  mark  will  lead  a  cable  North  of  Bower  Patch,  and  1  cable  South  of  a 
projecting  part  of  North  Bank.  When  Scorpion  Point  (which  forms  the 
eastern  entrance  point  of  the  large  bay  indenting  the  North  side  of  Dinding 
Island)  bears  S. W.,  alter  course  to  starboard,  and  bring  Table  Rock,  lying 
near  a  point,  and  22  ft.  high,  to  bear  S.  by  E.  i  E. ;  then  steer  6  or  8  cables 
to  pass  the  latter  one,  or  1^  cable  distant ;  and  thence,  preserving  the  same 
distance  from  the  island,  to  the  anchorage  off  Port  Pancore. 

Charyhdis  Rock,  a  pinnacle  having  a  depth  of  2  ft.,  lies  North  IJ  cable 
from  Scorpion  Point.  The  2-fathom  bank  surrounding  it  extends  a  quarter 
of  a  cable  farther  North.  The  ground  is  foul  between  Charybdis  Rock*  and 
Scorpion  Point. 

Shoal  water  of  1 0  to  17  ft.  extends  a  distance  of  2^  cables  to  the  N.E.  and 
East  of  Scorpion  Point,  and  also  fills  the  bay  formed  to  the  N.E.  of  Table 

Boiver  Patch,  having  a  depth  of  15  ft.,  is  nearly  circular,  about  half  a  mile 
in  diameter,  and  lies  N.  by  W.  J  W.,  3  cables  from  Scorpion   Point.     The 


summit  of  North-west  Islet,  in  line  with  North  Point,  leads  on  to  Bower 
Patch.  The  summit  open  of  North  Point,  and  bearing  W.  by  N.  |  N.,  leads 
North  of  Bower  Patch  in  4  fathoms  least  water. 

If  bound  to  Binding  Rivei*,  keep  North  West  Islet  bearing  "W.  by  N.  f  N., 
and  when  Scorpion  Point  bears  S.W.,  sheer  out  a  little  to  the  southward,  to 
give  the  S.E.  extreme  of  North  Bank  a  wider  berth,  and  bring  the  leading 
mark  on  again  before  the  tongue  of  South  Bank  is  approached. 

The  South  Channel  lies  between  the  eastern  side  of  the  island,  which  is  al- 
most steep-to,  and  the  bank  which  extends  about  a  mile  off  the  main. 

Fairway  Rock,  27  ft.  high,  lies  S.  by  W.  J  W.  Sf  miles  from  the  S.E. 
point  of  Pulo  Pancore ;  a  sunken  rock,  having  less  than  6  ft.  water,  lies  half 
a  cable  from  its  North  side,  and  a  depth  of  4  fathoms  near  the  West  side  of 
the  rock.  There  are  9  to  1 6  fathoms  water  between  the  rock  and  the  main- 
land, and  10  to  23  fathoms  between  the  rock  and  Pulo  Pancore. 

Pulo  Katta,  N.E.  by  E.  3^  miles  from  Eairway  Rock,  is  a  small  wooded 
islet,  114  ft.  high,  standing  on  the  edge  of  the  bank  near  Tanjong  Katta, 
and  is  separated  from  the  mainland  by  a  shoal  and  rocky  passage  3  or  4 
cables  wide. 

To  reach  Port  Pancore  from  the  southward,  having  passed  Fairway  Roi  k 
and  Pulo  Katta,  steer  to  bring  Table  Rock  in  line  with  Tanjong  Hantu 
bearing  N.  by  W.  \  W.  :  keep  these  marks  in  line,  which  will  lead  nearly 
mid-channel  to  the  anchorage  off  Port  Pancore. 

If  wishing  to  enter  Binding  River,  steer  from  the  anchorage  to  pass  Table 
Rock  2  cables  distant,  and  thence  midway  between  East  Bank  and  the  island, 
until  the  North  summit  of  Pulo  Pancore  bears  S.W.  h  S.  ;  then  bring  the 
summit  of  North-west  Islet  bearing  W.  by  N.  |  N.  open  of  North  Point, 
and  proceed  on  that  course  to  the  entrance  of  the  river. 

Abreast  of  Port  Pancore  there  will  be  found  secure  anchorage  for  vessels 
of  large  draught,  and  sufficient  space  for  several  vessels  to  moor.  The  best 
berth  is  with  the  shore  end  of  the  pier  bearing  W.N.W.,  distant  3  cables, 
in  8  fathoms,  mud.  In  this  berth  the  vessel  will  be  distant  3  cables  from  the 
edge  of  East  Bank,  the  shoal  which  skirts  the  mainland  adjacent.  Bathing 
is  unsafe  on  account  of  the  numerous  alligators  which  swim  across  the 

It  is  high  water  full  and  change  in  Binding  Channel  at  S*"  15"  ;  springs 
rise  9  ft.,  neaps  5  ft.  The  flood  stream  in  the  North  entrance  sets  fairly 
through  the  channel.  In  Binding  Channel  and  South  entrance  the  ebb  seta 
N.N.E.,  and  flood  S.S.W.,  at  the  rate  of  2  to  3  knots  at  springs. 

To  the  S.W.  of  Pulo  Pancore  the  flood  sets  S.E.,  and  ebb  N.W.,  and  sets 
through  the  narrow  passage  between  Pulo  Pancore  Laut  and  Pulo  Pancore 
at  the  rate  of  2  to  3J  knots  at  springs. 

There  is  anchorage  in  the  bays  on  the  western  side  of  Binding  Island, 

Binding  River,  perhaps  the  only  river  without  a  bar  in  Malacca  Strait, 


has  a  deep  and  clear  entrance,  which  between  Mehegan  and  Motts  Points  is 
8  cables  wide.  A  channel  3  cables  wide,  and  having:  5  to  9  fathoms,  extends 
3  miles  up  the  river,  the  farthest  point  reached  by  the  surveying  parties. 
The  water  shoals  more  gradually  towards  the  North  shore  than  to\vards  the 
South,  which  is  rocky.  Yellow  Cliff,  14  ft.  high,  and  Bed  Cliff,  26  ft.  high, 
both  on  the  South  side  of  the  river,  are  conspicuous.  On  the  North  shore  of 
Binding  Eiver,  at  the  West  side  of  the  entrance  of  Sungie  Sumpit  (small 
river)  is  situated  a  police  station,  a  conspicuous  bungalow  standing  on  a  spit, 
and  easily  recognised  by  the  palm  trees  westward  of  it.  On  the  South  shore 
of  Binding  Eiver,  opposite  the  police  station,  is  a  native  village.  The  flood 
and  ebb  tides  set  at  the  rate  of  3^  knots  at  springs,  and  2  knots  at  neaps. 
Birections  for  approaching  it  from  the  Binding  Channel  are  given  previously. 

The  southern  boundary  of  the  British  territory  is  in  the  bay  2  miles  East 
of  Pulo  Katta. 

The  Sambilang  Islands  are  8  miles  South  of  Binding.  They  are  so  called 
from  the  Malay  word  for  nine,  their  number.  They  are  generally  high  and 
bluff,  covered  with  trees,  and  visible  20  miles  off. 

The  White  Roch,  15  ft.  high,  is  the  south-westernmost  of  the  Sambilangs, 
and  is  in  lat.  4°  0'  10"  N.,  long.  100°  32'  15"  E.  The  Blacli  Roch,  not  very 
high  above  the  water,  is  1  mile  North  from  it.  The  Sambilangs  are  quite 
bold-to,  with  very  deep  water,  15  to  46  fathoms,  and  very  irregular  bottom, 
BO  that  the  lead  is  no  guide  in  approaching  them.  There  is  a  safe  channel 
inside  them. 

The  RIVER  PERAH,  or  Perak,*  is  an  extensive  stream,  and  is  much  fre- 
quented by  the  country  vessels  trading  for  tin.  Mr.  Birch,  in  one  of  his 
last  speeches  made  at  Singapore,  speaks  about  this  river  in  these  terms:  — 
"  The  river  is  a  very  magnificent  one.  At  least  150  miles  from  the  mouth, 
it  is  over  400  ft.  wide,  and,  as  the  tidal  influence  extends  a  very  short  dis- 
tance from  its  mouth,  it  may  be  well  imagined  what  rich  and  fertile  lands 
are  to  be  found  along  its  valley.  The  greatest  resources  of  this  fine  district 
lie  in  its  soil,  which  is  remarkably  rich  and  suitable  for  the  cultivation  of 
tobacco,  sugar,  or  indigo." 

A  vessel  entering  Perah  Eiver  should  close  the  North  coast,  and  having 
passed  Pulo  Katta,  bring  the  South  point  of  Pulo  Pancore,  or  Great  Bin- 
ding, to  bear  N.W.  by  W.  \  W.,  and  nearly  touching  the  North  point  of 
Little  Binding  Island.  This  mark  will  lead  over  the  bar  in  11  ft.  at  half- 
tide  neaps,  and  17  ft.  at  high   water  springs,  and  past  the  outer  clump  of 

*  It  was  at  Passir  Salah,  a  town  on  this  river,  about  70  miles  from  its  mouth,  that  Mr, 
Birch,  the  British  Resident,  met  his  death  at  the  hands  of  the  natives.  The  murder  took 
place  in  November,  1875,  at  a  time  of  great  excitement,  caused  by  the  struggles  of  two 
rival  claimants  for  the  throne  of  Purah,  after  the  death  of  Sultan  Ali. 


fishing-stakes  at  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  on  the  starboard  hand  ;  the 
bar  is  (January,  1876,)  situated  N.E.  by  E.  from  these  stakes* 

Keeping  the  same  marks  in  line,  a  second  clump  of  fishing  stakes  is  passed 
on  the  starboard  hand  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  distant ;  then  alter  course 
gradually  to  starboard,  and  pass  between  this  clump  and  another  large  clump 
bearing  E.  by  S.  Passing  the  latter  at  a  quarter  of  a  mile  distant,  the  vessel 
should  steer  along  the  bank  for  the  point  on  the  North  side  of  the  entrance, 
keeping  about  a  half  or  three-quarters  of  a  mile  off  shore,  and  passing  out- 
side some  small  fishing-stakes  moored  close  to  the  bank,  until  the  mouth  of 
the  river  is  reached.  Avoid  the  first  point  on  the  port  hand,  as  there  is  a 
long  spit  extending  ofi"  it,  and  steer  over  to  the  South  or  left  bank  of  the 
river,  keeping  it  at  a  distance  of  50  to  70  yards,  as  there  is  a  slioal  in  the 
centre  of  the  river. 

Between  the  entrance  of  the  river  and  Kota  Striah,  distant  25  miles  from 
the  bar,  on  the  route  recommended,  soundings  of  2^  to  5  fathoms  will  have 
been  obtained.  There  is  anchorage  off  Kota  Striah,  in  3  J  to  4  fathoms,  stiff 
mud,  at  2^  cables  from  the  shore. 

Durian  Sahatang,  a  town  of  eighty  or  ninety  houses,  the  highest  point 
which  may  be  reached  by  gun-vessels  drawing  11  ft.,  is  43  miles  from  the 
entrance.  The  trade,  which  is  chiefly  in  tin,  is  in  the  hands  of  the  Chinese, 
and  is  carried  on  entirely  by  junks. 

Bandar  Bahru,  the  site  of  the  British  Residency,  is  estimated  to  be  19  miles 
above  Durian  Sabatang.  Kota-Lumut  is  the  highest  point  steam  launches 
can  reach. 

Bernam  River,  12  miles  southward  of  Perah  River,  is  the  boundary  be- 
tween the  States  of  Perah  and  Salangore.  It  has  been  for  years  the  resting 
place  of  pirates,  but  in  1870,  after  some  severe  fighting,  they  were  dislodged, 
and  it  is  hoped  that  by  an  occasional  visit  of  one  of  H.M.  gunboats,  the 
practice  may  be  checked  for  the  future.  The  river  extends  about  150  miles 

PULO  JARRA  lies  in  the  middle  of  the  Strait  of  Malacca,  bearing  S.  ^  W. 
78  miles  from  Penang,  and  26^  miles  W.  by  S.  from  the  Sambilang  Islands. 
It  is  about  300  ft.  high,  very  small,  covered  with  trees,  and  may  be  seen  in 
all  directions  for  20  or  25  miles.     It  is  very  steep-to,  the  lead  affording  no 

•  In  June,  1876,  the  Ringdove  crossed  the  bar  at  high  water  neaps  with  the  same  marks, 
and  had  22  ft.  least  water.  Also  H.M.S.  Maypie,  crossing  on  the  26th  of  December,  1876, 
had  25  ft.  least  water  at  one  hour  before  high  water  ;  the  outer  fishing-stakes  bore  S.  by  E. 
The  channel  of  deepest  water  is  probably  very  narrow,  and  it  may  shift.  Navigating- 
Lieutenant  Pownal  Aplin,  H.M.S.  Modeste,  1876,  remarks,  that  vessels  of  9  ft.  draught  may 
always  enter  at  high  water.  Ships  of  greater  draught  should  not  attempt  it  except  at 
springs,  unless  in  cases  of  urgency.  The  best  channel  in  1861  was  1  mile  South  of  Pulo 


indication  of  its  proximity.  The  depths  around  it  are  from  14  to  48  fathoms, 
with  25  to  30  fathoms  in  the  channel  between  it  and  the  Sambilangs  ;  and 
from  30  to  40  in  the  channel  between  it  and  the  Brothers,  39  miles  to  the 
S.S.W.  It  is  best  to  pass  to  eastward  of  it,  because  the  current  often  sets 
strong  to  theN.W.  in  the  middle  of  the  strait,  and  calms  are  more  prevalent 
there  than  nearer  the  coast.     It  is  in  lat.  3""  58'  20"  N.,  long.  lOO''  8'  E. 

SALANGORE,'^-'  the  capital  of  the  Malayan  State  extending  from  Bernam 
River  tu  Langat  Eiver,  lies  within  the  entrance  of  a  small  river  at  60  miles 
fc>.E.  trom  Pulo  Sambilang.  The  town  was  founded  at  the  commencement 
of  the  last  century  by  a  colony  of  Bugis  from  Celebes,  and  was  at  one  time 
frequented  for  tin,  for  which  the  Dutch  had  here  an  establishment  and 
monopoly.  The  fort  on  the  South  side  of  the  entrance  to  the  river  is  in  lat. 
3°  19'  50"  N.  ;  there  are  also  some  forts  on  the  northern  shore.  The  river  is 
navigable  at  high  water  for  vessels  of  some  burden,  and  H.M.S.  Rinaldo, 
draught  15  ft.  4  in.,  entered  here  in  July,  1871,  to  punish  the  natives  for  a 
piratical  attack  which  had  been  made  in  a  junk  from  Penang,  when  thirty- 
four  persons  were  murdered.  They  found  the  bar  2  miles  in  width  at  high 
water,  and  grounded  at  low  water  when  anchored  in  front  of  the  town. 
Captain  Bloomfield,  who  examined  the  river  in  1871  up  to  where  it  ceases  to 
be  tidal,  at  22  miles  from  its  mouth,  reports  that  vessels  drawing  more  than 
1 0  ft.  water  should  not  attempt  to  enter  the  river  until  more  accurate  surveys 
are  made.  H.M.S.  Pluto  ascended  the  river  13  miles,  or  to  1  or  2  miles 
above  Quedah.  The  spring  tide  was  running  very  strong,  with  a  rise  and 
fall  of  15  ft.  There  is  anchorage  abreast  of  the  river  at  3|  to  5  miles  off 
shore,  in  from  4  to  7  fathoms,  with  Cape  Caran  bearing  N.W.,  and  Pulo 
Anza  bearing  S.  by  E.,  or  S.  by  E.  J  E.,  about  9  miles  distant.  It  is  high 
water,  at  full  and  change,  about  5  hours. 

The  False  Parcelar  Hill,  or  BuTcit  Jerom,  is  close  to  the  shore,  and  7 
miles  from  Salangore.  It  is  sometimes  called  the  Hill  of  Salangore.  In  pass- 
ing it,  it  scarcely  seems  higher  than  a  clump  of  trees.  Its  sides  are  covered 
with  cocoa-nut  trees,  and  its  summit  by  a  grove  of  senna  trees.  Off  it  lies  a 
line  of  islets  and  rocks,  running  to  S.W.  by  8.  for  3i-  miles.  They  were  for- 
merly called  the  Botel  (or  Bottle)  Islands.  The  innermost  is  Fulo  Besar,  and 
the  outer  one  is  Pulo  Tekolo.  At  a  mile,  or  further  from  it,  is  a  rock,  on 
which  the  Calcutta  brig  was  lost.  It  bears  S.W.  ^  S.  from  it,  and  should  not 
be  approached  too  nearly  ;  there  are  5  fathoms  water  close  to  it. 

From  the  outer  reef  (sometimes  also  called  the  Sail  Shoal),  Pulo  Anzas,  on 

*  It  is  prohable  that  within  a  few  years  more  trade  may  be  done  on  the  coast  of  Salan- 
gore. Under  the  advice  of  the  British  Resident,  the  Sultan  issued  a  proclamation  in 
March,  1876,  declarint'-  it  illegal  for  any,  save  those  properly  authorized,  to  levy  taxes  on 
merchandize.  Hitherto  vessels  passing  np  and  down  the  river  have  paid  heavily  to  different 
chiefs,  who  converted  the  mouty  to  their  own  use. 


the  opposite  side  of  the  channel,  bears  W.  by  S.  3  miles.  There  are  two  of 
them  standing  upon  the  eastern  edge  of  the  shoal  which  limits  the  strait  to 
the  westward.  (They  are  the  Mudancoos,  or  Mud  and  Goose,  of  the  old 
charts.)  The  bank  and  the  islets  are  steep-to.  The  bank  extends  for  13 
miles  to  N.W.  by  N.  from  them,  and  gradually  shoalens  from  2  and  3  fa- 
thoms up  to  Pulo  Colong  (or  Callam),  the  North  point  of  which  is  10  miles 
S.E.  by  E.  from  the  Pulo  Anzas. 

At  80  miles  from  the  Sambilangs,  and  30  miles  from  Salangore,  is  a  pro- 
jecting point,  formed  by  the  islands  of  Colong  or  Callam  and  Lamaut,  for- 
merly called  Cape  Coran,  or  Tanjong  Aivat,  or  Mud  Point.  A  shoal  bank 
fronts  it  for  2^  miles  from  it,  and  therefore  caution  is  necessary.  This  bank 
of  sand  and  broken  shells  stretches  for  15  miles  to  N.N.W.,  and  is  6J  miles 
from  shore.  On  its  edge  and  between  it  and  the  shore,  the  depths  are  5  and 
4  fathoms,  and  as  they  decrease  the  bottom  becomes  hard.  After  the  Sam- 
bilangs disappear,  the  False  Parcelar,  or  Hill  of  Salangore,  will  come  in 
sight  to  the  S.E.  by  E.,  or  rather  more  eastward.  The  ship  will  then  be  in 
10  fathoms,  green  mud,  and  should  steer  along  the  coast  to  S.E.  in  not  less 
than  8  or  9  fathoms.  When  Cape  Caran  bears  East,  the  beach  may  be  neared 
with  safety,  but  should  have  a  berth  of  2  miles,  after  which  the  lead  will  be 
a  sufficient  guide. 

Pulo  Colong,  with  Pulo  Liimaut  to  the  South  of  it,  forms  a  channel  called 
the  Strait  of  Callam,  or  Colong,  which  was  formerly  used  by  ships  of  mode- 
rate draught  in  order  to  avoid  the  dangers  of  the  North  and  South  Sands. 
It  is  still  used  by  the  local  steamers.  To  the  eastward  of  Pulo  Lumaut  two 
rivers  enter  the  Lumaut  Strait.  The  Callang  or  Klang  is  said  to  be  navigable 
for  vessels  of  light  draught,  15  or  20  miles,  as  far  as  Damar,  and  for  boats 
by  poling  as  far  as  the  neighbourhood  of  the  tin  mines.  Langat  River  enters 
the  strait  at  about  6  miles  to  the  southward.  To  the  northward  of  Par- 
celar Hill,  "in  2°  50'  N.,  the  river  bifurcates,  near  Langat,  the  residence  of 
the  Sultan  and  of  the  British  Resident ;  and  a  second  mouth  is  formed  on  the 
coast  S.W.  of  Parcelar  Hill,  and  named  the  Jugru  River.  Mr.  Braddell 
was  on  this  river  in  1874,  and  says  that  following  the  river  from  bight  to 
bif^ht  they  found  3  and  4  fathoms  wherever  they  went.  Mr.  Irving,  speak- 
ing of  the  district  says  : — "  It  is  a  magnificent  country,  with  a  fine  soil  and 
great  mineralogical  resources.  It  is  watered  and  opened  up  by  fine  naviga- 
ble rivers,  which  run  up  within  easy  distance  of  the  richest  tin  districts, 
situated  in  the  watersheds  of  the  Salangore,  Klang,  and  Langat  Rivers.  It 
only  wants  security  for  life  and  property,  and  a  few  easily  constructed  roads, 
to  make  it  burst  out  into  exuberant  life."* 

*  For  further  particulars,  see  a  Paper  in  the  Journal  of  the  Royal  Geographical  Society, 
yol.  xlvi,  1876,  by  W.  Barrington  D' Almeida,  on  "  The  Geography  of  Perah  and  Salan- 


The  Strait  of  Colong,  or  Callam,  is  about  15  miles  in  length  between  the 
islands,  and  has  sufficient  depth  for  moderate  ships.  It  is  not  much  used 
now,  the  less  so,  as  it  is  said  that  pirates  have  been  found  lurking  in  its 

Mr.  Logan  says : — The  strait  is  like  a  large  river  or  canal.  The  islands 
between  which  it  lies  are  merely  flats,  and  formed  of  black  mud,  covered 
with  mangrove  thickets.  In  steaming  through  it  you  see  nothing  but  a  wall 
of  thick  mangroves  on  either  side.  Towards  the  northern  extremity  of  the 
thickets  one  place  of  considerable  extent  was  quite  naked,  and  covered  with 
flying  foxes,  which  have  settled  here  for  many  years.  The  strait  is  (or  was) 
used  by  the  local  steamers  in  passing  between  Singapore,  Malacca,  and 

The  following  are  the  old  directions  for  those  who  would  wish  to  follow 

To  run  in  for  Salangore  and  the  Straits  of  Colong,  after  you  have  rounded 
the  Sambilangs,  steer  away  to  the  eastward  E.S.E.  or  E.  by  S.,  and  rise  the 
low  land,  coming  no  nearer  than  8  or  9  fathoms,  but  do  not  rise  the  beach 
from  the  deck.  As  you  lose  sight  of  the  Sambilangs,  you  may  see  the  hill  of 
Salangore,  or  False  Parcelar ;  steer  in  for  it,  keeping  the  above  depth,  you 
"will  soon  after  make  the  true  hill,  which  appears  like  a  grove  of  trees  ;  when 
you  come  nearer  you  cannot  mistake  it,  as  it  is  the  only  hill  near  the  water 
side.  In  observing  these  directions,  you  will  not  meet  with  the  shoal  of 
broken  shells  that  lies  to  the  N.W.  of  Salangore,  and  those  which  follow  will 
enable  you  better  to  avoid  it. 

When  you  can  just  discern  Salangore  Hill  from  the  deck,  bearing  S.E.  by  E. 
or  S.E.  by  E.  ^  E.,  you  will  have  10  or  11  fathoms,  green  oaze,  with  small 
broken  oyster-shells,  at  5  or  6  miles  from  the  nearest  shore.  The  course 
along  shore  is  about  S.S.E.  14  or  15  miles.  The  soundings  on  the  shoal  are 
from  6  to  3 J,  5,  4,  and  6|^  fathoms,  with  overfalls  of  1,  2,  and  3  fathoms  at 
a  cast :  as  you  deepen  you  will  have  soft  ground,  and  the  contrary  as  you 
are  shoaling.  "When  you  have  sailed  the  above  mentioned  distance,  allow- 
ing for  the  tides,  Parcelar  true  Hill  will  be  seen  from  the  deck  bearing 
S.S.E.  ^  E.,  distance  from  the  nearest  shore  7  or  8  miles,  in  14  or  15  fathoms, 
soft  ground. 

When  you  see  the  False  HiU  bearing  S.E.  by  E.  or  S.E.  by  E.  \  E.  from 
the  deck,  steer  ofi"  shore  to  the  southward,  until  you  lose  sight  of  the  white 
sandy  beach  from  the  tafi'arel ;  then  steer  to  the  S.E.  along  shore,  taking 
care  not  to  raise  the  white  beach,  and  that  will  carry  you  clear  without  the 
shoal,  in  soundings  not  less  than  8  or  9  fathoms.  When  you  have  run  the 
above  mentioned  distance  to  the  S.S.E.,  you  may  then  with  safety  raise  the 
beach,  or  borrow  on  the  shore ;  but  come  not  under  8  or  7  fathoms,  soft 
ground,  as  it  shoals  very  fast  from  that  depth  until  you  are  past  Tanjong 

I.  A.  R 


But  to  resume  our  instructions  for  sailing  into  Salangore.  After  you  have 
seen  the  low  land  beyond  Tanjong  Awat,  you  may  be  guided  by  the  lead, 
giving  that  point  a  berth  of  a  mile,  or  1^  mile,  to  avoid  the  shoal  which 
stretches  from  it.  To  run  into  Salangore  Eoad,  you  keep  the  hill  a  little 
open  to  the  southward,  and  anchor  a  little  to  the  northward  of  it,  in  4  or 
3^  fathoms,  soft  mud,  as  there  is  a  shoal  to  the  southward  projecting  1^ 

Going  to  the  Straits  of  Colong,  steer  for  Pulo  Anzas,  and  to  the  eastward 
of  them  you  will  then  see  the  entrance,  or  North  mouth  of  the  straits.  The 
Pulo  Anzas  are  bold-to,  but  the  islands,  which  are  on  the  eastern  side  of 
the  channel,  are  the  reverse.  Off  the  southern  or  outermost  island,  Pulo 
Tekolo,  lies  a  dangerous  rock,  bearing  from  it  S.W.  ^  S.  a  mile  distant,  and 
with  5  fathoms  close  to  it.  On  the  S.W.  of  the  channel  there  is  a  sand-bank, 
but  on  the  other  side  it  is  mud.  "When  you  are  past  the  above  islands,  ap- 
proach nearer  the  sand-bank  than  when  you  leave  hard  soundings  ;  on  the 
opposite  part  stand  on  at  pleasure. 

A  little  to  the  northward  of  the  North  entrance  of  the  straits  lies  a  shoal, 
to  avoid  which,  as  well  as  to  keep  in  the  best  channel,  you  are  to  keep  the 
Middle  Botel  Island  in  one  with  Salangore  Hill,  observing  not  to  open  the 
hill  to  the  eastward  ;  another  leading  mark  is  to  keep  Parcelar  Hill  on  the 
West  point  about  its  own  breadth.  After  passing  this  shoal  you  may  be 
guided  by  the  lead  on  this  side,  keeping  in  from  5  to  9  fathoms.  There  is 
also  another  shoal  in  a  line  of  direction  from  Mud  and  Goose  Islands  to  the 
West  point,  but  of  no  great  extent. 

In  working  up  the  first  reach  there  is  no  danger,  having  good  water  from 
side  to  side,  which  at  the  upper  end  of  the  reach  is  very  deep,  with  irregular 
soundings  from  12  to  22  fathoms.  The  opening  that  is  on  the  port  hand  at 
the  bottom  of  this  reach  is  the  Eiver  Colong  or  Klang  ;  opposite  to  which 
is  Deep-water  Point,  the  South  point  on  the  starboard  hand,  of  the  first 

The  second  is  Bar  Peach,  which  is  clear  while  abreast  of  a  creek  on  the 
port  side,  opposite  to  which  is  the  shoalest  part  of  the  bar  ;  before  you  come 
up  to  this  creek,  you  meet  with  another,  which  it  is  necessary  to  avoid,  as 
there  is  an  indraught.  It  will  be  best  to  anchor  about  a  cable's  length,  in  6 
fathoms,  before  you  cross  the  bar,  as  it  shifts  very  much,  and  of  course  it  is 
requisite  to  sound.  On  our  sounding  we  found  3  fathoms  at  low  water  the 
greatest  depth,  which  is  a  little  more  than  a  third  over  from  the  S.E.  side  : 
you  will  carry  3  fathoms  about  twice  the  ship's  length  after  being  over.  A 
good  leading  mark  is  some  low  land  just  open  with  the  first  point ;  you  may 
stand  till  it  is  two  sails'  breadths  open,  and  close  it  on  the  other  shore  ;  but 
the  best  and  safest  mark  for  crossing  the  bar  is  to  bring  Deep-water  Point  to 
bear  N.E.  J  E.  ;  you  may  also  be  guided  by  the  lead,  which  cannot  be  done 
on  the  opposite  side,  being  a  bank  steep  to  that  extends  along  and  across 


about  one-third  over  to  the  western  point  of  the  Third  Eeach,  and  from  thence 
up  to  the  northern  extremity  of  a  creek,  in  that  reach,  your  soundings  are 
from  3  to  9  or  10  fathoms. 

The  bar  is  narrow,  and  begins  at  the  entrance  of  the  first  creek,  on  the 
S.E.  shore,  having  the  least  water  about  half  a  cable's  length  to  the  S.W.  ; 
you  then  deepen  it  from  3  to  5  fathoms  gradually,  and  will  be  abreast  of  the 
second  creek.*  From  this  you  carry  not  less  than  5^  fathoms,  about  a  large 
cable's  length  from  the  port  shore.  Keep  nearly  that  distance  till  you  pass 
Point  Anna  Grabs  (so  called  from  a  small  ship  wrecked  here),  as  it  is  shoal 
on  the  starboard  side,  hard  ground,  with  overfaUs.  Indeed,  you  must  avoid 
for  the  same  reason,  the  starboard  shore,  until  you  are  beyond  the  second 
opening  to  the  sea. 

The  tide  flows  about  9  ft.  in  the  springs. 

PARCELAR  HILL,  or  Bukit  Jugru,  a  great  leading  mark,  stands  in  lat. 
2°  50'  N.,  long.  lOr  26'  10'  E.,  26i  miles  E.  7°  S.  from  the  lighthouse  on  the 
One-fathom  Bank,  and  10  miles  eastward  from  the  southern  entrance  of  the 
Colong  Strait.  It  is  890  ft.  high,  of  oblong  form,  sloping  at  each  end  when 
viewed  from  the  westward,  with  the  summit  a  little  to  the  westward  of  its 
centre  ;  but  of  a  regular  pyramidal  form  when  seen  from  the  southward  or 
S.S.E.,  with  very  gentle  declivities  in  each  direction.  It  is  darker  in  appear- 
ance than  the  neighbouring  hills.  In  front  of  it,  to  the  S.W.,  is  the  Jugru 
mouth  of  the  Langat  River,  before  mentioned. 

The  NORTH  SANDS,  which  lie  ofi"  the  Malay  coast  between  Salangore 
and  Parcelar  Hill,  are  extensive  and  dangerous.  Their  north-western  edge 
is  steep,  and  drops  from  5  fathoms  to  15  or  30  fathoms  in  3  or  4  miles.  They 
have  been  surveyed  by  Captain  Ross,  and  his  chart  shows  them  as  several 
parallel  ridges  of  sand,  trending  fromN.W.  and  N.N.W.  to  S.E.  and  S.S.E., 
with  deeper  water,  from  8  to  14  fathoms,  between  them.  The  north-western 
edge  of  their  most  dangerous  part  lies  21J  miles  W.S.W.  from  Salangore. 
These  patches  have  from  4  to  18  ft.  water,  with  7  to  10  fathoms  on  either 
side.  They  extend  south-eastward  for  18  miles,  leaving  a  channel,  3  miles 
in  width,  between  their  extremity  and  the  shoal  which  extends  from  Pulo 
Colong,  and  which  has  from  5  to  14  fathoms  of  water.  The  chart  is  the  best 
guide  for  their  position  and  character,  and  the  various  patches  need  not  be 
enumerated,  as  it  is  difiicult  or  impossible  to  give  clearing  marks  for  them. 

*  After  you  pass  the  bar.  Captain  Elmore  advises  to  "  steer  direct  for  the  South  point  of 
the  Sea  Reach,  until  the  North  point  of  that  reach  bears  West  by  North,  to  avoid  the  wreck 
of  a  large  Portuguese  ship,  which  bears  West  from  that  point,  and  lies  on  the  eastern  shore, 
between  Anna  Grab  Point  and  the  bar ;  when  these  bearings  are  on,  and  you  are  2  cables' 
lengths  off  shore,  it  is  best  to  keep  the  eastern  shore  on  board,  to  prevent  the  flood  tide  from 
horsing  you  through  the  opening  to  seaward  (which  I  call  Sea  Keach),  where  there  is  no 
passage,  being  entirely  choked  with  sand  banks,  dry  at  half  ebb." 


The  Blenheim  Shoal  is  one  of  the  most  dangerous  of  these  shoals,  and  lies 
on  their  western  edge.  It  nearly  occasioned  the  wreck  of  H.M.S.  Blenheim, 
when  it  was  first  discovered.  It  bears  from  One-fathom  Bank  light  N.  15°  W. 
11  miles,  and  from  Parcelar  Hill  W.  23°  N.  31|^  miles  ;  Salangore  Hill  bears 
from  it  N.  56°  E. ;  and  another  hill  to  the  S.E.  of  it  N.  66°  E.,  lat.  3°  3'  N., 
long.  100°  56'  15"  E.  It  has  only  6  ft.  least  water,  and  there  are  several 
dangerous  patches  to  the  and  N.E.  from  it.  It  is  cleared  so  long  as 
Parcelar  Hill  does  not  bear  northward  of  E.S.E. 

It  is  high  water  at  the  N.W.  head  of  the  North  Sands,  on  full  and  change, 
at  6*"  30".     Springs  rise  12  ft.,  neaps  12i  ft. 

When  the  Round  Arroa  (presently  described)  is  seen  from  the  mast-head 
(being  31  miles  off),  bearing  S.S.W.  to  S.S.W.  J  W.,  you  are  on  the  N.W. 
edge  of  these  sands,  and  will  pass  over  spits  of  8  and  10  fathoms.  As  these 
spits,  which  form  the  N.W.  part  of  the  North  Sands,  have  9  to  12  fathoms 
on  their  outer  edges,  it  is  advisable,  when  bound  to  the  southward  in  con- 
trary winds,  to  keep  near  the  western  edges  of  the  sands  in  working,  making 
short  tacks  to  the  westward,  and  standing  in  to  10  or  11  fathoms,  in  a  large 
ship,  or  to  8  and  9  fathoms  in  a  small  one.  By  this  means  moderate  depths 
will  be  found  for  anchoring  during  the  ebb,  with  the  tides  more  regular  and 
more  favourable  than  further  out  in  deep  water.  Eor  here,  during  S.E. 
winds,  a  current  is  often  found  to  set  W.N.W.  and  westward  when  tides  are 
prevailing  along  the  edge  of  the  sands.  The  strength  of  the  ebb  generally 
sets  between  N.W.  and  N.W.  by  N.  2^  miles  an  hour,  the  flood  in  the  oppo- 
site direction,  about  S.E.  ^  S.,  standing  a  little  on  the  western  edges  of  the 
sands,  or  running  nearly  parallel  with  them,  but  it  is  not  so  strong  as  the 

The  ONE-FATHOM  BANK,  which  forms  the  S.W.  part  of  the  North 
Sands,  and  is  also  on  the  North  side  of  the  channel  between  the  North  and 
South  Sands,  was  considered  as  the  most  dangerous  shoal  of  the  vicinity. 
According  to  Lieut.  Ward's  survey,  it  is  about  IJ  mile  N.N.E.  to  S.S.W., 
and  1  mile  broad  E.N.E.  and  W.S.W.  It  has  6  ft.  least  water.  By  keeping 
Parcelar  Hill  E.  %  S.,  the  North  end  will  be  cleared,  andE.  \  S.  the  southern 
edge  will  be  passed  safely. 

The  Lighthouse,  on  screw  iron  piles,  is  painted  in  stripes  of  red  and  slate- 
colour.  It  is  placed  on  the  centre  of  the  bank,  in  15  ft.  water,  half  a  mile 
S.  by  E.  of  the  position  occupied  by  the  lightvessel  previous  to  May,  1874, 
when  a  revolving  bright  light,  attaining  its  greatest  brilliancy  every  minute, 
was  first  exhibited  from  the  lighthouse.  It  is  shown  at  61  ft.  above  the  sea 
level,  and  visible  13  miles  off.  Its  position  is  in  lat.  2°  52'  8"  N.,  long. 
100°  59'  2"  E. 

A  red  huoy  marks  the  North  end  of  the  bank.  It  lies  in  14  ft.  water,  at  1^ 
mile  N.W.  from  the  lighthouse. 


There  is  a  safe  channel  between  the  One-Fathom  Bank  and  the  Blenheim 
Shoal,  but  there  is  a  small  21 -feet  bank  midway  between  them,  with  7  to  16 
fathoms  around  it.  It  lies  6^  miles  N.  by  W.  I  W.  from  One-Fathom  Bank 
lighthouse  ;  and  a  second  bank  of  similar  depths  lies  2  miles  S.E.  of  it,  and 
4  miles  N.  ^  E.  of  the  lighthouse.  Parcelar  Hill  bearing  E.  by  S.  i  S., 
nearly,  is  the  best  course  to  pass  between  these  banks  and  the  One  Fathom 
Bank.  This  channel  has  not  been  used  by  large  ships,  as  the  tides  run  in 
strong  eddies  over  the  sands  during  spring  tides.  A  better  course  is  to 
steer  so  as  to  pass  southward  of  the  lighthouse. 

The  ARROA  ISLANDS  form  the  western  side  of  the  main  channel  of  the 
Strait  of  Malacca  past  the  North  Sands.  They  are  a  group  of  small  islets 
and  rocks  on  an  extensive  shoal  which  lies  in  the  middle  of  the  strait.  The 
northernmost  of  the  cluster  is  the  JV^orth  Hock,  in  lat.  2°  55'  20"  N.,  long. 
100°  36'  5"  E.  It  is  of  considerable  height  above  the  water,  with  regular 
soundings  very  near  the  rocks  that  front  it  of  8  and  9  fathoms  mud. 

East  Rock,  or  Batu  Ifandi,  is  a  flat  black  rock,  very  little  above  the  surface 
of  the  sea.  It  has  deep  water  close  on  its  eastern  side.  It  lies  somewhat  oflf 
the  mud  bank,  as  it  has  a  deep  channel  of  17  fathoms  three-quarters  of  a 
mile  wide  to  the  West  of  it,  between  it  and  a  line  of  sunken  rocks,  covered  at 
half  flood,  on  which  the  sea  breaks  at  times. 

The  Htffh  Rock,  or  JBafu  Balia,  lies  2  miles  West  from  the  sunken  reef  just 
mentioned.  It  is  surrounded  by  other  rocks,  and  there  are  9  fathoms  in  the 
space  between,  with  7  to  ]  0  fathoms  in  the  channel  West  of  it. 

Pulo  Jummur,  the  Great  or  Long  Arroa,  is  the  largest  of  the  group.  It 
consists  of  two  islands  nearly  joined,  is  covered  with  trees,  flat,  and  is  nearly 
3  miles  S.W.  by  S.  from  the  North  rock.  It  is  nearly  a  mile  long,  and  the 
shores  appear  to  be  lined  with  rocks,  and  a  re*/ extends  to  the  N.E.  from  it 
for  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile.  The  Malay  fishermen  come  here  for  fish 
and  turtle.  Boats  landing  should  therefore  be  on  their  guard.  Water  can 
be  got  in  a  cove  with  a  good  sandy  beach,  on  the  East  side  of  the  South  isle. 
Several  springs  of  good  water  fall  into  the  deep  valley.  The  Western  Arroa 
is  a  group  of  islets  and  rocks  lying  about  a  mile  to  the  westward  of  the  Lono- 
Arroa,  and  on  the  same  rocky  bank. 

The  Round  Arroa,  or  Pulo  Tukong  Simbang,  the  chief  mark  for  the  channel 
to  the  eastward,  is  very  small,  high,  round,  and  has  a  tuft  of  trees  on  each 
side  of  it.  It  may  be  seen  1 8  miles  ofi".  It  has  several  rocky  islets  near  it 
two  of  which  are  visible  12  miles  oS' ;  one  of  these  lies  to  the  northward  the 
other  to  the  southward,  with  straggling  rocks  around.  The  South  Rock,  or 
Pulo  Tukong,  the  southernmost  islet  or  rock,  above  water,  is  IJ  mile  S.S.W. 
from  the  Round  Arroa. 

The  Arroa  Islands  should  not  be  approached  by  night,  as  there  is  now 
no  necessity  for  it,  since  the  light  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  channel  is 


established.  The  currents  and  ebb  tides  set  very  strongly  here,  and  might 
horse  you  among  them.  Should  a  vessel  be  working  near  them  against  a 
heavy  N.  W.  swell,  there  is  shelter  from  N.W.  or  westerly  winds  by  anchor- 
ing under  the  Long  Arroa,  guarding  against  the  reef  which  projects  a  mile 
to  E.N.E.  from  its  North  end. 

In  sailing  down  the  Malacca  Strait  from  the  northward,  and  having  got 
in  mid-channel  between  Pulo  Jarra  and  the  South  Sambilang,  keeping  to 
the  eastward  to  guard  against  the  easterly  tendency  of  the  current,  steer 
about  S.S.E.  or  S.  20°  E.  to  keep  well  to  N.E.  of  the  Arroas,  but  not  too  far 
on  the  North  Sands.  Excepting  a  shingly  spot  of  13  fathoms  in  lat.  3°  20' N., 
bearing  South  from  the  Sambilangs,  the  soundings  are  tolerably  regular  on 
this  track  generally  between  31  and  40  fathoms  in  the  direct  line.  Should 
the  winds  hang  to  the  eastward  or  E.S.E.,  keep  in  with  the  Malay  coast  in. 
from  20  to  30  fathoms,  until  8  or  10  leagues  past  the  Sambilangs;  then  steer 
more  southerly  to  get  soundings  of  16  to  18  fathoms  on  the  N.W.  face  of  the 
North  Sands,  which  may  be  rounded  close,  provided  you  do  not  come  into 
less  than  14  or  16  fathoms,  and  then  either  the  Arroa  Islands  or  the  light- 
vessel,  or  Parcelar  Hill,  will  come  in  view,  and  will  be  a  further  guide. 

The  SOUTH  SANDS,  like  those  forming  the  North  Sands,  are  a  series  of 
parallel  spits  which  run  E.S.E.  and  W.N.W.,  or  more  southerly  in  the  same 
direction  as  the  Malay  coast,  and  13  or  14  miles  distant  from  it.  The  main 
channel  on  the  North  side  of  them  having  that  breadth,  and  a  depth  of  from 
20  to  40  fathoms  (with  some  exceptions),  extends  for  60  miles  from  the  One- 
Fathom  Bank  Light  to  Cape  Eachado.  The  South  Sands  vary  in  width 
from  2  to  6  miles.  The  northernmost  dangerous  patch,  with  16  ft.  water,  is 
102  miles  S.  by  E.  ^  E.  from  the  lightvessel,  and  the  south-easternmost  is  a 
small  patch  of  hard  sand,  named  on  the  chart  the  Pyramid,  with  6  ft.  least 
water.  From  it  Cape  Eachado  appears  like  an  island,  bearing  E.  ^  S.,  and 
from  5  to  9  miles  further  S.S.E.  are  several  patches  of  15  to  4  fathoms. 
These  eastern  patches  are  the  most  dangerous  part  of  the  shoal  of  Malacca, 
and  require  all  caution.  On  the  North  side  of  the  channel  is  the  Bambek 
Shoal,  awash,  which  is  21  miles  from  Parcelar  Hill,  and  14  miles  from  Cape 

The  space  between  the  Sumatran  shore  and  the  South  Sands  is  full  of 
shoals  and  dangers,  and  should  never  be  attempted. 

It  is  high  water  at  full  and  change  at  the  One-Fathom  Bank  at  6  o'clock. 
Springs  rise  15  ft.,  and  neaps  12  ft.  The  tide  runs  strongly  at  springs, 
and  then  there  are  eddies  on  the  spit  which  projects  from  the  One-Fathom 
Bank.  Between  the  sand  heads  the  strength  of  the  ebb  runs  nearly  N.W., 
but  the  commencement  and  end  of  it  run  very  irregularly.  The  flood  is 
more  regular  in  its  direction,  and  runs  with  less  velocity.  The  light 
is  found  to  be  most  useful  in  these    strong   tide   ways,  when,  if  the  land 


be  not  visible,    the    navigation  would   be    as   formerly,    very   embarrass- 

The  CHANNEL  between  the  North  and  South  Sands,  which  has  been 
known  by  the  name  of  the  East  and  West  Channel, — a  term  probably  derived 
from  the  fact  that  the  leading  marks  through  it  lay  East  and  West  of  each 
other.  It  is  about  10  miles  wide  between  the  northernmost  danger  of  the 
South  Sands  and  the  lighthouse;  and  there  is  a  21 -feet  patch  at  7^  miles 
S.W.  by  W.  from  the  lighthouse,  which  requires  caution. 

In  passing  through  this  East  and  West  Channel,  having  passed  the  Eound 
Arroa  and  brought  it  to  bear  W.S.W.,  there  is  no  danger  from  the  North 
Sands,  so  long  as  it  can  be  seeii  from  the  deck.  Then  steer  an  easterly 
course  away  from  it  bearing  W.  J  S.  When  the  Eound  Arroa  sinks  out 
of  sight,  the  lighthouse  will  come  in  view,  as  will  also  Parcelar  Hill,  bearing 
about  East.  Bring  the  latter  to  bear  about  E.  \  N.,  and  you  will  pass 
safely  to  the  South  of  the  One-Fathom  Bank.  A  course  with  Parcelar  Hill 
bearing  E.  |  S.  will  clear  the  bank.  Having  passed  this,  the  channel  within 
the  South  Sands  is  open  to  the  south-eastward.  Parcelar  Hill  may  at  times 
be  obscured  by  clouds,  when  the  low  land  at  the  entrance  of  the  Strait  of 
Colong  may  be  seen.  If  this  piece  of  low  land  be  kept  N.E.  by  E.  J  E.,  or 
its  East  end  be  brought  to  E.N.E.,  you  will  clear  the  banks  in  coming  from 
the  eastward.  This  low  land  comes  in  sight  when  abreast  of  the  One-Fathom 
Bank,  and  from  aloft  the  tops  of  the  trees  may  be  seen  as  far  as  Parcelar 

*  Several  wrecks  having  taken  place  on  the  South  Sands,  the  following  extracts  from 
remarks  by  Mr.  G.  J.  Maddock  (pilot)  will  prove  useful ; — "I  will  now  endeavour  to  give 
an  account  of  the  chief  cause  of  ships  being  lost  on  the  South  Sands.  First,  with  respect 
to  the  loss  of  the  John  Curry,  Captain  Tucker,  in  January,  1854.  From  the  wreck,  Par- 
celar Hill  bore  N.E.  by  N.  ;  when  conversing  with  Captain  Tucker,  and  informing  him 
that  the  current  and  tide  out  of  Calam  Strait  had  been  the  cause  of  the  loss  of  his  ship,  he 
acknowledged  that  such  must  have  been  the  case  from  the  set  which  he  noticed  after  the 
ship  had  struck.  About  two  months  afterwards,  a  large  Dutch  Indiaman,  the  Menado,  got 
on  shore  under  similar  circumstances  in  the  night,  and,  strange  to  say,  within  a  cable's 
length  of  the  spot  where  the  John  Curry  was  lost.  I  also  met  the  captain  of  the  Menado  in 
Singapore,  and  he  acknowledged  that  my  version  of  his  loss  was  correct,  as  he  could  not 
account  for  it  in  any  other  way.  Some  time  afterwards,  strange  to  relate,  one  of  H.M. 
ships,  the  Andromeda,  came  to  grief  in  the  same  locality.  In  passing  up  and  down  the 
straits  some  time  before,  I  noticed  this  set  of  the  tide,  or  perhaps  rather  an  under  current, 
and  always  kept  correct  bearings  of  the  Parcelar,  and  on  a  dirty  night  or  when  dark,  was 
invariably  able  to  pick  out  an  anchorage  in  7  to  10  fathoms  ;  but  these  observations  are 
nearly  useless  now,  for  there  is  a  light  on  the  One-Fathom  Bank  (North  Sands),  and  if  the 
Government  place  a  second  light  on  the  South  Sand  Head,  the  principal  dangers  can  be 
easily  avoided.  There  are  nights,  however,  when  all  these  advantages  will  be  found  use- 
less— at  short  intervals  during  the  north-westers  and  Sumatras." 


The  Malay  Coast  about  Parcelar  Hill  forms  a  slight  bay,  instead  of  a  con- 
vexity, as  was  shown  on  the  old  charts,  an  error  which  led  to  some  disaster. 
This  bay,  at  the  head  of  which  the  southern  mouth  of  the  Langat  Eiver  is 
situated,  is  filled  with  a  shallow  bank,  and  at  about  9  miles  southward  from 
the  hill  is  a  slight  projection  named  Parcelar  Point,  not  easily  distinguished 
on  the  low  land  of  Parcelar  of  the  old  charts.  It  continues  low  and  woody 
to  the  E.S.E.  for  15  miles,  to  the  N.W.  limit  of  a  bight,  of  which  Tanjong 
Kamuning,  7  miles  farther  on,  is  the  S.E.  point.  Above  the  head  of  this 
bay  is  the  South  Hummock,  973  ft.  in  height,  and  further  inland  are  seen 
some  other  high  lands  towering  above  the  trees  on  the  coast.  This  bay  is 
filled  with  shoals,  and  a  line  of  detached  shoals  lies  off  its  mouth.  These 
shoals  are  formed  by  the  debris  brought  down  by  the  Eiver  Lukut,  which 
enters  the  head  of  the  bay  in  lat.  o°  35'  N.  A  few  miles  up  the  river,  on  its 
left  bank,  is  the  town  of  Lukut. 

The  Bambek  Shoal  lies  midway  between  Parcelar  Point  and  Cape  Ea- 
chada,  on  the  line  joining  their  extremities,  and  3  miles  off  the  N.W.  point 
of  the  bay  just  mentioned.  This  shoal  was  much  dreaded  by  the  early  navi- 
gators, and  several  ships  were  lost  on  it.  It  is  rocky,  and  nearly  awash  in 
the  centre,  and  has  several  heads  of  2^  to  3  fathoms  over  a  space  of  2^  miles 
E.S.E.  and  W.N.  W.,  dropping  to  7  and  8  fathoms  at  each  end,  and  having 
10,  12,  and  15  fathoms  close  outside  it,  so  that  the  lead  by  night  does  not 
afford  a  very  safe  guide  on  approaching  it.  The  dangerous  Pyramid  Shoal, 
the  south-easternmost  of  the  South  Sands,  is  also  difficult  to  avoid  by  the 
lead,  as  the  soundings  are  deep  close  up  to  it,  the  depth  of  the  strait  being 
very  irregular  throughout  its  breadth.  This  danger  is  not  lessened  by  the 
streno-th  and  irregularity  of  the  tides,  which  set  in  various  directions  among 
the  channels  between  the  South  Sands.  The  ground  is  all  oaze,  except  about 
the  middle  of  the  channel. 

The  shoal  which  runs  north-westward  from  Tanjong  Kamuning  is  2°  32'  N. 
above  mentioned,  has  an  opening  through  it  abreast  of  that  cape,  upwards 
of  a  mile  and  a  half  in  width,  and  the  shoal  continues  in  a  direction  parallel 
with  the  coast  as  far  as  Cape  Eachada,  8  miles  to  the  south-eastward,  and  at 
from  a  mile  to  H  ^i^^  from  it,  leaving  a  channel  inside  it,  having  a  depth 
of  from  6  to  12  fathoms.  A  small  island,  Arrang-Arrang,  lies  to  the  S.E.  of 
Tanjong  Kamuning. 

CAPE  RACHADA,  or  Tanjong  Tuan,  derived  its  Portuguese  name  from 
its  ruo'ged,  cleft  character.  It  is  28  miles  S.E.  by  E.  from  the  point  abreast 
the  Parcelar  Hill,  and  comes  in  sight  just  after  passing  that  point.  It  is 
perpendicular  toward  the  sea,  and  is  something  like  Mount  Dilly  on  the 
Malabar  coast,  but  not  so  lofty. 

It  projects  to  seaward  in  a  long  narrow  point  of  land,  which  forms  a  deep 
bay  on  each  side  of  it,  with  a  small  rock  or  islet  near  its  extremity.  When 
first  seen  coming  from  the  northward  it  makes  like  an  island,  for  the  neck 


of  land  which  joins  it  to  the  main  is  much  lower  than  the  cape  itself.     There 
are  two  wells  of  fresh  water  under  the  cape. 

The  LIGHTHOUSE  on  Cape  Eachada,  completed  in  1863,  is  a  circular 
white  stone  tower,  78  ft.  in  height  to  the  top  of  the  lantern,  in  lat.  2°  24'  30"  N., 
lon^.  101°  51'  10"  E.  It  shows  a  brilliant  fixed  light  over  half  the  horizon, 
or  when  bearing  from  S.E.  by  E.  round  eastward  and  northward  to  N."W.  by  W. 
The  light  is  elevated  446  ft.,  and  may  be  seen  25  miles  off. 

The  tides  are  very  strong  off  Cape  Eachada,  and  pass  it  in  noisy  ripplings, 
especially  at  springs,  the  flood  to  southward,  and  ebb  to  northward.  This 
is  the  narrowest  part  of  the  Malacca  Strait,  the  opposite  puint  of  Sumatra, 
Ujong  Bantam  being  only  21  miles  from  it. 

In  sailing  down  this  portion  of  the  strait,  do  not  pass  within  a  line  joining 
Parcelar  Point  and  Cape  Eachada,  nor  bring  Parcelar  Point,  the  South  ex- 
treme of  the  land  to  northward,  to  the  southward  of  S.  60°  E.  to  keep  clear 
of  the  shore  bank,  giving  Parcelar  Point  a  berth  of  3  or  4  miles  in  passing 
it.  When  Cape  Eachada  or  the  bight  is  seen,  keep  to  the  eastward  of 
S.E.  by  E.  I  E.  to  keep  clear  of  the  Bambek  Shoal.  Cape  Eachada  brought 
to  bear  E.S.E.  is  a  fair  mid-channel  bearing  throughout,  standing  off  to  the 
southward  to  E.  by  S.  ^  S.  It  would  be  dangerous  to  exceed  these  bear- 
ings when  the  cape  appears  as  an  island.  When  approached  within  10  or  12 
miles  the  low  neck  comes  in  view,  and  the  channel  then  becomes  wider,  and 
the  boards  may  be  continued  further  to  the  southward.  Cape  Eachada  light 
kept  in  sight  clears  Bambek  Shoal  in  the  night  time. 

Lingey  Eiver. — The  coast  continues  somewhat  to  the  North  of  East  from 
Cape  Eachada  for  5  miles,  and  then  turns  to  E.S.E.  for  3  miles  more  to  the 
mouth  of  the  Lingin  or  Lingey  River,  a  large  stream  visited  for  tin,  and  tute- 
nague,  the  white  metal  alloy  used  by  the  Chinese  to  imitate  silver.  This 
river  is  the  boundary  between  the  native  state  Sunghy  Ujong  and  the  British 
state  of  Malacca.  Off  the  point  to  the  South  of  this  river  are  some  small 
detached  rocks,  and  the  whole  of  the  coast  to  the  N.  W.  is  skirted  by  a  shoal 
bank  and  straggling  rocks.  A  buoy  marks  the  eastern  side  of  the  Battoo 
Uandi,  a  small  shoal,  which  lies  IJ  mile  S.W.  by  S.  from  the  southern  en- 
trance point  of  the  river.  E.S.E.  of  the  buoy  lies  the  Batto  Tinga  Eocks,  at 
half  a  mile  from  the  shore.  At  10  miles  from  the  mouth  of  the  Lingin  is  the 
Diana  Hock,  a  large  rock  always  above  water,  and  H  mile  from  the  shore, 
with  15  to  19  fathoms  irregular  bottom  close  outside  it. 

Tangong  Kling  is  22  miles  S.E.  by  E.  from  Cape  Eachada,  and  may  be 
known  by  two  or  three  trees  on  its  extremity,  more  elevated  than  the  others 
near  the  sea.  The  shore  hereabout  should  not  be  made  too  free  with  in 
the  night,  as  the  soundings  are  deep  and  irregular,  affording  but  little 

On  the  opposite  side  of  the  strait  is  the  Quin  Shoal,  discovered  by  Admiral 


Quin,  in  H.M.S.  Raleigh.  It  has  3^  to  4  fathoms  on  it,  and  is  about  1|  mile 
long  from  N.N.W.  to  S.S.E.  It  bears  from  Cape  Eachada  S.  |  E.  17J  miles. 
Mount  Ophir  peak  bore  from  it  E.N.E.,  the  North  end  of  Pulo  Eoupat, 
TJjong  Bantam,  on  the  Sumatra  side,  West,  and  the  South  end  of  Pulo  Eoupat 
S.S.W.  f  W. 

MALACCA  (or  Malaka),  the  capital  of  the  British  Province  to  which  it 
gives  its  name,  stands  on  both  sides  of  a  small  stream,  at  27  miles  from  Cape 
Eachada,  and  5  miles  from  Tanjong  Kling. 

Malacca  was  occupied  by  the  Portuguese  in  1511,  and  in  1641  was  taken 
from  them  by  the  Dutch,  who  surrendered  it  to  the  British  in  1795.  It  was 
occupied  by  us  till  1818,  when  it  was  restored  to  the  Netherlands  Govern- 
ment, by  whom  it  was  again  surrendered  to  us  in  exchange  for  Bencoolen  in 
1825.     In  1826  it  was  incorporated  with  Singapore, 

The  State  of  Malacca  extends  from  the  Eiver  Lingey,  on  the  N.W.,  to 
theCassang,  on  the  S.E.,  having  a  coast  line  of  about  40  miles  in  length, 
with  a  mean  breadth  of  25  miles,  which  includes  the  interior  territory  of 
Nanning  or  Naning,  so  that  it  has  an  area  of  about  1,000  square  miles.  In 
1865  the  state  had  a  total  population  of  71,600,  chiefly  Malays.  At  the 
census  in  1871  the  Malays  numbered  57,474,  the  Chinese  30,456.  The  trade 
has  been  considerably  reduced  since  Singapore  has  risen  into  pre-eminence, 
but  tin  and  gold  are  still  sent  to  that  emporium  in  large  quantities.  In  1871, 
imports  were  valued  at  £503,326,  and  exports  at  £526,428.  It  has  no  direct 
trade  with  the  United  Kingdom.  In  1875,  651  vessels,  of  101,476  tons,  en- 
tered the  port. 

Malacca  derives  its  name,  according  to  Malay  history,  from  the  Malacca 
tree  {Phyllanthus  Emhlica),  and  was  founded  in  the  thirteenth  century. 

The  town  of  Malacca  is  divided  by  a  small  river  into  two  parts,  connected 
by  bridges,  one  of  which  was  given  by  a  munificent  native  merchant.  On 
the  left  or  southern  bank  rises  the  verdant  hill  of  St.  Paul,  surrounded  by 
vestiges  of  the  ancient  Portuguese  fort.  Around  its  base  lie  the  barracks, 
lines,  and  most  of  the  houses  of  the  military  ;  the  stadthouse,  courthouse, 
gaol,  church,  civil  and  military  hospitals,  the  site  of  the  old  inquisition,  con- 
vent, the  police-office,  school,  post-ofiice,  and  the  master-attendant's  office. 
On  its  summit  stand  the  ruins  of  the  ancient  church  of  Our  Lady  del  Monte, 
erected  by  Albuquerque,  the  Portuguese  conqueror  of  Malacca,  and  the  scene 
of  the  labours  and  supposed  miracles  of  that  apostle  of  the  East,  St.  Francis 
Xavier ;  also  the  lighthouse  and  flagstafi".  A  little  to  the  South  rises  the  hill 
of  St.  John's,  and  in  the  rear  that  of  St.  Francis.  On  these  eminences  are 
still  the  remains  of  batteries  erected  by  the  Portuguese  and  Dutch,  command- 
ing the  eastern  and  southern  entrances  to  the  town.  Smaller  knolls  inter- 
vene, covered  with  the  extensive  cemeteries  of  the  Chinese. 

The  view  of  Malacca  from  the  roads  is  extremely  picturesque.  It  has  the 
appearance  of  being  situated  in  the  bend  of  a  crescent  or  bay  ;  the  southern 


horn  of  which  is  foraied  by  a  chain  of  beautiful  islets,  called  by  the  Portu- 
guese the  Aguadas,  or  Water  Isles,  stretching  out  seawards  from  the  coast. 
On  the  South  side,  the  shore  trends  to  the  West,  terminating  in  an  elevated 
and  well  wooded  point  called  Tanjong  Kling.  A  few  other  islets  stud  the 
shore.  The  first  objects  that  strike  the  eye  are  a  cluster  of  trees  crowning 
the  summit  of  St.  Francis,  the  Star  fort  on  St.  John's  to  the  South,  the 
lighthouse  and  ruinous  church  on  St.  Paul's,  and  the  white  edifices  that 
skirt  its  base,  stretching  along  the  sea  shore,  and  gradually  lost  in  the  thick 
groves  of  cocoa-nut  trees  that  cover  the  dwellings  of  the  Portuguese,  Chinese, 
and  Malays,  in  the  suburbs  of  Bander  Ilir,  and  Ujong  Passir.  In  the  back 
ground  of  this  pleasing  view  rise  the  hills  of  Bukit  Bertam,  Bruang,  Pan- 
chur,  &c.  To  the  ISlorth,  in  the  distance  frown  the  mountains  of  Rumbawe 
and  Srimenanti,  and  far  away  to  the  East,  the  triple  peak  of  Ophir,  cele- 
brated for  its  gold,  shoots  into  the  sky  with  softened  outline. — {Lieut.  T.  J. 
Newhold,  vol.  i.,  pp.  109—111.) 

The  Lighthouse  is  a  turret  on  St.  Paul's  Hill,  as  above  stated,  and  is  in 
lat.  2°  ir  15"  N.,  long,  102°  15'  30"  E.  It  shows  a  bright  fixed  light,  ele- 
vated 146  ft.,  seen  1 2  miles  off.  When  seen  to  the  northward  of  N.  by  W.  f  W. 
it  will  lead  clear  of  the  Water  Islands. 

A  red  light  is  also  shown  on  the  pier-head  at  Malacca,  visible  6  miles  off  in 
clear  weather. 

The  roadstead  of  Malacca  is  perfectly  safe.  It  is  neither  visited  by  the 
hurricanes  of  higher  latitudes,  nor  within  the  influence  of  the  monsoons  ;  as 
was  said  in  the  sixteenth  c6ntury,  "  it  is  the  beginning  of  one  monsoon  and 
the  end  of  another. 

The  Road  is  limited  to  the  North  by  Fisher  Island,  a  small  islet  known 
formerly  as  Pea  or  Woody  Island,  surrounded  by  a  shoal  and  foul  ground, 
which  joins  with  the  shore.  This  is  nearly  3  miles  westward  from  the 
entrance  of  the  river.  It  ought  not  to  be  approached  within  9  or  10  fathoms, 
which  is  near  to  the  edge  of  the  shoal.  With  the  extremes  of  the  island 
bearing  from  N.  by  W.  to  N.N.W.  and  the  body  of  it  N.  by  W.  ^  W.  half 
a  mile  distant,  there  is  a  small  circular  shoal,  having  only  18  ft.  on  it  at 
low  water.  Near  to  the  city  is  Pulo  Java,  or  Eed  Island,  on  the  edge  of  the 
shoal  water.  To  the  S.E.  of  this  is  Pulo  Panjang,  a  rocky  reef  or  flat,  pro- 
jecting 1^  mile  from  the  shore,  and  extending  along  it  to  Pulo  Java.  The 
church  and  flagstatf  on  the  hill  bear  N.  ^  E.  from  the  West  end  of  Panjang 
Eeef  U  mile  distant,  and  from  its  East  end  N.N.W.  i  W.  3^  miles  distant. 
There  is  a  depth  of  18  or  19  fathoms  within  2  cables'  lengths  of  its  southern 
edge,  similar  to  that  in  the  ofiing,  therefore  the  lead  is  no  guide  to  clear  it. 
From  20  fathoms  in  the  offing  the  depths  decrease  regularly  over  a  bottom  of 
soft  mud  towards  the  road,  where  the  best  anchorage  is  under  10  fathoms, 
with  the  church  on  the  hill  N.E.  by  E.,  Fisher  Island  N.W.  ^  W.,  and  the 
tuft  of  trees  East,  the  town  I5  or  2  miles  distant.     When  the  depth  exceeds 


10  fathoms,  the  bottom  is  generally  a  stiff  tenaceous  clay,  which  holds  the 
anchors  very  firmly  ;  under  that  depth  it  is  generally  of  soft  mud. 

There  is  no  danger  going  into  Malacca  Road  ;  if  you  are  in  the  offing,  in 
20  or  23  fathoms,  you  shoal  en  your  water  gradually  to  7  fathoms,  as  you 
ran  in  for  the  road.  A  large  ship  should  not  go  into  less  than  7^  fathoms  ; 
for  it  shoalens  suddenly  from  7  to  5  and  4  fathoms.  And  they  should  be 
still  more  careful  not  to  go  too  far  to  the  southward,  or  to  the  S.E.  part  of 
the  bay,  for  there  the  ground  is  foul  and  rocky,  and  shoalens  suddenly  from 
8  to  3  fathoms.  Off  Fisher's  Island  there  is  no  danger;  and  it  is  found  that 
a  ship,  upon  occasion,  might  go  within  half  a  mile  of  it,  in  16  fathoms  water, 
or  have  10  fathoms  within  a  quarter  of  a  mile,  and  20  fathoms  within  1  mile 
of  it.  You  may  anchor  in  Malacca  Road  from  13  to  7^  fathoms,  oazy  ground, 
Malacca  church  on  the  N.W.  part  of  Mount  Moar,  E.  27°  30'  N.  ;  the  S.W. 
part  of  Fisher's  Island  "W.  36°  15'  N.  ;  and  the  outermost  of  the  Four 
Brothers,  or  Water  Islands,  E.  50°  20'  S.  ;  distance  from  Malacca  1^  mile. 
The  flagstaff  bearing  N.E.  or  N.E.  by  E.  ;  Fisher's  Island  N.W.  by  W.  ; 
and  the  outermost  Water  Island  S.E.  J  S.  ;  you  have  8  fathoms.  The  flag- 
staff N.E.  i  N.,  and  Fisher's  Island  N.W.  by  W.,  you  are  iu  10  fathoms. 
The  flagstaff  N.E.,  and  Fisher's  Island  N.N.W.  ^  W.,  you  have  14  fathoms, 
all  good  anchoring  ground. 

Ships  should  not  anchor  on  the  East  side  of  the  road,  near  Red  Island,  for 
the  bottom  is  foul  and  rocky,  the  depth  suddenly  decreasing  from  8  to  3  fa- 
thoms, on  the  North  end  of  Panjang  Reef. 

During  the  period  of  the  S.W.  monsoon,  sudden  hard  squalls  frequently 
blow  into  the  road  from  the  Sumatra  side  in  the  night,  accompanied  with 
much  thunder,  lightning,  and  rain.  It  is  high  water  full  and  change  at  7^ 
hours  ;  springs  rise  11  ft.,  neaps  8J  ft.  The  rate  is  about  2  knots.  The  ebb 
and  flood  tides  continue  to  run  for  2  hours  after  high  and  low  water  by  the 
shore,  and  boats  cannot  enter  the  river  after  half  ebb.  The  proceed  into  the 
river  soon  after  quarter  flood,  steering  for  the  church  on  the  hill,  keeping  it 
rather  on  the  starboard  bow ;  and  when  the  bar  is  approached,  the  channel 
may  be  discovered  by  the  stakes  in  the  entrance. 

Malacca  stands  on  low  ground,  but  within,  the  country  rises  into  undulat- 
ing hills,  moderately  elevated,  among  which  is  that  called  Bukit  Barotig,  4 
miles  inland,  in  a  N.E.  direction. 

Mount  Ophir,  or  Gunong  Ledang,  may  be  better  distinguished  than  the  rest, 
as  it  is  much  higher,  3,840  ft.,  and  lies  24  miles  to  E.N.E. 

The  WATER  ISLANDS,  or  Four  Brothers,  are  a  cluster  of  four  smaU 
islands  and  one  larger,  lying  6  miles  south-eastward  from  Malacca.  The 
outer  ones  are  small  round  islands  covered  with  trees,  and  the  innermost, 
Pulo  Bessar,  has  excellent  fresh  water  on  its  eastern  side,  and  thus  gives  its 
name  to  the  group.  This  can  be  procured  at  all  times,  but  near  low  water, 
when  the  shore  reefs  are  dry. 


The  outermost  island,  Pulo  Undan,  is  IJ  mile  South  of  the  next,  Pulo 
Nanka,  and  this  half  a  mile  South  of  the  third,  which  has  a  channel  above  a 
mile  wide  between  it  and  Pulo  Bessar,  but  nearly  in  mid-channel  there  is  a 
sunken  rock.  This  channel  may  be  used  by  ships  if  pressed,  by  carefully 
avoiding  this  rock.  This  may  be  passed  in  10  to  12  fathoms  water,  by 
keeping  close  to  the  middle  Brother,  or  to  the  South  end  of  Bessar,  for  the 
rock  is  nearly  a  mile  from  the  S.E.  end  of  the  latter,  and  one-third  of  a  mile 
from  the  middle  Brother.  Coming  from  the  eastward,  keep  the  South  end 
of  Bessar  N.W.  until  the  southernmost  Brother  is  shut  in  with  the  two 

The  Rob  Roy  Bank,  so  named  from  a  ship  which  grounded  on  it  during 
the  survey,  a  very  dangerous  6-feet  shoal,  3J  miles  in  extent,  lies  on  the 
Sumatran  side  of  the  channel,  opposite  the  "Water  Islands  and  Malacca, 
from  which  it  is  distant  20  miles  in  a  S.W.  direction.  It  is  therefore  much 
best  to  keep  in  with  the  Malay  shore  hereabout,  and  not  to  stand  off  more 
than  10  or  12  miles,  guarding  against  the  uncertain  set  of  the  tides.  The 
depth  rather  increases  towards  the  Eob  Eoy  Shoal,  which  is  steep  on  its 
northern  face. 

The  coast  south-eastward  from  the  Water  Islands  is  low  and  clean,  covered 
with  trees,  and  intersected  by  several  rivers,  the  most  noticeable  of  which  is 
the  Sung-ei  Mnar,  or  Kassang,  20  miles  from  Malacca.  It  is  the  S.E.  bound- 
ary of  the  state.  Bahit  Moar,  or  Mora,  an  isolated  hill  covered  with  trees, 
lies  9  miles  to  the  S.E.  of  the  river,  and  is  just  visible  from  Malacca  Eoad. 
The  coast,  which  slightly  recedes,  is  skirted  by  an  extensive  shoal,  and  there- 
fore must  be  avoided.  Tmyong  Tor,  a  low  level  point,  is  about  E.S.E.  33 
miles  from  Malacca,  and  here  the  shore  bank  appears  to  be  much  narrower, 
a  moderate  depth  being  found  close  to  the  point,  ;vhile  the  edge  of  the  bank 
N.W.  and  S.E.  of  it  trends  in  a  straight  direction,  the  land  recedes  into 
slender  bays  on  each  side. 

Mount  Formosa,  or  Gunong  Batu  Pahat,  is  more  distinguishable  than 
Mount  Moar.  It  is  the  highest  summit,  1,480  ft.,  of  a  long  ridge  of  undu- 
lating hills  near  the  shore,  which  are  seen  to  extend  inland  to  the  N.E.  Its 
S.W.  slope  forms  a  bluff  point,  Tanjong  Segmting,  on  the  western  side  of 
which  is  the  entrance  of  the  Sung-hei  Batu  Pahat,  or  Formosa  River.  A  small 
island,  Pulo  Sheilo,  lies  off  the  pitch  of  the  cape. 

The  strait  opposite  this  part  becomes  more  embarrassed  with  shoals,  long 
narrow  spits  trending  in  a  N.W.  and  S.E.  direction,  some  of  which  are  30 
or  40  miles  long  within  the  10-fathoms  line.  On  the  Malay  side  of  th& 
strait  the  more  dangerous  are  not  more  than  4  or  5  miles  off  shore,  but  on 
the  Sumatran  side  they  reach  to  18  and  25  miles  off.  The  Hannah  or  Formosa 
Shoal  is  the  most  formidable  on  the  northern  side.  It  lies  off  the  foot  of 
Mount  Formosa,  extending  thence  7  or  8  miles,  and  having  only  12  ft. 
water  on  its  shoalest  spots.     Its  S.E.  end  is  2^  miles  from  the  point  of  Mount 


Formosa,  and  its  N.W.  end  is  5  miles  from  the  adjacent  shore.  There  is  a 
channel  between  the  shoal  and  the  shore,  but  there  are  some  dangerous  spots 
of  18  ft.  in  it,  one  of  which  is  about  2  miles  due  West  of  Pulo  Sheilo,  the 
islet  off  the  Mount  Formosa  Cape. 

The  main  channel  of  the  strait  abreast  of  the  Hannah  Shoal  is  about  10 
miles  in  width  ;  beyond  that  distance  there  are  the  dangerous  patches  of  the 
S.W.  banks,  which  have  nevertheless  deep  water  channels  between  the  spits. 
The  southern  edge  of  the  Hannah  Bank  and  the  northern  face  of  the  Suma- 
tran  Banks  are  steep-to,  but  if  the  lead  is  very  carefully  and  briskly  used,  it 
will  indicate  their  proximity.  A  long  and  narrow  bank  runs  along  this 
fairway  channel  with  depths  varying  from  5  to  12  fathoms,  having  depths  of 
from  15  to  25  fathoms  on  either  side.  All  over  the  eastern  and  middle  parts 
of  it  you  have  soft  clay  with  8  to  12  fathoms;  towards  the  East  end  it  be- 
comes harder  and  shoals  to  5  and  7  fathoms.  This  bank  was  formerly  known 
as  the  Fisang  or  Fair  Channel  Bank. 

The  coast  south-eastward  of  Mount  Formosa,  for  an  extent  of  40  miles,  is 
low  and  wooded,  with  nothing  remarkable  except  a  small  mound  near  the 
sea,  Batu  Balu,  about  15  miles  from  Formosa.  It  is  all  fronted  by  mud  banks 
from  2^  to  6  miles  in  breadth,  the  edges  of  which  are  very  steep.  This  fea- 
ture is  also  found  in  all  other  banks  of  this  part  of  the  strait,  caused  probably 
by  the  strong  currents,  and  is  on  that  account  a  dangerous  feature  in  its 
navigation.     It  is  especially  so  near  Pulo  Pisang. 

In  sailing  down  the  fairway  channel  from  abreast  of  Mount  Formosa  at  7 
miles  distance  to  Pulo  Pisang,  the  direct  course  should  be  S.E.  by  E.  ;  the 
distance  is  between  9  and  10  leagues.  Having  doubled  Formosa  Bank, 
when  the  mount  bears  N  E.  between  3  and  4  leagues,  you  will  raise  this 
island  bearing  E.S.E.  |  S.,  or  S.E.  by  E.,  you  will  then  have  soundings  from 
20  to  22  or  23  fathoms,  oazy  ground.  In  turning  to  windward  on  this  course, 
the  Pisang  Bank  is  of  the  greatest  service  both  for  anchoring  on  during  the 
ebb,  and  for  the  purpose  of  keeping  on,  either  in  the  night  or  day,  during 
the  squalls,  which  are  generally  accompanied  with  rain ;  tor  by  steering 
along  its  verge,  on  either  side,  you  may  run  the  whole  length  of  the  bank 
without  fear  or  danger,  and  upon  deepening  oflP  the  end  of  it  may  steer  for 
mid-channel,  between  the  Carimons  and  Pulo  Cocob.  By  keeping  in  11  or 
12  fathoms  on  either  edge,  if  you  deepen  your  water,  you  know  which  side 
to  steer  towards ;  whereas,  by  running  along  the  top  of  the  bank,  if  you 
deepen,  it  is  uncertain  on  which  side. 

PULO  PISANG  or  Pesang  is  a  tolerably  large  and  woody  island,  200  ft. 
hifh,  and  a  mile  in  diameter,  which  lies  at  2  leagues  distance  from  the  main, 
and  there  is  a  channel  between  it  and  the  main,  in  which  there  are  not  less 
than  4  fathoms  water ;  on  the  West  side  of  it  lie  three  small  islands,  the 
largest  of  which  sometimes  affords  good  water,  and  boats  may  land  there 
commodiously  at  high  water,  in  a  bay  on  the  N.W.  part;  this  island  may  be 


seen  in  clear  -vreather  9  or  1 0  leagues  off ;  then  it  makes  in  three  small  hum- 
mocks, like  boats  turned  bottom  upward. 

The  Lighthouse  constructing  (1877)  on  Pulo  Pisang  is  to  show  a  light, 
visible  between  S.E.  by  E.  ^  E.  through  South  and  West  to  N.W.  i  N. 

It  is  high  water  at  full  and  change  at  Pulo  Pisang  at  9  o'clock.  The  flood 
tide  generally  sets  fairly  through  the  channel  from  the  Water  Island  to  the 
Carimons  at  the  head  of  the  strait,  and  the  ebb  also,  in  the  contrary  direc- 
tion ;  the  rate  about  2  miles  at  spring  tides. 

Pulo  Pisang  bears  S.E.  by  E.  65  miles  from  the  Water  Islands,  and  when 
abreast  of  the  outer  island  from  1  to  4  miles  off,  a  S.E.  by  S.  course  will 
carry  you  about  the  same  distance  outside  the  Formosa  Bank,  if  not  drifted 
out  of  it  by  the  tide. 

When  Mount  Formosa  is  brought  to  bear  about  N.E.,  keep  within  3  or  at 
most  4  leagues  of  the  Malay  coast,  to  keep  well  clear  of  the  middle  bank  on 
the  Sumatra  side,  so  as  not  to  get  to  the  southward  of  its  N.W.  end. 

If  the  weather  is  clear,    and  Pulo  Pisang  be  discerned,   keep  it  between 
E.  by  S.  J  S.  and  S.E.  by  E.  ^  E.,  until  Mount  Formosa  is  brought  to  bear 
North  or  N.  by  W.  in  working  between  the  North  side  of  the  Middle  Bank 
and  the  Malay  coast.  In  passing  the  Formosa  Bank  in  the  night,  if  it  is  found 
that  the  ship  has  got  too  far  to  the  southward  so  as  to  be  southward  of 
the  Middle  Bank  keep  along  the  southern  side,  or  you  may  work  against  a 
contrary  wind,  in  the  channel  between  this  and  the  next  bank  to  the  south- 
ward, the  breadth  of  this  channel  being  about  2J  miles,  with  16  to  19  fa- 
thoms water.     But  it  should  be  remembered  that  these  long  narrow  banks, 
as  they  get  nearer  to  the  Sumatra  side,  have  less  water  on  them,  and  there- 
fore the  most  prudent  course  would  be  to  cross  the  Middle  Bank  by  some  of 
the  numerous  channels  between  its  shoaler  parts,    rather  than  risk  being 
drifted  to  the   southward  into   less  water.     This  may  be  done  when  Pulo 
Pisang  is  brought  to  bear  about  N.E.  by  E.,  when  a  depth  of  5^  to  7  fathoms 
will  be  found  on  the  ridge.    Pulo  Pisang  may  be  brought  to  bear  S.E.  by  E. 
■when  standing  towards  the  edge  of  the  bank  which  skirts  the  coast  be- 
tween it  and  Mount  Formosa,  excepting  at  about  5  miles  to  N.W.  of  that 
island,  where  it  forms  an  elbow,  and  should  not  be  approached  too  closely. 
When  Mount  Formosa  is  brought  to  bear  N.  by  W.,  Pisang  may  occasionally 
be  brought  to  bear  E.  ^  S.  or  East  in  standing  towards  the  Middle  Bank. 
The  channel  is  about  10  miles  broad  ;  during  the  night  stand  into  10  fathoms 
on  the  shore  bank,  and  off  to  18  or  20  fathoms.     By  day,  when  abreast  of 
Mount  Formosa,  and  Pulo  Pisang  is  visible,  bearing  E.S.E.  or  S.E.  by  E.  f  E  , 
steer  for  it ;  either  of  these  bearings  will  carry  you  in  mid-channel.     When 
near  to  the  island,  its  western  side  and  the  two  islets  may  be   approached 
within  half  a  mile,  as  they  are  bold  close-to,  with  13  to  15  fathoms  within  a 
cable's  length  of  them.     In  standing  off  shore  about  10   miles  from  the 
island  you  will  be  close  to,  or  upon,  the  S.E.  part  of  the  middle  bank,  where 


there  will  be  4.^-  to  6i  fathoms.  In  working  past  Pulo  Pisang,  tack  about  IJ 
or  2  miles  from  it  in  14  to  17  fathoms,  and  do  not  stand  off  from  it  more  than 
3  leagues. 

Pulo  Cocob  (or  Cocops)  is  12  miles  S.E.  from  Pisang  Peak.  It  is  a  long 
flat  island  close  to  the  Malay  coast,  between  which  and  the  shore  is  a  narrow 
boat  channel.  It  is  covered  with  trees,  those  at  the  N.W.  end  being  man- 
grove bushes,  and  more  like  grass  ;  and  at  the  S.E.  end  they  are  tall,  upright 
grown  trees,  like  those  on  the  adjoining  coast.  The  island  is  2  miles  in  length. 
At  low  water  it  is  surrounded  by  a  dry  sand-bank,  which  extends  off  the 
N.W.  extreme  \h  mile.  Vessels  may  approach  it  within  three-quarters  of 
a  mile. 

Tanjong  Bolus,  or  Burn,  or  Peie,  the  southern  extremity  of  the  Malay 
Peninsula,  may  also  be  taken  as  the  western  limit  of  the  Strait  of  Singapore. 
It  is  in  lat.  T  17'  15"  N.,  long.  103°  27'  20"  E.,  and  is  a  low  point  of  land, 
covered  with  tall  trees,  bearing  from  the  South  point  of  Pulo  Cocob  E.S.E. 
5i  miles.  At  low  water  it  is  fronted  by  a  dry  sand-bank,  and  shoal  water 
extends  1  mile  from  the  point,  which  is  very  steep.  Vessels,  therefore,  should 
be  careful  not  to  approach  too  close. 

The  CARIMON  ISLANDS  form  the  southern  side  of  the  strait  opposite 
Tanjong  Bolus,  and  consist  of  a  cluster  of  one  large  and  several  smaller 
islands  and  rocks. 

Little  Carimon  extends  furthest  to  the  North.  It  is  a  high  island,  2^ 
miles  in  length  N.N.W.  and  S.S.E.,  and  1  mile  broad.  It  rises  in  two  peaks, 
which  are  ill  defined  and  difficult  to  distinguish,  covered  with  thick  wood. 
The  North  end  bears  from  Tanjong  Bolus  S.W.  ^  W.  9  miles,  the  breadth 
of  the  strait,  which  is  free  from  dangers  (except  the  flat  off  Tanjong  Bolus, 
before  mentioned).  The  N.E.  side  of  the  Little  Carimon  having  deep  water 

The  Brothers  are  two  small  rocky  islets  2|  miles  to  the  N.W.  of  the  Little 
Carimon.  They  have  deep  water  close  to  them  ;  but  at  400  yards  to  the 
W.N.W.  of  the  eastern  islet  there  is  a  danqerous  rock,  just  awash  at  low  water. 
South  by  East  of  the  East  Brother,  and  West  of  the  North  point  of  the  Little 
Carimon,  is  another  islet  of  singular  appearance,  called  the  South  Brother  ; 
and  S.W.  I  S.  of  this  is  a  rock  above  water,  named  the  White  Rock. 

Great  Carimon  is  a  high  island,  separated  from  the  Little  Carimon  by  a 
narrow  strait,  and  lying  to  the  S.W.  of  it  near  its  North  end  ;  it  rises  to  two 
high  peaks,  1,376  and  1,474  ft.  high  respectively,  which  are  well  defined  and 
conspicuous  objects,  and  may  be  seen  36  miles  off.  The  lowest,  or  North 
peak,  bearing  S.E.,  clears  the  danger  on  the  Long  Middle  Bank,  before 
mentioned.  To  the  westward  of  the  island  are  several  islets  and  rocks, 
both  above  and  below  the  water,  but  which  are  entirely  out  of  the  track  of 

The  description  of  the  Strait  of  Singapore  will  be  given  in  a  future  section. 


We  now  return  to  the  northern  entrance  describing  the  Sumatran  coast  of  the 

The  COAST  of  SUMATRA,  between  Achin  Head  and  Diamond  Point, 
was  surveyed  by  order  of  the  East  ludia  Company,  by  Commander  Fell,  I.N., 
in  1x51-8,  and  later  by  the  Netherlands  Government  in  the  years  1872-4, 
and  the  N.E.  coast  of  the  island  thence  southward  by  Lieut.  Jackson,  I.N., 
in  1860.  These  excellent  surveys,  combined  with  the  previous  observations 
of  Captains  Moresby,  Rose,  and  Ward,  have  given  us  a  very  perfect  repre- 
sentation of  the  shores  of  this  otherwise  little  known  island. 

This  side  of  Sumatra  may  be  described,  generally,  as  a  vast  alluvial  plain, 
but  very  little  above  the  sea  level,  unbroken  by  any  great  bays  or  inlets  ;  but 
formed  at  the  narrowest  part  of  the  strait,  of  low  islands.  This  great  level 
expanse  is  600  miles  in  length,  and  from  60  to  120  miles  in  breadth;  an  area 
more  than  half  of  the  extent  of  Great  Britain.  It  is  intersected  by  numerous 
rivers,  some  of  considerable  magnitude,  which,  rising  in  the  great  mountain 
chain,  lyin^  nearer  to  its  S.W.  side,  or  the  few  lakes  at  their  base,  afford 
almost  the  only  clear  spaie  for  cultivation  and  the  habitations  of  the  people, 
which  are  all  derived  from  one  stock — the  Malayan,  but  divided  into  several 
families  or  nations,  some  of  which  have  made  considerable  progress  in  civili- 
zation, in  the  arts  and  agriculture,  as  well  as  writing,  &c  ;  others  are  of  a 
very  rude  and  wild  class,  those  living  in  the  mountainous  portion  of  this  vast 
island.  Altogether  they  are  estimated  by  Mr.  Logan,  the  best  writer  on  the 
subject,  to  amount  to  898,650  souls. 

The  whole  island,  except  the  kingdom  of  Achin,  is  nominally  under  the 
Dutch  Government ;  but  very  little  power  is,  or  can,  be  exercised  by  the  few 
European  or  native  representatives  of  that  nation.  The  Sumatra  shores  of 
the  Strait  of  Malacca  belong  to  the  kingdom  of  Achin,  or  Acheen,  at  the 
JSorth  end  ;  the  Batak  nation,  next  to  the  south-eastward;  then  the  Siak 
State,  traversed  by  the  finest  river  of  Sumatra,  bordering  the  narrowest  and 
upper  part  of  the  strait. 

Achin,  or  Acheen,  ths  northernmost  state,  is  of  some  interest,  as  the  spot 
which  the  earliest  English  navigators  visited  in  1602.  Its  chief  feature  is 
the  Golden  Mount,  or  Ya  Muria,  rising  7,546  ft.  in  height  to  the  S.E.  of  the 
capital  town,  and  to  be  seen  92  miles  off.  The  town  in  early  times  rose  ra- 
pidly to  eminence  and  great  commerce  ;  and  when  Dampier  came  here  in 
1688,  it  had  45,000  or  50,000  inhabitants,  a  number  equal  to  the  whole 
present  population  of  the  state.  Its  full,  subsequent  to  this,  was  equally 
rapid,  and  the  sovereignty  is  now  pa>.^iiig  from  the  native  rulers  to  the 
Dutch  Government,  who  commenced  the  war  on  Achin  in  1871.  Previous 
to  this,  all  the  island,  except  Achin,   was  under  Dutch.  Government,  this 

I.  A.  t 


state  being  protected  by  the  treaty  of  1824  between  England  and  Holland,  by 
which  treaty  English  rights  in  Sumatra  were  exchanged  for  Dutch  possessions, 
in  Malacca  and  in  the  Peninsula  of  India,  with  the  proviso  that  Achin  should 
remain  unmolested.  In  1871,  however,  when  the  Dutch  G-overnment  gave 
up  to  us  their  possessions  on  the  Gruinea  Coast  of  Airica,  this  part  of  the 
treaty  was  cancelled,  and  the  Achin  war  began ;  the  pretext  fur  the  war 
being  the  many  acts  of  piracy  committed  by  the  Atchinese.  Up  to  October, 
1875,  the  Dutch  had  lost  5,144  men  in  this  war.  Achin  is  now  very  un- 
important, and  rice  is  one  of  its  chief  products.  A  portion  of  it  is  known  as 
the  Coast  of  Pedir,  tbe  produce  of  which  is  the  areca  nut  and  a  little  pepper. 

Bafali,  the  next  nation  to  the  S.E.,  the  country  of  the  Bataks  or  Battas, 
has  been  partially  conquered  and  explored  by  the  Dutch.  It  is  singularly 
unlike  most  other  parts  of  the  Malayan  Archipelago.  A  considerable  por- 
tion of  it  consists  of  a  dreary,  treeless,  and  sterile  plain.  The  people  are 
more  strange  than  their  country.  They  have  a  knowledge  of  letters,  but 
undoubtedly  are  cannibals.  The  Dutch  authorities  say  that  those  under 
their  sway  are  readily  dissuaded  from  this  dreadful  crime.  There  is  very 
little  commerce. 

Siah,  the  third  division,  is  but  little  known.  Its  great  river  has  been 
ascended  for  a  considerable  distance,  and  is  navigable  for  vessels  of  consider- 
able burden  for  90  miles  to  the  town  of  Siak,  and  for  those  of  200  tons  for 
100  miles,  but  it  is  almost  closed  by  a  sand  bank. 

The  portions  of  these  states  unoccupied  by  man,  or  lying  on  the  borders  of 
the  rivers,  is  one  vast  primeval  forest,  to  clear  and  cultivate  which  is  far 
beyond  the  powers  or  wants  of  its  small  and  puny  population.  Its  cultivated 
portion  is  the  chief  source  of  the  sago  of  commerce ;  camphor  and  benzoin 
are  also  produced.  CoflFee  cultivation  has  largely  extended ;  besides  these, 
there  are  other  and  minor  objects  of  trade. 

ACHIN  HEAD,  the  N.W.  point  of  Sumatra,  and  the  islands  and  pas- 
sages lying  off  it,  have  been  described  in  our  Indian  Ocean  Directory. 

Pulo  Brasse  Lighthouse,  120  ft.  high,  on  the  N.W.  point  of  the  island, 
completed  in  1875,  is  a  white  tower,  with  its  upper  part  painted  red.  From 
it  is  shown  a  revolving  light,  elevated  525  ft.,  and  visible  32  miles  off  to  the 
northward  and  eastward  between  W.  |  S.  and  S.E.  ^  E.  An  auxiliary  red 
light,  to  indicate  the  shoals  which  lie  to  the  N.W.  of  the  lighthouse,  is  shown 
between  N.  by  W.  ^  W.  and  W.  by  S.  ^  S.  from  the  same  tower,  at  an  ele- 
vation of  430  ft.,  visible  8  miles  off. 

Eastward  1^  mile  from  Palo  Brasse  lighthouse  is  a  projecting  point,  which 
shelters  an  anchorage  in  Lembalei  Bay,  to  the  southward  of  it.  The  best 
anchorage  is  in  about  9  fathoms  off  the  village  of  Ujong  Poneng,  S.  by  W. 
nearly  half  a  mile  from  the  extremity  of  the  projecting  point.     There  is  also 


anchorage  in  Rots  Bay,  a  small  bay,  about  a  mile  wide  on  the  eastern  side  of 
Pulo  Nancy.  It  has  an  islet,  forming  its  South  entrance  point,  in  lat. 
5°  38'  5"  N.,  long.  95°  11'  25"  E.  At  half  a  mile  South  of  this  islet  is  a 
stream  of  fresh  water. 

Achin  Head,  the  North  part  of  which  forms  the  eastern  side  of  the  Surat 
Passage,  is  in  lat.  5°  34'  10"  N.,  long.  95°  15'  E.,  is  steep-to,  and  has  a  high 
cliff  land  on  its  North  side.  At  three-quarters  of  a  mile  E.  by  S.  from  the 
eastern  extreme  of  the  head  is  Pulo  Tuan,  a  small  circular  islet,  surrounded 
by  dangerous  rocks,  which  also  lie  between  the  islet  and  the  head.  A  mile 
E.S.E.-ward  of  Pulo  Tuan,  is  a  shallow  inlet,  which  receives  the  waters  of  the 
Maraha  River.  Achin  or  Atjeh  River  entrance,  in  5°  35'  35"  N.,  95°  20'  45"  E., 
bears  from  it  E.  by  N.  J  N.  6  miles  ;  there  is  no  flagstaff,  or  any  conspicuous 
object,  to  point  out  the  entrancee  of  the  river.  The  anchorage  is  in  9  or  10 
fathoms,  with  the  eastern  extreme  of  Pulo  Way  bearing  N.  20°  E.  ;  Achin 
Head,  S.  69°  W. ;  the  shore  between  Achin  Head  and  River  may  be  ap- 
proached to  5  or  6  fathoms. 

Pulo  Btirroo,  or  3Ialora,  N.  36°  E.,  6f  miles  from  the  entrance  of  Achin 
River,  is  a  small  rocky  islet,  with  a  tree  on  it.  It  is  2f  miles  off  shore,  with 
soundings  of  13,  9,  and  12  fathoms  between  it  and  the  mainland,  from  which 
the  eastern  extreme  of  Pulo  Way  bears  N.  5°  AV.,  the  bluff'  entrance  near 
Point  Pedro  S.  41°  E. 

In  working  along  this  part  of  the  coast,  attention  ought  to  be  paid  to  the 
tides,  and  be  sure  not  to  go  out  of  soundings  should  the  wind  be  light  and  un- 
favourable, as  the  soundings  extend  but  a  short  distance  outside  Pulo  Burroo. 
Three  miles  to  the  East  of  it  there  is  no  ground  at  275  fathoms. 

PULO  WAY  {i.e.  Water  Island),  which  forms  the  N.  W.  side  of  the  Bengal 
Passage,  is  steep-to  on  all  sides ;  the  nearest  part  of  it  is  distant  from  Pulo 
Burroo  6^  miles.  Off  the  South  side  there  is  a  rock,  situated  a  short  distance 
from,  the  shore,  on  which  the  sea  breaks,  and  is  dry  at  low  water.  On  its 
S.E.  side  there  is  a  deep  bay,  with  70  fathoms  water  at  its  entrance,  and  25 
fathoms  close  to  the  sandy  beach  at  the  head  of  it. 

Point  Pedro,  in  lat.  5°  89'  10"  N.,  long.  95°  27'  E.,  bears  E.  22°  N.  from 
Achin  Roads,  distant  nearly  9  miles  ;  it  is  low,  with  a  few  trees  on  it,  and 
may  be  approached  to  9  or  10  fathoms.  It  is  1^  miles  to  the  E.N.E.  of  the 
bluff  formed  by  the  high  land,  which  terminates  in  a  gentle  slope.  Off  this 
point  the  bottom  is  rocky,  and  the  soundings  do  not  extend  more  than  \h  or 
2  miles  from  the  shore.  At  a  mile  W.S.W.  of  it,  and  S.E.  of  Malora  Island, 
is  a  small  river  named  the  ^'«??Ai<^,  andS.W.  3  miles  Irom  this  is  another 
small  stream  entering  the  sea,  and  called  on  the  charts  Gigchen  River. 

Krang  Ryah  Bay,  in  which  there  is  anchorage  sheltered  from  E.  and  S. 
winds,  lies  6  miles  S.E.  from  Pedro  Point.  On  its  eastern  side  a  cliffy  coast 
commences,  and  off' its  eastern  entrance  point  is  a  small  islet,  Batu  Kapal. 
At  6  miles  eastward  of  Batu  Kapal  is  Tanjong  Batu  Putie,  a  cliffy  point  bear- 


ing  N.  by  W.  from  the  western  slope  of  the  Golden  Mountain,  Thence  the 
coast  takes  a  general  E.S.E.  direction  to  Pedir  Point.  There  is,  however,  a 
slij^ht  bay  between  Tanjong  Batu  Putie  and  Tanjong  Segie,  8i  miles 
E.S.E. -ward  from  it,  on  the  shores  of  which  are  the  few  small  Tillages, 
Lanteba,  Bihu,  Powad,  Lawang,  and  Kalore.  There  are  no  dangers  marked 
on  the  charts  at  more  than  half  a  mile  off  shore  hereabout. 

PEDIR  POINT,  or  BaUi  Pedir,  is  a  table  land  of  moderate  elevation.  Off 
Pedir  Point,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  rocks  close  in,  the  shore  is  steep-to, 
there  being  112  fathoms  water  1  mile  distant  from  the  shore.  From  this 
point  the  coast  is  cliffy  for  Zh  miles,  and  runs  to  the  southward,  thence  it 
takes  a  general  S.E.  by  E.  direction  for  1 6  miles  to  Endjung  Creeh,  a  few 
miles  up  wLich  is  the  village  of  Saivang.  Six  creeks,  with  sand  banks  off 
their  mouths,  are  found  on  the  coast  between  Pedir  Point  and  Endjung 
Creek.  Batu  Creelc,  the  first,  lies  4  miles  southward  of  Pedir  Point.  Bun- 
gala  Creeh,  a  mile  N.E.  of  which  is  anchorage  in  9  fathoms,  lies  If  mile 
E.S.E.  of  Batu  Creek.  Pedir  Creelc  is  2^  mile  E.S.E.-ward  of  Batu  Creek. 
The  village  is  not  visible  from  the  anchorage,  which  is  abreast  this  creek  in 
10  or  12  fathoms.  Gichen  Creeh  is  2\  miles  E.S.E.  of  Pedir  Creek.  Between 
this  and  Burong  Creeh,  the  distance  is  1^  mile.  Burong  may  be  known  by  a  flag- 
staff in  the  centre  of  the  village.  The  creek  is  very  narrow,  and  the  bar  at 
its  entrance  very  shallow,  and  only  passable  at  high  water.  The  anchorage 
is  abreast  of  the  village  in  15  or  18  fathoms  water.  From  Bui'ong  Creek  to 
Ije  Labu  Creek,  which  enters  the  sea  at  a  slight  projection  of  the  coast,  the 
distance  is  3j  miles.  Endjung  Creek  is  3J  miles  beyond  this.  Sawang 
entrance,  before  mentioned,  may  be  known  by  a  high  grove  of  trees  near  to  it. 

At  E.  i  S.  7|  miles  from  the  entrance  of  Sawang  or  Endjung  Creek  is 
Merdu  Point,  low  and  sandy,  with  a  few  small  round  trees  on  it.  Beradjang 
Creeh  lies  2  miles  westward  of  the  point,  another  creek  enters  the  sea  at  the 
point,  and  TJlim  Creeh  2  miles  south-eastward  of  it.  Between  Merdui  Point 
and  Pajah,  Point,  lat.  5°  14'  30",  long.  96°  28'  30",  the  distance  is  131  miles, 
and  midway  between  Samalangan  Creeh  enters  the  sea.  Pajah  Point  may  be 
known  by  a  high  grove  of  trees  near  its  extreme.  There  is  a  depth  of  about 
15  fathoms,  at  a  mile  off  shore,  between  Merdui  and  Rajah  Points.  To  the 
eastward,  Pedada  Creek  is  in  long.  96°  35' ;  Bjimpa  Creeh,  96°  39'  45" ;  and 
Passangan  Creeh  in  96°  48'. 

Passangan  Point  is  in  lat.  5°  18'  N.,  long.  96=51'  E.,  and  bears  from 
Oujong  Rajah  E.  J  N.,  distant  23  miles,  between  which  the  shore  mav  be 
approached  to  12  or  14  fathoms,  excepting  when  near  to  Passangan  Point, 
which  is  steep-to,  having  30  fathoms  within  half  a  mile  from  the  beach. 
Passangan  Point  is  low  and  sandy,  with  a  few  cocoa-nut  trees  near  to  its  ex- 
treme, and  is  in  one  with  Elephant  Mountain,  bearing  S.  42°  W. 

East  4°  South  from  Passangan  Point,  distant  9^  miles,  is  Agum-Agum,  or 
Gonia  Goma  Point,  the  coast  between  is  slightly  concave,  and  hallway  between 


there  is  a  high  square  grove  of  trees,  near  which  the  Elumpang  Dua  Creek 
enters  the  sea.  Ilaneh  Creeh  enters  the  sea  a  mile  eastward  of  Passangan 
Point.  The  shore  vsx?^  be  approached  between  these  points  to  8  or  10  fa- 
thoms, but  not  when  abreast  of  Agum-Agum,  which  is  low,  with  a  little 
jungle  on  it,  as  two  sunken  rocks  lies  off  this  point,  one  a  mile  W.N.W.  of 
the  point,  and  another,  the  Sumatra  Rock,  at  a  mile  off  shore  and  2  miles 
eastward  of  the  point.  Do  not  shoal  the  water  under  25  fathoms  when  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  the  Sumatra  Eock,  if  you  wish  to  pass  outside  of  it. 
From  Goma  Goma  Point  the  coast  takes  a  general  E.  by  S.  ^  S.  direction  for 
12  miles  to  Telok  Samoi,  or  Teles  Amoi  Point,  S.S.W.  from  which  is  a  t^ble 
land  of  moderate  elevation,  with  a  few  conspicuous  trees  on  it.  The  point 
may  be  rounded  at  any  convenient  distance,  as  there  are  soundino-s  of  7  and 
10  fathoms  within  100  yards  of  the  beach.  Krang  Guku  Creek  is  4^  miles 
eastward  of  Goma  Goma  Point.  At  Telok  Samoi  Point  the  coast  recedes 
and  forms  a  bay,  open  to  the  North  and  East,  with  a  river  flowing  into  its 
S. W.  corner ;  and  two  villages  on  its  shores,  Telok  Samoi  on  its  western,  and 
Maraksa  on  its  South  side. 

From  Maraksa,  just  eastward  of  which  a  small  creek  enters  the  sea, 
the  coast  runs  in  an  E.N.E.  direction  to  Diamond  Point,  and  may  be  ap- 
proached to  7  or  8  fathoms,  except  when  approaching  Diamond  Point,  there 
is  a  shoal  of  hard  slatey  clay,  with  2  fathoms  on  it  ;  it  is  not  more  than  20 
yards  in  extent,  with  7  and  8  fathoms  close  round  it.  From  the  shoal 
Diamond  Point  Dears  E.  1°  N.,  distant  5  J  miles ;  a  small  gap  in  the  juno-le 
S.  r  E.  ;  and  Curtoy  Creek  (which  is  situated  8J  miles  to  the  westward  of 
Diamond  Point,  at  the  AYest  extreme  of  the  belt  of  thick  jungle),  S.  22°  W. 

Fussier  or  Passey,  now  an  unimportant  place,  about  25  miles  south-westward 
of  Diamond  Point,  is  frequently  mentioned  in  old  Malay  annals  as  beino-  a 
place  of  some  note,  at  one  time  rivalling  Malacca.  It  attained  its  notoriety 
as  an  entrepdt  for  trade  carried  on  between  the  countries  East  and  West 
of  it.  Between  Passey  Creek  and  Legabatang  Creek,  8J  miles  eastward  of 
it,  are  the  Rertv  or  Kertoy,  Tyankoy,  and  Pidada  Creeks. 

DIAMOND  POINT,  or  Jambie  Ayre,  or  Tanjong  Goere,  forms  the  eastern 
extremity  of  the  coast  of  Pedir,  the  trees  on  it  being  of  unequal  height,  and 
higher  than  those  of  the  contiguous  land,  make  the  land  appear  like  a  low 
sloping  island,  when  viewed  at  a  considerable  distance,  although  the  ground 
is  very  little  elevated  above  the  sea  at  high  water  spring  tides.  A  reef  ex- 
tends from  the  point  about  \h  mile  in  a  northei-ly  direction,  having  3  fathoms 
sand  on  its  outer  edge,  and  shoaling  gradually  to  the  point.  A  ship  should 
come  no  nearer  the  latter  than  2i  miles,  nor  under  12  fathoms  in  passing  it 
and  the  shoal  to  the  westward  ;  for  the  water  shoals  quickly  under  this  depth 
to  the  westward  of  the  point.  This  place  is  frequented  in  the  fair  season  by 
fishermen  from  the  coast  of  Pedir.  Inland  to  the  S.S.W.  there  is  a  high. 
Table  Mountain,  visible  from  the  offing  in  clear  weather. 


Tides. — Although  the  tides  along  the  Pedir  coast  are  weak,  and  only  per- 
ceptible near  the  shore,  there  being  a  current  usually  setting  to  the  westward 
in  the  offing  during  the  S.W.  monsoon,  yet  they  begin  to  run  strong  at 
Diamond  Point.  The  flood  here  sets  to  the  S.E.,  and  the  ebb  to  the  N.W., 
about  2  miles  per  hour,  with  arise  and  fall  of  9  or  10  ft.  on  the  springs.  At 
the  western  part  of  the  coast  of  Pedir,  it  is  high  water  at  about  lOJ  hours, 
on  full  and  change  of  the  moon,  and  at  12  hours  off  Diamond  Point.  The 
soundings  are  not  very  regular  in  the  offing,  the  depths  being  from  20  to  35 
or  40  fathoms,  about  3  miles,  to  45  and  60  fathoms  at  5  or  6  leagues  from 
the  point ;  and  soundings  extend  from  hence  across  to  Pulo  Pera,  and  from 
the  latter  to  the  Ladda  Islands,  and  to  Penang.  A  little  outside  of  Pulo 
Pera  there  are  no  soundings. 

The  coast  to  the  south-eastward  has  been  surveyed  by  Lieut.  Jackson ; 
but  the  directions  of  Commander  Fell  are  adapted  to  this  later  chart. 

Adie,  20  miles  South  of  Diamond  Point,  claimed  Dutch  protection  in  1874, 
and  a  coal  depot  has  been  established  here.  Between  Diamond  Point  and 
Adie  are  several  rivers  and  creeks.  On  the  western  side  of  Diamond  Point 
is  DJambu  Ayer  Creek,  and  on  its  eastern  side  Mentui  Creek.  In  lat.  5°  14'  N. 
is  Bekas  Creek.  Pareh  Busuk,  in  5°  13'  N.,  is  an  entrance  between  two  islands. 
Ringin  Creek  is  in  lat.  5°  11'  30" ;  Betas  Creek  in  5°  11'  ;  Simpang  Olim  River, 
in  5°  9'  30",  has  its  entrance  marked  out  by  stakes  on  the  sand  banks ;  the 
town  is  about  6  miles  from  its  mouth,  and  there  are  some  pepper  grounds  on 
its  banks.  Malikan  River  is  in  5°  8'  N.  Arakun  Dur  River,  in  5°  6'  N.,  has 
a  town,  Telok  Sintang,  1^  mile  from  its  entrance,  and  some  pepper  grounds 
higher  up.  In  lat.  5°  4'  35"  is  the  mouth  of  the  Djolokh  River,  a  mile  below 
it  the  Buging  River;  a  mile  S.E.  of  Buging  River  is  Bagan  River,  and  in 
lat.  5°  2'  45"  the  mouth  of  the  Bagan  Panas  River. 

Edie  Besaar  River  has  a  fort  and  flagstaflP  on  the  South  side  of  its  entrance, 
in  lat.  4"  58'  40"  N.,  long.  97°  46'  35"  E.  Some  stakes  mark  the  entrance, 
which  lies  between  sand  banks  that  extend  off  either  point  and  form  a  chan- 
nel, running  N.W.  and  SE.,  and  open  to  the  northward. 

Prauhilah  Point,  in  lat.  4°  53'  15"  N.,  long.  97°  53'  30"  E.,  bearing  from 
Diamond  Point  S.E.  J  E.  11  leagues,  has  a  reef  projecting  North  and 
N.N.W.  from  it  about  4  miles,  near  which  the  soundings  are  very  irregular, 
although  between  it  and  Diamond  Point  they  are  regular  at  a  short  distance 
from  the  shore.  There  are  4  J  fathoms,  mud,  2  J  miles  from  Prauhilah  Point. 
On  the  North  side  of  the  point  is  the  entrance  into  the  river,  which  is  almost 
dry  at  low  water  ;  but  inside  of  it  there  are  2  fathoms  for  several  miles  up, 
with  a  small  fishing  village  at  a  considerable  distance  from  the  entrance. 
Off  this  part  it  is  high  water,  at  full  and  change,  at  1 2'\ 

Raija  River,  the  North  entrance  point  of  which  is  in  lat.  4°  44'  38'  N., 
long.  97°  57'  E.,  has  an  extensive  sand  bank  lying  off  its  entrance.  Along 
the  South  side  of  this  sand  bank  the  channel  into  the  river  carries  a  depth  of 

LANKSA  BAY.  143 

2f  fathoms,  but  there  is  less  water  outside,  as  little  as  4^  ft.  being  found  at 
1 J  mile  S.E.  of  the  North  point. 

LANKSA  BAY,  20  miles  S.E.  by  S.  from  Prauhilah  Point,  formed  by 
Ujong  Byan  to  the  N.W.,  and  Ujong  Kwala  Lanksa  to  the  S.E.,  is  about 
4  miles  wide,  containing  numerous  shoals,  with  narrow  channels  leading 
into  the  different  rivers,  which  fall  into  this  bay.  Near  Ujong  Kwala 
Lanksa  lies  Pido  Laga  Tojoo,  a  small  island,  about  a  mile  in  extent,  having  a 
channel  about  300  yards  wide,  with  6  and  7  fathoms  water  between  it  and 
Ujong  Kwala  Lanksa. 

The  entrance  into  Lanksa  River  bears  from  it  about  South,  and  there  is  a 
safe  but  narrow  channel  on  either  side  of  the  island  ;  the  best  channel,  how- 
ever, is  from  theN.E.,  between  the  island  and  Ujong  Kwala  Lanksa,  having 
2  J  fathoms  least  water.  In  the  entrance  of  the  river  there  are  two  small 
islands,  and  the  town  is  said  to  be  at  a  considerable  distance  inside,  contain- 
ing a  number  of  inhabitants,  who  cultivate  rice,  pepper,  and  rattans.  There 
are  only  3  fathoms,  mud,  about  6  miles  distant  from  the  bottom  of  the  bay, 
and  the  reefs  extend  3i  or  4  miles  from  the  nearest  land.  Five  leagues  S.E. 
of  Lanksa  Bay  is  Vjo7ig  Tannang,  or  Tamiang,  with  Ujong  Roquit  midway  be- 
tween them.  The  coast  in  this  interval  is  safe  to  approach,  having  from  15 
to  20  fathoms  about  2  miles  off  shore,  excepting  at  Pulo  Roquit  and  at  Ujong 
Tamiang,  where  there  are  reefs  of  breakers,  which  project  out  a  mile.  It  is 
high  water  at  full  and  change  here  at  12''  30". 

Lunkat  River,  or  Kwala  Bulon,  in  lat.  4°  H'  N.,  long.  98°  29^'  E.,  lies  at 
the  S.E.  extremity  of  a  deep  bay,  formed  between  it  and  Ujong  Tamiang. 
The  bay  is  not  easily  perceived  from  the  offing,  as  Pulo  Tampelu  and  Pulo 
Sampatuan,  two  large  islands  fronting  the  bay,  appear,  unless  close  in-shore, 
as  part  of  the  mainland.  Between  these  islands  there  is  said  to  be  a  safe 
channel  for  small  vessels,  that  leads  to  Kaya-la-pun  River. 

From  the  mouth  of  the  Lankat  a  bank  extends  about  6  miles  to  the  north- 
ward and  N.E.,  having  dry  patches  on  it,  with  breakers  in  some  places. 
About  5  miles  off  the  entrance  of  the  river  the  depth  is  3  fathoms,  mud,  and 
the  tide  rises  and  falls  about  2  ft.  on  the  springs  ;  high  water  at  3i  hours, 
on  full  and  change.  About  4  leagues  S.E.  of  Lankat  River  there  is  Lankat- 
tuah  Island,  close  to  Ujong  Lankat-tuah,  which  is  safe  to  approach,  and  which 
forms  the  northern  extremity  of  the  concavity  of  the  land,  where  Dehli  River 
is  situated. 

Balawan  and  Dehli  Rivers  are  separated  at  their  entrances  by  a  low 
island,  covered  with  jungle,  2|  miles  long  from  East  to  West,  and  If  mile 
wide,  the  eastern  extreme  of  which  is  in  lat.  3^  47'  N.,  long.  98°  48'  E.  The 
importance  of  these  rivers  arises  from  the  fact  that  the  Dutch  Government 
have  recently  established  a  coaling  station  on  the  shore  which  faces  the  western 
end  of  the  island  before  mentioned.  Up  to  the  coal  sheds  the  least  depth 
(8  feet  at  low  water)  is  found  between  the  outer  dark  wooden  cross  and  outer 


\^'hite  beacon.  The  entrance  to  Balawan  River  is  about  300  yards  wide,  and 
much  deeper  than  Dehli  River.  At  3  miles  to  the  northward  of  the  East 
extreme  of  the  island  which  separates  Balawan  from  Dehli  River  are  the 
outermost  of  some  fishing  stakes,  whic-h  lie  2  miles  off  the  low  wooded  shore 
to  the  westward,  and  mark  the  western  side  of  the  entrance  to  the  channel, 
which  thence  extends  to  the  S.S.W.,  and  is  marked  on  its  western  side  by 
white  basket-topped  beacons,  and  on  its  eastern  side  by  crosses  of  dark  wood. 
About  3]  miles  up  the  channel  branches  off  to  the  westward,  between  the 
island  and  the  main,  half  a  mile  beyond  a  beacon  marking  a  projecting  shoal 
on  the  port  hand  it  turns  to  the  southward,  a  mile  up  which  reach  there  is 
anchorage  off  the  coal  sheds.  Dehli  Town  is  reached  by  a  channel  to  the 
S.E.,  in  which  there  are  1^  and  2  fathoms  water.  Here  the  rise  and  fall  of 
the  tide  is  from  8  to  9  ft.,  high  water  at  3  hours  on  full  and  change  of  the 

South  of  the  entrance  to  the  Balawan  River  a  depth  of  3  fathoms  is  fmnd 
«,t  4  miles  off  shore,  and  for  3  miles  eastward  of  the  East  point  of  the  island 
the  sand  nearly  dries.  The  mouth  of  the  Dehli  River  is  about  a  quarter  of  a 
mile  wide,  having  4  ft.  at  high  water  on  some  parts,  but  inside  it  deepens  to 
2  fathoms ;  about  3  miles  from  the  entrance  is  the  town  of  Dehli  or  Labuan. 
A  mile  up  from  the  entrance  the  channel  separates  into  two  branches,  one 
leading  N.W.  towards  the  coal  sheds,  and  the  other  leading  S.W.  towards 
the  town.  There  is  only  3  or  4  ft.  water  in  some  parts  of  the  channel,  and 
abreast  the  town  the  river  is  only  40  yards  wide,  with  a  fresh  stream  always 

From  Dehli  to  Tanjong  Mattie,  which  forms  the  northern  part  of  Batu 
Barra  Bay,  the  coast  extends  about  S.E.  by  E.,  55  miles,  having  regular 
soundings  to  4|-  fathoms,  within  2  miles  of  the  low  sandy  beach  that  lines 
this  part  o^  the  coast. 

There  are  some  dangerous  shoals  off  this  part  of  the  coast,  as  shown  by 
the  survey  of  Lieut.  Jackson. 

The  Dehli  Shoal  is  the  first  of  these,  and  lies  1 7  miles  East  by  North  from 
the  mouth  of  the  Dehli  River,  and  nearly  12  miles  from  the  nearest  shore. 
Its  least  water  is  27  ft.,  and  it  is  surrounded  by  depths  of  6  and  7  fathoms; 
just  outside  it  there  are  10  and  13  fathoms.  No  marks  are  given  to 
avoid  it. 

The  Bungan  Banks,  or  Varela  Reef,  are  still  more  dangerous.  They  lie 
from  6  to  9  miles  from  the  nearest  land.  Point  Bungan  Bungan,  25  miles 
W.  by  S.  from  Pulo  Yarela,  and  are  two  in  nurr.l  -^r.  The  outer  one  is  a 
narrow  spit,  extending  3^  miles  N.W.  and  S.E.,  with  only  9  fi.  least  water 
on  some  parts.  A  channel,  with  7  to  9  fathoms,  nearly  2  miles  in  width, 
separates  it  from  the  inner  bank,  which  is  also  narrow,  and  extends  in  the 
same  direction  for  4  miles.  Between  it  and  the  coast,  the  channel,  4  miles 
wide,  has  a  depth  of  from  7  to  11  fathoms.     The  Peak  of  Pulo  Varela, 


bearing  E  J  S.,  just  clears  theirnorthern  edge  ;  the  same  peat,  E.  by  N.  ^  N., 
clears  their  southern  part ;  and  a  high  tree  on  the  main  land,  bearino- 
S.  by  E.  f  E.,  will  lead  clear  of  their  eastern  face. 

PULO  VARELA,  in  lat.  3°  46'  20'  N.,  long.  99°  29'  15"  E.,  and  22 1  miles 
off  the  Sumatran  coast,  is  very  high,  and  may  be  seen  8  leagues  off,  although 
it  is  not  more  that  a  mile  in  circumference.  It  is  wooded,  and  clear  all 
round,  with  very  deep  water,  24  and  25  fathoms,  close-to.  A  small  rock  or 
islet  off  its  N.W.  point,  and  another  off  the  South  end.  There  are  some 
small  sandy  bays,  the  largest  of  which  is  to  the  S.E.  On  the  South  side  ia 
a  small  cove,  in  which  at  some  seasons  water  may  be  procured.  It  runs 
down  the  hill  slowly  into  a  small  well.  The  island  is  visited  by  the  Sumatran 
people  for  the  purpose  of  catching  turtle  and  preserving  their  eggs,  fish-roes, 
&c.  As  these  people  are  sometimes  treacherous,  boat  parties  landing  for 
fire-wood,  fishing,  cr  water,  should  be  on  their  guard. 

A  bank  of  6  to  9  fathoms  water  lies  to  N.N.W.  of  Pulo  Vai-ela.  It  is  7 
miles  in  length,  its  S.E.  end  being  7  miles  from  Pulo  Yarela.  Although  the 
above  depths  were  only  found  on  the  survey,  it  is  reported  that  there  are  only 
2  fathoms  over  some  parts.  There  is  another  bank  with  8  and  9  fathoms  at 
4  or  5  miles  to  the  S.W.  of  Pulo  Yarela. 

Point  Mattie  is  25  miles  due  South  from  Pulo  Varela ;  off  it  is  the  Mattie 
Shoal,  nearly  awash  in  parts,  and  9  miles  in  extent,  parallel  with  the  coast, 
between  which  is  a  channel  of  from  15  to  5  fathoms  water,  from  Ij  to  2^ 
miles  wide.  It  is  high  water  here,  at  full  and  change,  at  3  hours,  rise  from 
7  to  10  ft. 

Off  Tanjong  Mattie,  to  the  northward,  tbe  depth  increases  to  12  and  14 
fathoms,  and  shoals  suddenly  to  5,  3,  and  2  fathoms,  on  a  sandy  spit  which 
projects  about  IJ  mile  from  that  point,  and  6^  miles  to  the  eastward  of  it, 
and  the  same  distance  to  the  northward  of  Batu  Barra  there  is  an  extensive 
and  dangerous  sand-bank,  having  only  IJ  fathom,  with  a  safe  channel  be- 
tween it  and  the  mainland,  3  miles  wide. 

BATU  BARRA  RIVER,  in  lat.  3°  14'  N.,  long.  99°  35'  30"  E.,  and  the 
coast  for  some  miles  eastward,  is  fronted  by  an  extensive  mud  flat,  from  2^to 
4  miles  oft'  shore,  having  regular  soundings,  and  projecting  out  to  within  5 
miles  of  the  South  Brother.  The  river  is  about  300  yards  wide,  with  regular 
soundings  to  the  dry  banks  at  its  mouth,  where  a  little  way  inside  it  divides 
into  two  branches,  one  to  the  eastward,  and  the  other  to  the  westward. 
About  a  mile  up  the  western  branch  is  the  town  where  the  chief  rajah  re- 
sides. On  the  banks  of  the  eastern  branch  stands  another  town,  and  there 
are  said  to  be  other  towns  further  up  the  river.  The  people  on  the  coast 
are  generally  Malays  ;  those  in  the  interior  are  Bataks.  European  vessels 
discontinued  visiting  this  place  for  many  year-,  owing  to  the  perfidious  con- 
duct of  the  Malays,  who  formerly  cut  off  several  vessels  that  touched  here  to 

1.  A.  V 


trade.  Nevertheless  the  people  of  Batu  Barra  appear  more  industrious  and 
better  inclined  to  trade  than  is  usual  with  the  other  inhabitants  of  this 
coast ;  and  they  carry  in  their  own  proas,  to  Penang  and  Malacca,  the  rattans, 
pepper,  or  other  articles  produced  here.  Goats  and  poultry  are  plentiful,  at 
reasonable  prices. 

The  BROTHERS,  two  small  islets,  lie  oflF  Batu  Barra,  at  10^  and  15^ 
miles  respectively,  to  the  N.E.  by  E.  The  northernmost,  Pulo  Pandan,  or 
Quandan,  is  much  lower  than  Pulo  Varela,  from  which  it  lies  S.S.E.  f  E. 
25i  miles  distant.  It  is  covered  with  wood,  and  surrounded  on  all  sides  by 
a  reef  to  a  considerable  distance  off  it.  Therefore  it  should  not  be  made 
"free  with.  The  southernmost,  Pulo  Salanama,  is  larger,  and  much  more 
bold-to,  although  there  are  some  rocks  stretching  from  its  North  end  for 
above  half  a  mile,  and  another  rock  or  islet  lies  to  the  E^st  of  its  South  end. 
The  channel  between  the  two  islets,  4  miles  in  width,  is  perfectly  safe  with 
20  to  30  fathoms  water  ;  and  there  is  also  a  channel  inside  Pulo  Salanama, 
about  3  miles  in  width,  but  then  it  should  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  Suma- 
tran  coast  is  here  bordered  by  an  extensive  shelf,  which  extends  for  nearly  5 
miles  off  the  point  to  the  southward  of  the  southern  Brother.  Prom  this 
circumstance,  it  should  not  be  used  except  under  great  necessity,  seeing  that 
the  course  outside  it  is  so  much  preferable.  There  are  several  other  spots 
shown  on  the  charts,  which  will  demonstrate  the  necessity  of  caution,  should 
a  vessel  get  too  far  over  to  the  Sumatran  side.  The  best  course  is,  as  before 
directed,  to  the  eastward  of  Pulo  Jarra. 

The  COAST  of  Sumatra  south-eastward  of  Batu  Barra  is  laid  down  on  the 
charts  from  the  surveys  of  Lieuts.  Rose  and  Moresby,  I.N.,  and  has  not  been 
so  minutely  examined  as  that  to  the  north-westward  ;  but  this  is  of  the  less 
importance,  as  a  great  portion  of  it  is  unapproachable  to  shipping,  in  con- 
sequence of  an  extensive  mud  flat  which  stretches  off  it  for  many  miles. 

Assarhan  River,  in  lat.  3°  U'N.,  long.  99°  52J'  E.,  has  a  mud  flat,  ex- 
tending from  its  entrance  8  miles  to  the  N.E.,  upon  which  the  soundings 
regularly  decrease.  From  hence  to  Reccan  River  care  is  required  not  to 
approach  too  near  the  coast,  as  several  mud  flats  extend  to  a  considerable 
distance,  upon  the  verge  of  which  the  water  shoals  suddenly  ;  particularly 
about  5  or  6  leagues  to  the  S.E.  of  Assarhan  River,  fronting  the  bay  of 
Lidang  and  its  contiguous  rivers,  where  the  flat  extends  Zh  leagues  from  the 
shore  at  the  bottom  of  that  bay. 

RECCAN,  or  Rakan  River,  has  at  the  entrance  two  islands,  Pulo  Lalang 
Besar,  in  lat.  2°  12'  N.,  long.  100°  36J'  E.,  and  Pulo  Lalang  Kechel ;  the 
former  is  the  largest,  from  which  the  other  bears  S.  by  E.  ^  E.,  about  2;^ 
miles  ;  and  there  is  a  shoal  channel  between  them  leading  into  the  river. 
They  are  low  and  woody,  and  not  discernible  above  10  miles.  Having 
passed  between  these  islands,  and  being  a  little  to  the  eastward  of  them,  the 
entrance  to  the  river  bears  S.E.  f  E.,  and  extends  in  this  direction  about  30 


miles ;  then  a  small  and  shoal  bank  projects  to  the  westward,  called  Banha  ; 
but  the  main  branch  takes  a  S.E.  direction,  and  is  called  Tanah  Putie  River, 
having  a  town  of  the  same  name  at  the  mouth  of  this  branch,  which  is  here 
about  IJ  mile  wide,  and  is  said  to  take  its  rise  from  the  mountains.  It  is 
shoal  and  dangerous,  from  the  rapidity  of  the  tides  ;  but  several  large  and 
populous  villages  are  said  to  stand  on  its  banks,  subject  to  the  Rajah  of 
Siak.  The  g-reatest  breadth  of  the  mouth  of  Reccan  River  is  about  15  miles, 
decreasing  about  8  or  9  miles  up  to  4  miles,  afterwards  2  miles,  and  then 
continuing  this  breadth  till  it  forms  the  two  branches  mentioned  above.  It 
is  almost  dry  at  low  water  spring  tides,  and  is  rendered  exceedingly  dan- 
gerous by  their  excessive  rapidity  of  7  miles  per  hour,  producing  a  bore  en 
the  springs,  and  having  a  rise  and  fall  of  30  ft. 

At  the  mouth  of  the  river  it  is  high  water  at  6  hours  on  full  and  change 
of  the  moon  ;  the  rise  and  fall  of  tide  about  26  ft.  ;  and  here  the  velocity  of 
the  stream  is  about  5^  miles  per  hour,  but  it  becomes  much  greater  a  few 
miles  up.  On  the  bank  of  the  river  the  Nautilus  found  a  straggling  village, 
whence  the  inhabitants  came  off  in  great  numbers,  and  entreated  to  be  ad- 
mitted on  board,  under  pretence  of  friendship,  which  was  refused  excepting 
to  a  few  of  them.  They  afterwards,  without  the  least  provocation,  endea- 
voured to  cut  off  one  of  the  boats,  which  had  got  adrift  by  the  rapidity  of 
the  tide. 

The  Arroa  Isles,  described  previously,  lie  oflf  the  mouth  of  the  river,  40 
miles  to  the  northward. 

From  Eeccan  River  the  land  on  the  eastern  bank  projects  to  the  N.W., 
forming  the  headland  called  Vjong  Perhahean,  in  lat.  2°  \&h'  N.,  from  which 
a  mud  flat  extends  to  the  N.W.  and  N.N.W.  about  10  miles,  and  upon  this 
flat  the  soundings  decrease  regularly.  When  clear  to  the  eastward  of  this 
bank,  and  having  Ujong  Perbabean  bearing  S.W.,  and  Parcelar  Hill  N.E., 
you  enter  upon  the  most  dangerous  part  of  this  coast,  its  various  sand  banks 
extending  from  it  over  to  the  South  Sands,  with  gaps  and  narrow  channels 
of  mud  soundings  between  them.  As  the  soundings  afford  no  guide  in  ap- 
proaching these  banks,  the  depth  decreasing  suddenly  upon  them,  it  is  neces- 
sary for  a  vessel  intending  to  pass  between  them  to  have  a  boat  ahead  sound- 
ing, and  a  good  lookout  kept  from  the  fore-yard,  for  the  shoal  banks  are 
plainly  seen  when  the  sky  is  clear  in  the  daytime. 

PULO  EOUPAT,  the  North  point  of  which  is  called  UJong  Bantam,  is 
in  lat.  2°  8'  N.,  long.  101°  40^'  E.  It  is  bold  to  approach,  having  30  fathoms 
within  \\  mile  of  the  shore.  The  eastern  side  of  this  island  is  bold  until  the 
entrance  of  Brewers  Strait  is  approached,  where  a  mud  bank  extends  out 
from  the  shore  of  Pulo  Roupat  about  5  or  6  miles  between  the  North  point 
of  Pulo  Roupat  and  Ujong  Perbabean,  the  coast  forms  a  deep  bight,  which 
is  fronted  by  an  extensive  sand  bank ;  this  bank,  together  with  those  in  the 


offing,  mentioned  above,  render  this  part  of  the  Sumatra  side  of  the  strait 
very  intricate  and  dangerous. 

BREWERS  STRAIT,  or  Salat  Panjang. — The  North  entrance  of  this  strait 
is  formed  between  the  mainland  of  Sumatra  and  Pulo  Bucalisse  ;  Tanjo-ng  Jati, 
the  North  end  of  the  latter,  being  in  lat.  1°  36i'  N.,  long.  101°  59'  E.,  a 
shoal  bank,  extends  8  miles  to  the  northward  from  the  point. 

The  northern  navigable  part  of  this  strait  is  about  5  miles  wide,  with 
soundings  of  8  to  15  and  20  fathoms,  mud  ;  and  8  miles  from  the  entrance, 
on  the  western  shore,  is  the  town  of  Bukit  Batu,  upon  the  banks  of  a  very 
narrow  river  of  the  same  name.  The  town  is  not  easily  perceived,  the  houses 
being  scattered  among  and  hid  by  the  trees ;  but  it  may  be  known  by  a  tree, 
formed  like  an  umbrella,  near  the  entrance  of  the  river. 

At  Ujo7ig  Ballai,  a  point  of  Sumatra,  3A-  leagues  to  the  S.E.  of  Bukit  Batu 
Eiver,  the  strait  becomes  contracted  to  3  or  4  miles  in  breadth  ;  and  opposite 
to  the  point  is  the  entrance  to  the  narrow  strait  called  Salat  Padang,  affording 
a  safe  passage  for  boats  ;  it  is  formed  between  Pulo  Bucalisse  and  Pulo  Pa- 
dang. From  Ujong  Ballai,  Brewers  Strait  turns  from  a  S.E.  to  a  South 
direction,  till  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Siak  Eiver. 

From  the  entrance  of  Siak  Piver,  Brewers  Strait  extends  S.S.E.  to  the 
western  end  of  Pulo  Eantow,  where  it  contracts  to  1  mile  in  breadth,  with 
regular  mud  soundings  from  8  to  10  fathoms.  Between  Pulo  Eantow  and 
Pulo  Padang  is  formed  a  channel  leading  to  the  sea,  called  Salat  Ringit  by 
the  natives,  and  said  to  be  used  only  by  boats.  From  the  western  end  of 
Pulo  Eantow  the  strait  takes  an  easterly  direction  about  20  miles,  with 
depths  from  10  to  15  fathoms,  till  a  small  island  in  mid  straits  is  approached, 
on  each  side  of  which  the  passage  is  practicable,  taking  care  to  avoid  the 
stream  of  the  island,  as  a  mud  flat  extends  from  it  to  the  westward  2^  miles 
in  the  middle  of  the  strait.  From  hence  the  direction  to  the  strait  is  to  the 
S.E.,  and,  after  passing  three  small  islands  on  the  port  hand,  the  southern 
entrance  opens,  oflf  which  there  are  a  great  number  of  islands.  The  safest 
channel  out  appears  to  be  between  Panton  Point  and  Pulo  Senappu,  having 
regular  but  shoal  soundings  of  only  1  fathom  at  low  water  in  some  parts. 

SIAK  RIVER,  the  entrance  of  which  is  in  lat.  1°  11^'  N.,  long.  102°  12^'  E., 
on  the  western  side  of  Brewers  Strait,  is  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  wide, 
having  a  sandy  spit,  nearly  dry  at  low  water,  extending  almost  across,  but 
leaving  a  safe,  although  very  narrow  channel,  close  to  Ujong  Liang,  the 
eastern  entrance  point ;  the  river  becomes  narrow,  with  deep  soundings  in- 
fiide,  and  is  said  to  have  its  source  in  the  mountains. 

The  town  of  Siak  stands  at  65  miles  from  the  mouth  of  the  river.  The 
Nautilus  anchored  in  6  fathoms,  mud,  within  a  quarter  of  a  mile  of  the  mouth 
of  the  Siak  Eiver,  and  found  the  time  of  high  water  at  full  and  change  of  the 
moon  to  be  9  hours ;  rise  and  fall  of  the  tide  about  12  ft.,  and  the  velocity  2\ 
xniles  per  hour. 


Campou  River,  in  lat.  0°  43'  N.,  long.  103°  0'  30"  E.,  is  fronted  by  an  ex- 
tensive mud  flat,  almost  dry  at  low  water  ;  and  it  is  little  frequented  on 
account  of  the  rapidity  of  the  tides,  occasioning  a  bore  at  times  similar  to 
that  of  Reccan  River,  which  it  resembles  in  several  respects.  In  approach- 
ing the  southern  entrance  of  Brewers  Strait,  the  tides  are  greatly  influenced 
by  this  river,  producing  a  strong  eddy  round  some  of  the  islands,  so  that, 
while  the  tide  is  running  to  the  southward  on  one  side  of  an  island,  it  may 
be  often  found  running  to  the  northward  on  the  other  side. 

The  rise  and  fall  of  tide  near  the  southern  entrance  of  Brewers  Strait  is 
about  15  ft.  in  some  parts,  with  a  velocity  of  about  3i  miles  per  hour,  but 
much  greater  when  near  the  entrance  of  Campou  River.  The  three  islands, 
Pulo  Bucalisse,  Padang,  and  Rantow,  which  form  Brewers  Strait,  and  also 
Pulo  Panjore,  ought  not  to  be  approached  but  with  great  caution,  at  their 
eastern  sides,  as  they  are  fronted  by  an  extensive  mud  flat,  with  dangerous 
sand  banks,  in  some  places  having  only  1 J  fathom  water  on  them.  These 
form  what  is  usually  called  the  Sumatra  Bank,  or  third  bank  in  the  Malacca 
Strait  to  the  N.W.  of  the  Carimons,  which  has  been  before  alluded  to.  The 
Carimon  Islands,  which  form  the  head  of  the  Strait  of  Malacca,  have  been 
described  on  page  136. 



This  important  and  remarkable  passage,  the  great  portal  of  the  Indian  Archi- 
pelago, has  been  surveyed  by  the  Dutch  officers.  Lieutenants  Eietveld  and 
Boom,  in  1848,  and  their  survey  has  been  improved  by  the  observations  of 
many  officers,  especially  by  the  late  talented  Melville  Van  Carnbee,  of  the 
Dutch  navy,  who  drew  up  an  excellent  hydrographical  description  of  Java, 
&c.,  which  has  been  mainly  followed  hereafter.* 

The  Strait  of  Sunda  is  a  singular  break  in  the  continuity  of  that  great 
chain  of  volcanic  mountains  which  runs  from  N.W.  to  S.E.  through  Sumatra, 
and  is  continued  eastward  through  Java.  This  depression  in  the  mountain 
chains  is  not  very  much  below  the  sea  level,  for  the  general  maximum  depth 
of  the  strait  is  not  more  than  from  30  to  50  fathoms.  But  this  slight  de- 
pression, geologically  speaking,  has  produced  a  great  contrast  in  the  islands 

*  The  fine  surveys  and  charts  of  great  portions  of  the  Indian  Archipelago,  which  have 
teen  executed  by  the  Dutch  oflELcers  attached  to  the  Indian  Possessions  of  that  nation,  have 
only  heen  known  and  justly  appreciated  in  this  country  within  a  few  years.  The  "  Com- 
missie  tot  Verbetering  der  Indische  Zeekarten  "  was  instituted  by  the  enlightened  Governor 
General  of  Dutch  India,  Van  der  Capellen,  in  1821,  and  since  that  period  the  commission 
has  been  sedulously  and  zealously  occupied  in  surveying  and  collecting  information  in  <all 
the  surrounding  seas.  Captain-Lieutenant  Baron  Peter  Melville  van  Carnbee  became  the 
secretary  to  the  Dutch  Commission,  in  1850,  and  among  numerous  other  works  he  was  the 
author  of  the  "  Zeemansgids  voor  de  Vaarwaters  om  Java,"  which  was  soon  translated  into 
the  French  and  English  languages,  the  latter  being  done  by  Dr.  Norton  Shaw,  Secretary  to 
the  Royal  Geographical  Society.  Besides  this,  he  drew  up  a  fine  series  of  charts  from  the 
many  scattered  surveys  and  observations  made  by  the  Dutch  officers  under  the  commission  ; 
these  charts  were  published  by  the  respected  house  of  Wed.  G.  H  Van  Keulen,  of  Am- 
sterdam, and  were  afterwards  copied  in  their  main  features  by  the  English  Admiralty,  as 
the  basis  for  all  subsequent  charts.  Young  MelviUe  van  Carnbee  died  in  1856,  in  his 
fortieth  year,  while  engaged  on  the  excellent  "  Algemeene  Atlas  Van  Nederland's  Oost 

To  the  works  above  quoted,  very  much  is  owing  in  the  subsequent  pages. — Editor. 

jg^.  , 


*2^.     K)     '26     24 




















on  either  side  of  it.  Each  has  a  distinct  class  of  animal  and  vegetable  life. 
Thus  the  elephant  and  tapir  of  Sumatra  have  no  existence  in  Java.  The  wild 
hog  and  rhinoceros  of  Sumatra  are  of  different  species  to  those  found  in  Java. 
The  orang-outang  is  found  in  Sumatra,  but  not  in  Java.  The  birds  are  also 
quite  different ;  many  important  families  belong  to  each,  without  having 
them  in  common.  These  curious  contrasts  are  also  found  to  exi&t  between 
the  islands  further  to  the  eastward.  These  remarkable  facts  in  the  distribu- 
tion of  life  on  the  earth  have  been  much  discussed  by  naturalists,  especially 
by  M.  Temminck  and  Mr.  A.  R.  Wallace. 

The  strait  derives  its  name  from  the  western  portion  of  Java,  which  is 
peopled  by  the  Sunda  nation,  who  speak  a  diff'erent  language,  and  are  less 
advanced  in  civilization  than  the  rest  of  the  Javanese. 

In  its  widest  sense,  the  Strait  of  Sunda  embraces  a  very  large  area.  Be- 
tween the  western  extremity  of  Java  and  the  south-western  end  of  Sumatra, 
the  distance  is  68  miles,  and  the  bearing  N.  W.  I  N.  and  S.E.  f  S.  ;  and  from 
this  line  to  another  at  its  N.E.  limits,  between  St.  Nicholas  Point  on  Java, 
to  the  opposite  side  on  Sumatra,  the  distance  is  74  miles.  The  narrowest 
part  of  the  strait  is  between  Fourth  Point  on  the  Java  side,  and  Hog  Point 
in  Sumatra,  1 3  miles  apart.  There  are  numerous  islands  in  it,  which  sepa- 
rate the  strait  into  several  channels,  of  which  that  along  the  Java  coast  is 
the  most  used;  the  lofty  and  conspicuous  island  Krakatoa  being  the  great 
land-mark  from  the  westward,  all  the  headlands  being  more  or  less  grand  in 
their  character. 

The  Dutch  nation  holds  the  sovereignty  of  the  shores  on  either  side,  and 
being  the  surveyors  of  the  strait,  have  the  right  to  give  the  names  and  ortho- 
graphy to  the  points  and  islands,  but  as  their  excellent  and  expressive  lan- 
guage is  not  so  generally  used,  it  will  be  preferred  to  give  these  common 
names  in  an  English  form  (adding  the  Dutch),  and  the  spelling  in  the 
ordinarily  recognized  form  for  pronunciation. 

THE     JAVA     COAST. 

The  south-eastern  side  of  the  Strait  of  Sunda  is  formed  by  that  portion  of 
Java  which  gives  its  name  to  it,  as  before  mentioned.  The  state  extends 
eastward  to  Cheribon,  and  includes  Batavia,  the  capital,  embracing  nearly 
one-third  of  Java.  It  is  a  mountainous  country,  but  containing  some  rich 
valleys,  and  is  said  to  bear  the  same  relation  to  Java  proper  that  Wales  does 
to  England,  or  the  highlands  to  the  lowlands  of  Scotland.  It  is  more  thinly 
populated,  and  the  people  less  advanced  than  in  the  rest  of  Java. 

The  volcanic  ranges  which  traverse  it,  in  continuation  of  that  extending 


throughout  the  length  of  Java,  give  it  a  peculiarly  bold  character.  Many 
of  the  peaks  visible  from  sea  attain  to  great  elevation.  Karang,  in  the  rear 
of  Anjir,  is  the  loftiest,  5,943  ft.  ;  and  a  few  miles  to  the  South  of  it  is 
Pulusari,  4,183  ft.  ;  several  others  reach  to  between  2,000  and  3,000  ft. 
The  peak  at  the  southward  of  Krakatoa  Island  is  2,623  ft.  ;  and  Bezee,  to 
the  North  of  it,  is  2,600  ft. 

The  coast  is  deeply  indented,  and  has  some  sheltering  bays,  but  Anjir 
Eoads  is  the  chief  stopping  place.  Here  is  a  Signal  Station,  at  which  an 
officer  will  reply  to  and  forward  answers  to  signals  to  Batavia,  &c.,  the  tele- 
graph system  being  perfect  in  the  Dutch  possessions.  Lighthouses  are  shown 
on  the  chief  points,  and  the  following  directions  in  connection  with  the  chart 
will  carry  a  ship  through  in  safety. 

Java  Head,  the  western  extremity  of  Java,  and  the  S.W.  point  of  the 
Strait  of  Sunda,  is  a  noble  promontory,  a  fitting  portal  to  that  great  entrance 
to  eastern  countries.  But  as  it  is  frequently  prudent  to  make  the  land  to  the 
eastward  of  the  strait  in  apjjroaching  it  from  the  Southern  Indian  Ocean, 
the  features  of  the  southern  coast  of  Java  for  a  short  distance  will  be  briefly 
described  first. 

Trower  Island,  or  Pulo  Tinj'il,  is  3^  or  4  miles  in  length,  and  its  East  end 
is  about  35  miles  East  of  the  meridian  of  Java  Head.  It  is  surrounded  by 
a  reef.  On  the  North  and  West  sides  of  it  there  are  from  13  to  19  fathoms 
water,  and  at  the  S.E.  and  South  sides,  at  some  distance,  no  bottom  at  50 
and  100  fathoms.  A  mile  to  the  northward  of  the  island  there  is  a  rock,  on 
which  the  native  proas  have  sometimes  struck.  Everywhere  else  round  the 
island  from  13  to  19  fathoms  will  be  found,  and  at  a  short  distance  to  the 
southward  more  than  100  fathoms. 

Klapper  Island,  or  Breakers  Island,  called  by  the  Malays  Ftdo  Deli,  8  miles 
distant  from  the  nearest  shore  of  Java,  13  miles  West  by  South  from  Trower 
Island,  and  about  18  miles  E.S.E.  from  Cape  Sangian  Sira,  the  S.W.  point 
of  Java.  It  is  148  ft  high,  covered  with  large  trees,  those  along  the  beach 
being  cocoa-nut,  and  is  surrounded  by  a  reef,  which  in  many  places  stretches 
off  a  mile  ;  but  on  the  N.W.  side  there  is  a  good  watering  place  in  the  S.E. 
monsoon,  as  boats  can  enter  a  little  river  through  a  channel  with  reefs  on 
both  sides,  and  ships  may  anchor  in  18  to  24  fathoms,  clay  bottom,  2  miles 
distant  from  the  island,  close  to  those  reefs  which  partially  dry  at  low  water. 
The  depths  are  from  30  to  40  fathoms  at  4  miles  off  the  South  shore  of  the 

Sodon  Point,  on  the  South  coast  of  Java,  is,  as  before  said,  8  miles  North 
of  Klapper  Island.  The  head  of  Welcome  Bay,  on  the  North  side  of  the 
island,  reaches  to  within  3  or  4  miles  of  this  southern  coast. 

Along  the  coast  to  the  northward  of  Klapper  and  Trower  Islands,  as  far 
as  Cape  Sangian  Sira,  there  are  rocks  which  in  some  places  lie  1^  and  2 
miles  off;  and  no  shelter  whatever  can  be  found  there  from  S.W.  and  S.E. 


gales.  A  shoal  lies  to  the  eastward  of  Sodon  Point,  about  H  mile  from  the 
shore.  It  bears  N.  ^  E.  from  the  East  point  of  Klapper  Island,  and  N.W. 
by  W.  f  W.  from  the  "West  point  of  Trowers  Island. 

When  making  Java  Head  in  hazy  weather,  the  appearance  of  the  land  to 
the  eastward  of  Cape  Sangian  Sira,  between  it  and  Sodon  Point,  bears  much 
resemblance  to  the  high  land  of  the  West  point  of  Java,  with  the  adjacent 
hills  on  Princes  Island ;  and  the  low  land  in  such  circumstances  not  being 
distinguishable  at  a  distance,  the  position  of  it  is  often  mistaken  for  the 
entrance  to  Princes  Channel. 

From  Java  Head  the  coast  runs  S.  by  E.  f  E.  about  4J  miles  to  Palem- 
bang  Point,  which  is  1  j  mile  northward  of  Cape  Sangian  Sira. 

CAPE  SANGIAN  SIRA,  the  most  southern  point  of  this  part  of  Java,  is 
in  lat.  6°  52'  S.,  long.  105°  14'  E.  It  is  the  S.  W.  point  of  an  irregular  mass 
of  mountains,  which  rise  abruptly  from  the  sea  to  a  height  of  1,050  and 
1,300  ft.  on  the  eastern  side,  and  to  618  and  1,400  ft.  on  the  western  side. 
From  this  cape,  and  1^  mile  to  the  southward,  several  rocks  project,  some 
of  which  are  above  water.  Captain  Newby,  in  passing  close  round  by 
Palembang  Point,  thought  he  saw  a  clear  but  narrow  channel  inside  these 
terrific  pinnacle-shaped  rocks,  which  might  be  used  by  keeping  the  point  on 
board,  but  it  should  not  be  tried.  The  soundings  are  very  deep  close  to  these 
rocks,  and  along  the  shore  as  far  as  Java  Head  there  is  no  bottom  with  100 
fathoms ;  but  as  the  breakers  which  line  the  whole  coast  seem  to  indicate 
that  there  are  rocks  under  water,  it  will  be  advisable  to  give  the  shore  a 
berth  of  at  least  2  miles  in  passing. 

From  Cape  Sangian  Sira  the  soundings  decrease  in  the  direction  of  Klap- 
per Island  to  40  and  20  fathoms  ;  while  farther  eastward,  between  this  island 
and  Trower  Island,  they  decrease  from  20  to  12  fathoms. 

Palembang  Point  is  the  N.W.  point  of  the  promontory  of  which  Sangian 
Sira  is  the  South  extreme.  They  are  a  mile  apart,  and  the  reef  of  pointed 
rocks  around  the  land  here  comes  close  up.  The  coast  to  the  northward,  for 
a  distance  of  4^  miles  to  Java  Head,  is  formed  by  the  steep-sided  mountains 
before  described,  which  are  dark,  covered  with  trees,  some  of  which  on  the 
summits  are  very  large.  No  signs  of  any  inhabitants.  Under  these  dark 
frowning  hills  is  a  belt  of  green  herbage,  and  then  a  sandy  beach  of  dazzling 
whiteness,  with  several  detached  steep  rocks,  some  of  which  would  look  like 
a  boat  under  sail. 

JAVA  HEAD.— The  West  point  of  Java  is  in  lat.  6°  46'  40"  S.,  long.  105° 
12'  22"  E.  Being  frequently  the  first  land  made  after  a  long  voyage  across 
the  Atlantic,  and  round  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  its  lofty  and  majestic 
character  strikes  those  who  approach  near  it  with  greater  force  than  even 
its  natural  features  would  command.  Captain  Newby  was  much  struck  with 
its  grandeur.  He  says  : — It  is  composed  of  a  confused  mass  of  cliffs  jum- 
bled together.     Two  hundred  yards  North  of  it  is  a  splendid  arch  or  chasm, 

I.    A.  i 


in  a  high  detached  rock,  through  which  the  surges  roll  their  white  foam. 
Through  the  arch  ou  the  main  you  behold  the  most  luxuriant  green  vegeta- 
tion, contrasting  with  the  white  surge,  the  sombre  cliffs,  and  the  variegated 
surface  of  the  ocean.  This  arch  resembled  the  cloisters  of  some  ancient 
cathedral.  Three  hundred  yards  to  the  North  of  this  first-named  arch  is 
another,  but  smaller  one,  of  similar  character.  Through  this  is  seen  the 
white  sand  and  shells  ou  the  beach,  and  between  the  water  is  of  a  light 
green  shade ;  outside,  between  us  and  the  arch,  the  water  being  deeper,  is 
of  a  darker  green.  Sailing  on,  the  projection,  or  point,  called  the  Capuchin, 
appeared,  and  soon  after  the  Friar,  for  which,  as  the  wind  was  rather  scant 
off,  I  hauled  up,  and  the  water  being  very  smooth,  I  passed  it  at  not  more 
than  one  cable's  length  distance,  at  b'^  15™.  I  could  not  see  any  hidden 
danger  or  rock  under  water  in  my  track.  When  we  had  passed  the  Friar, 
and  neared  Mew  Island,  he  appeared  conspicuous.  But  as  the  land  be- 
tween is  very  high,  and  very  thickly  wooded,  the  Friar  could  not  be  very 
well  made  out  as  seen  from  a  vessel  in  the  offing,  unless  she  was  well  to  the 
eastward.  From  W.S.W.  it  did  not  appear  to  me  to  be  an  island  at  all ; 
there  seemed  to  be  dry  rocks  between  it  and  the  hill  to  the  South,  which 
connected  the  Friar  with  the  higher  land  to  the  southward.  liound  the 
pitch  of  the  Friar  there  is  a  very  fine  spacious-looking  bay,  called  Mew  Bay. 
There  seems  to  be  a  low  black  detached  rocky  islet,  a  mile  or  so  beyond  the 
Friar  to  the  S.E.,  but  it  is  nearer  the  West  than  the  East  side  very  much. 
This  bay  seems  very  snug  and  convenient  for  anchoring  in  with  a  wind  any 
■way  from  the  E.N.E.  round  by  the  southward  to  S.W. 

FIRST  POINT  {Eerste  Punt),  and  the  Friars  Eoch.—The  coast  between 
Java  Head  and  First  Point  forms  a  bight,  and  is  fronted  by  high  rocks, 
stretching  out  a  considerable  distance  in  some  places.  First  Point,  or  Tan- 
jong  Along-Ajang,  the  South  point  of  entrance  into  Princes  Channel,  has  a 
conspicuous  rock  lying  abreast  of  it,  called  the  Friar  {Be  Mo7inih),  before 
alluded  to,  which  rises  abruptly  out  of  the  sea,  and  is  steep-to,  so  that  with 
a  steady  wind  a  ship  may  pass  close  to  it.  Close  to  the  northward  of  First 
Point  there  is  another  rock  above  water,  which  together  with  the  former  are 
properly  called  the  Friars. 

The  LIGHTHOUSE  on  First  Point  was  first  illuminated  in  June,  1877. 
It  is  a  stone  tower,  painted  white,  from  which  is  shown  a  revolving  light,  ex- 
hibiting a  flash  of  six  seconds'  duration  once  in  every  half  minute.  The 
light  is  elevated  305  ft.  above  the  sea,  and  should  be  visible  25  miles  off'  in 
clear  weather. 

PRINCES  ISLAND  {Prinsen  Eiland),  cr  Pulo  Panatan,  separated  from  the 
West  part  of  Java  by  Princes  Channel,  is  the  largest  island  in  Sunda  Strait. 
Its  greatest  length,  between  the  West  and  N.E.  points,  is  12  miles,  and  its 
breadth  about  8  miles.  It  is  of  an  irregular  form,  projecting  to  a  point  on 
the  N.E.  side,  and  having  a  large  bay  on  the  S.W.  side,  the  horns  of  which 


form  the  "West  and  South  points  of  the  island.  The  middle  and  eastern 
parts  of  the  island  are  hilly,  the  highest  peak,  1,450  ft.  above  the  level  of 
the  sea,  being  on  the  eastern  shore  ;  but  in  some  parts,  particularly  at  the 
West  end,  the  land  is  level  and  low  from  the  sea ;  all  parts  of  the  island 
abound  in  wood. 

A  ship  in  want  of  water  may  anchor  on  the  eastern  side  of  this  island  in 
35  fathoms,  soft  ground,  about  half  a  mile  from  the  shore,  with  the  peaked 
hill  bearing  about  N.  W.  by  N.  Here  is  a  small  sandy  bay,  and  at  its  eastern 
part  a  run  of  fresh  water,  where  the  casks  must  be  filled  about  100  yards 
up,  the  higher  the  better,  otherwise  the  water  will  be  brackish. 

It  is,  however,  only  in  the  N  W.  monsoon  that  water  can  be  procured 
here,  for  in  the  S.E.  monsoon  all  the  springs  are  dry  from  want  of  rain,  and 
there  is,  moreover,  no  safe  anchorage  in  this  monsoon  along  the  East  side  of 
the  island,  as  it  is  a  dead  lee  shore. 

Kasuaris  Bay,  on  the  S.W.  side  of  the  island,  is  4  miles  deep,  and  has 
at  its  entrance  soundings  varying  from  30  to  50  fathoms,  decreasing  inside 
to  a  convenient  depth  for  anchoring ;  but,  being  open  to  all  winds  between 
the  West  and  South  points,  it  is  not  frequented,  and  cannot  be  recom- 

The  Carpenters  {Timmerlieden)  are  a  large  group  of  rocks  about  a  mile  in 
extent,  projecting  from  the  South  point  of  Princes  Island.  Most  of  the 
rocks  are  above  water  ;  they  are  black  and  pointed,  looking  very  dangerous, 
and  the  sea  is  usually  breaking  over  them.  There  is  no  bottom  with  50 
fathoms  a  short  distance  from  these  rocks. 

The  West  point  of  Princes  Island  is  fronted  by  a  reef  to  the  distance  of 
about  Ih  mile,  several  rocks  of  which  are  seen  above  water. 

On  the  N.W.  and  North  sides  the  island  is  steep-to  close  to  the  fringe  of 
reef  which  edges  those  shores. 

A  fringe  of  reef  extends  from  the  N.E.  point  of  the  island,  and  along  the 
shore  on  each  side. 

A  similar  fringe  extends  about  a  third  of  a  mile  off  the  S.E.  point  of  the 
island  ;  nearly  2  miles  W.S.W.  of  which,  close  inshore,  and  near  a  conspi- 
cuous white  rock,  is  a  coral  reef,  upon  which  the  sea  is  always  breaking. 

PRINCES  CHANNEL,  between  the  Carpenters  Ptocks  ojBf  the  South  end 
of  Princes  Island,  and  the  Friars  Eocks  off  the  First  point  of  Java,  is  3 
niiles  broad  at  its  narrowest  part,  and  possesses  the  great  advantage  of 
affording  anchorage  to  vessels  when  becalmed,  which  the  Great  Channel 
does  not.  Light  baffling  winds  and  calms  are  very  common  about  the 
entrances  to  Sunda  Strait,  occurring  even  in  the  strength  of  the  S.E.  mon- 
soon, and  vessels,  when  not  able  to  anchor,  are  liable  to  be  set  back  by 
adverse  currents. 

The  depths  in  this  channel  are  much  greater  on  the  Princes  Island  shore 
thau  on  the  opposite   coast.      Close  to  the  Carpenters  there  is  no  bottom 


with  50  fathoms  ;  with  Peaked  Hill,  on  the  S.E.  part  of  the  island,  bearing 
from  N.  I  W.  to  W.  by  N.,  there  are  10  to  30  fathoms,  coarse  sand,  shells, 
and  coral,  little  more  than  a  cable's  length  oflF  shore ;  with  the  same  hill 
bearing  from  N.N.W.  to  S.W.  there  are  36  to  44  fathoms  about  a  mile  dis- 
tant from  the  shore.  Towards  Mew  Bay  the  depths  decrease  to  20  fathoms 
and  less. 

Directions. — In  the  S.E.  monsoon,  when  proceeding  either  way  through 
Princes  Channel  keep  closer  to  the  Java  coast  than  to  Princes  Island. 

In  the  N.W.  monsoon  it  often  happens  that  vessels  outward  bound  get 
very  quickly  to  the  westward  by  proceeding  through  Princes  Channel,  while 
those  using  the  Great  Channel  are  detained  by  heavy  squalls  and  adverse 
currents.  Indeed,  instances  have  occurred  in  which  ships  have  worked 
through  this  passage  in  a  remarkably  short  time  in  a  westerly  gale,  by 
carrying  a  heavy  press  of  sail,  and  tacking  between  the  squalls,  at  times 
when  it  was  impossible  for  any  ship  in  the  Great  Channel  to  beat  against  the 
current  and  heavy  sea. 

Proceeding  through  Princes  Channel  in  this  monsoon,  keep  near  Princes 
Island  and  the  Carpenters,  especially  when  working  out  against  westerly 
winds,  for  a  current  will  then  sometimes  be  found  setting  to  the  westward. 
It  is  moreover  very  important  to  keep  close  to  the  Carpenters  when  working 
out,  to  avoid  being  set  upon  the  rocks  near  Java  Head  and  Palembang  Point 
by  the  heavy  swell,  for,  being  once  outside  anchoring  ground,  and  in  a  calm, 
a  ship  would  have  much  trouble  to  clear  the  coast  of  Java.  The  S.E.  coast 
of  Princes  Island  must  not,  however,  be  approached  within  a  mile. 

GREAT  CHANNEL  lies  between  the  North  point  of  Princes  Island  and 
the  South  point  of  Krakatoa  Island,  which  are  23  miles  apart;  and  although 
too  deep  for  anchorage,  it  is  much  frequented,  being  the  widest  passage  into 
the  strait,  and  is  considered  to  be,  with  the  exception  of  the  doubtful 
Hoedeken  Rock,*  clear  of  danger.  If  the  strait  is  entered  by  this  channel, 
keep  Princes  Island  aboard,  and  when  farther  in  the  strait,  keep  on  the  Java 

MEW  ISLAND  (Meeuwen  Eiland),  or  Pulo  Kanti,  lying  about  2J  miles 
eastward  from  First  Point,  is  nearly  2  miles  in  extent  North  and  South,  and 
1  mile  East  and  West.  The  island  is  hilly,  and  abounds  with  wood. 
Between  it  and  First  Point,  close  inshore,  is  a  small  islet  or  rock  above 

*  Hoedeken  Sock  is  said  to  lie  about  5  miles  S.W.  f  S.  from  Krakatoa.  Captain  Drury, 
R.N.,  is  reported  to  have  examined  a  rock  S.S.W.  of  Krakatoa  some  years  ago,  and  found 
it  to  be  near  the  water's  edge.  The  Abdul  Hassim,  drawing  14  feet,  is  also  said  to  have 
struck  upon  a  rock,  from  which  the  peak  of  Krakatoa  bore  N.E.  \  N.,  distance  from  the 
nearest  part  of  the  island  6  miles.  There  is,  however,  reason  to  believe  that  no  rock 
e-xists  in  thi.s  locality,  for  Mr.  Richards,  commanding  EL.M.  surveying  vessel  Saracen,  care- 
fuUv  sounded  over  it  in  1854. 


water,  called  the  Mew  Stone.  The  shore  is  rocky  on  the  outside  of  Mew 
Island,  but  safe  to  approach.  The  soundings  decrease  gradually  to  8  or  9 

Between  Mew  Island  and  the  main  there  is  a  narrow  but  safe  channel, 
with  depths  from  10  to  5  fathoms,  sandy  bottom.  When  taking  this  pas- 
sage, keep  close  in  towards  Mew  Island,  as  a  shoal,  called  the  Watson  Bank, 
lies  near  the  Java  shore.  Sometimes  the  sea  breaks  upon  this  bank,  but 
between  it  and  Mew  Island  there  are  depths  of  3,  5,  and  10  fathoms,  clay 

To  the  eastward  of  Mew  Island,  on  the  Java  shore,  there  is  a  good  water- 
ing place  in  the  S.E.  monsoon  ;  the  water  is  excellent,  and  is  poured  by  a 
cataract  upon  the  beach.  Largeboats  may  approach  this  spot  at  high  water 
through  a  narrow  channel  in  the  reef,  and  fill  the  cask  by  a  hose.  At  low 
water  they  will  require  a  great  length  of  hose  to  reach  the  boats. 

A  little  to  the  northward  of  the  watering  place  lies  a  reef  of  coral,  about 
a  cable's  length  in  extent,  and  about  half  a  mile  from  the  Java  shore. 
Upon  its  shoalest  part  there  is  1  fathom  water,  and  all  round  from  5  to  6 
fathoms.  A  ship  standing  in  for  the  watering  place,  must  steer  between 
this  reef  and  the  island,  or  rather  nearer  towards  the  island,  and  anchor  in 
9  or  10  fathoms. 

In  the  S.E.  monsoon  there  is  also  a  good  anchorage  a  little  farther  out, 
with  the  North  point  of  Mew  Island  about  W.  ^  S.,  and  the  East  point 
S.  by  W.,  in  16  to  19  fathoms  water,  sandy  bottom. 

Plenty  of  wood  may  be  got  upon  Mew  Island  or  the  main  land.  Shore 
parties  should  be  on  the  guard  against  any  hidden  assaults  from  the  natives. 

At  Mew  Bay  it  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  about  6''. 

SECOND  POINT  {Tweede  Punt,  or  Tanjong  Gukulang,  consists  of  a  low 
foreland,  somewhat  broad  in  appearance,  the  western  extremity  of  which 
lies  about  N.E.  by  E.,  nearly  9  miles  distant  from  First  Point,  and  its 
northern  extremity— which  is  usually  known  as  Second  Point — about  3  miles 
farther  to  the  north-eastward.  It  may  be  approached  without  danger  to 
the  distance  of  a  mile  or  even  half  a  mile,  and  in  from  26  to  20  fathoms 
water,  the  reefs  projecting  a  little  way  off  shore. 

From  Mew  Island  towards  Second  Point  reefs  project  half  a  cable's  length 
from  the  shore,  having  very  near  them  5  to  6  fathoms  water,  which  increases 
speedily  to  10  and  20  fathoms  ;  but  with  due  care  and  attention  to  the  lead 
a  ship  may  approach  the  shore  in  order  to  anchor.     On  the  coast  there  is 
scarcely  any  population,  but  sometimes  proas  may  be  met  with  having  turtle 
fowls,  and  cocoa-nuts  for  sale. 

WELCOME  BAY  ^Welkomst  Baai).—^.'E..  by  E.,  distant  20J  miles  from 
Second  Point  is  Third  Point,  and  between  is  a  deep  bight,  named  Welcome 
Bay,  which  in  the  S.E.  monsoon  affords  good  shelter,  but  should  be  avoided 
in  the  S.W.  monsoon.     There  is,   however,   good  anchorage  in  the  S.AV. 


monsoon,  when  the  wind  is  not  too  northerly,  behind  Second  Point  in  9  or 
10  fathoms  water;  but  this  anchorage  should  be  approached  with  great 
caution,  as  the  soundings  decrease  very  suddenly  near  Second  Point,  and  a 
shoal  with  12  ft.  water  on  it  and  6  fathoms  close-to,  extends  half  a  mile  off 
shore  between  Second  Point  and  Tambing  Point. 

The  West  side  of  the  bay  takes  from  Second  Point  a  direction  about 
S.S.E.  i  E.  for  a  distance  of  11  miles,  but  about  the  middle  of  it  the  beach 
forms  a  small  bight,  with  4  fathoms  at  its  entrance,  but  only  1  fathom  further 
in.  The  whole  of  this  side  of  the  bay  is  skirted  by  reefs,  some  parts  of  which 
are  a  mile  distant  from  the  shore. 

Lieuts.  Rietveld  and  Boom,  D.E.N.,  surveyed  Welcome  Bay  in  1841,  and 
determined  the  positions  of  the  shoals  and  islands  given  below.  A  large 
portion  of  the  bay  inside  Panter  and  Rocky  Ridge  Reefs  has  not  been  ex- 
amined, but  it  is  supposed  to  be  dangerous. 

Two  small  islets,  named  Andellan  and  Little  Andellan,  lie  contiguous  to 
the  S.W.  shore  of  the  bay,  about  8  miles  from  Second  Point,  and  5  miles  from 
Rocky  Ridge.  Three  sand  banks,  each  surrounded  by  a  sunken  reef,  lie 
from  half  to  three-quarters  of  a  mile  off  these  islands,  in  a  N.N.E.,  East,  and 
S.E.  direction.  Between  these  banks  and  Andellan  are  from  4  to  6  fathoms, 
mud;  and  between  that  island  and  the  shore  from  three-quarters  to  If 
fathom.  Near  the  liead  of  the  bay,  to  the  eastward  of  a  small  islet  named 
Eongit,  is  a  fourth  bank. 

The  distance  across  from  the  southern  shore  of  Welcome  Bay  to  the  South 
Coast  of  Java  is  not  more  than  3  miles,  and  the  sound  of  the  surf  on  the 
South  coast  may  be  distinctly  heard  across  the  isthmus. 

The  eastern  shore  of  the  bay  is  22  miles  in  length,  from  the  head  of  the 
bay  to  Third  Point,  in  a  direction  about  N.N.E.,  and  the  general  depths  off 
it  are  15  to  24  fathoms  at  some  little  distance  from  the  coast.  Several  islets 
and  dano-ers  lie  off  this  shore.  Baddu  (Baddoe)  is  a  small  islet,  surrounded 
by  a  reef,  lying  about  5  miles  from  the  head  of  the  bay,  and  about  U  mile 
N.W.  of  a  point  named  Tanhjngi  Parrie.  Between  this  point  and  the  islet 
are  many  coral  rocks,  for  the  most  part  dry  at  low  water,  and  with  depths  of 
7  to  9  fathoms  between  them. 

A  large  coral  rock  above  water,  usually  covered  with  a  heavy  surf,  and 
appearing  of  a  bright  white  colour,  lies  W.  i^  N.,  about  \^  mile  from  Baddu  ; 
and  near  it  appear  to  be  several  reefs.  Between  the  rock  and  the  island  are 
6  to  12  fathoms  water. 

Five  or  6  miles  north-eastward  of  Baddu  is  Plaggan  Point,  or  False  Rook, 
with  some  islands  off  it,  the  southernmost  of  which  is  called  Mangir,  and  the 
others  War,  Umang  (Oemang),  and  Sumiir  (Soemoer).  These  islands,  as  well 
as  Plaggan  Point,  are  surrounded  by  reefs,  a  cable  in  breadth,  but  at  a  mile 
outside  there  are  15  fathoms,  over  mud  bottom. 

Rocky  Ridge  is  an  extensive  reef  mostly  above  water,  and  always  covered 


by  breakers,  by  whicb  it  may  be  distinguished  at  a  great  distance.  It  lies 
about  halfvray  between  the  western  shore  of  the  bay  and  the  Panter  Reefs  ; 
and  from  it  Second  Point  bears  N.W.  by  W.  |  W.,  the  South  puint  of 
Baddu  S.E.  by  E.  J  E.,  and  the  East  point  of  Andellan  S.  ^  E.  That  part 
of  it  which  remains  dry  at  low  water  is  about  100  yards  in  length,  and  the 
breadth  of  the  surrounding  reef  the  same.  The  soundings  round  it  are  10 
and  12  iathoms,  increasing  at  some  distance  to  18  and  19  fathoms. 

Panter  Reefs  are  the  outermost  of  the  known  dangers  which  encumber 
"Welcome  Bay,  and  they  lie  nearly  midway  between  Second  Point  and  Plag- 
gan  Point.  Erom  their  North  extremity,  in  11  fathoms,  Second  Point  bears 
W.  f  N.,  Third  Point  N  E.  J  N.  16  miles,  the  East  point  of  Andellan  Island 
S.  by  W.  i  W.,  and  the  S.W.  point  of  Baddu  Island  S.E.  ^  S.  They  con- 
sist of  four  different  patches,  lying  in  a  N.N.E.  and  S.S.W.  direction  from 
each  other,  the  whole  being  from  half  to  three-quarters  of  a  mile  in  extent. 
The  shoalest  patch  has  IJ  fathom  water,  rocky  bottom,  but  between  and  close 
round  them  are  9  and  10  fathoms,  mud. 

East  and  West  of  these  reefs  are  17  and  18  fathoms,  and  to  the  north- 
ward 20  and  25  fathoms. 

Welcome  Bay  appears  to  be  fuU  oi  dangers  not  surveyed,  and  should  be 
entered  with  extreme  caution. 

THIRD  POINT  {Berde  Point),  or  Tanjong  Lussong,  like  Second  Point,  is 
very  low,  although  sharper,  and  fronted  by  rocks  to  the  distance  of  2  cables, 
from  which  the  depths  increase  to  10  and  18  fathoms.  The  peak  of  Krakatoa 
Island  bears  N.W.  by  N.  from  it,  and  is  distant  about  21  miles. 

PEPPER  BAY  {Pej)er  Baai).—'N.'E.  by  E.  ^  E.  11  miles  from  Third  Point 
is  PapoUe  Island,  and  between  is  Pepper  Bay,  which  is  formed  by  the  coast 
trending  away  from  Third  Point  to  the  southward  for  a  distance  of  nearly  5 
miles.  Its  shores  are  fronted  by  reefs,  which  near  the  points  project  about 
half  a  mile,  increasing  their  distance  from  the  shore  towards  the  depth  of 
the  bay,  where  they  extend  lA  mile.  The  bay  is  also  encumbered  with 
two  dangerous  reefs  known  as  the  Coral  Bank  and  Paniang  Reef.  The 
soundings  in  the  bay  generally  decrease  uniformly  from  14  to  10,  5,  and  4 
fathoms ;  the  latter  depth  will  be  found  2  miles  off  shore.  In  the  eastern 
monsoon  there  is  safe  anchorage  N.E.  of  Lawvengan  Isle,  in  6  or  8  fathoms, 
soft  bottom. 

Coral  Bank. — Nearly  2  miles  East  from  Third  Point  is  a  coral  bank,  the 
greater  part  of  which  is  above  water,  and  readily  distinguished  by  its  bright 
white  colour.  The  direction  of  this  bank  is  S.E.  by  E.  and  N.W.  by  W., 
about  3  cables  in  length,  and  from  it  Third  Point  bears  W.  i  S.,  the  N.E. 
point  of  Lawvengan  S.E.  J  E.,  and  the  West  point  of  Papolle  N.E.  by  E. 
Between  this  bank  and  Third  Point  there  is  a  channel  of  4  to  9  fathoms 
■water,  and  the  depths  increase  quickly  from  7  to  15  fathoms  at  the  distance 
of  a  mile. 


Lawvengan  Islet,  lying  in  the  depth  of  Pepper  Bay,  E.  byS.  J  S.,  distant 
3J  miles  from  Third  Point,  is  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  long,  a  aN.W. 
^  W.  and  S.E.  h  E.  direction,  a  quarter  of  a  mile  broad,  and  is  surrounded 
by  a  reef,  which  projects  farthest  at  the  North  side,  where  it  reaches  the  dis- 
tance of  1 J  cable's  length. 

Three-quarters  of  a  mile  to  the  north-westward  and  to  the  westward  of 
Lawvengan  Islet  are  two  reefs,  partly  dry  at  low  water,  and  usually  breaking. 
To  the  southward,  and  mid-channel  between  Lawvengan  Isle  and  the  shore, 
is  a  reef  with  only  3  ft.  water  upon  it,  between  which  and  the  island  there  is 
a  narrow  channel  with  3  and  4  fathoms  ;  but  between  it  and  the  shore  are 
several  small  coral  reefs  that  dry  at  low  water. 

Paniang  Reef  is  a  ledge  of  rocks,  the  N.W.  point  of  which  bears  W.  by 
S.  I  S.  IJ  mile  from  the  N.W.  point  of  Papolle  Island.  It  is  a  mile  long, 
in  a  N.N.W.  and  opposite  direction,  and  half  a  mile  in  breadth,  and  the 
shoalest  water  upon  it  is  3  ft.,  and  on  some  parts  from  1  to  3  fathoms  are 
found.  This  ledge  is  very  dangerous,  as  the  sea  does  not  often  break  upon 
it,  and  it  cannot  be  approached  by  the  lead,  the  depths  very  near  it  being  6 
and  7  fathoms ;  but  by  keeping  a  good  lookout  it  may  be  distinguished  by 
the  light  colour  of  the  water,  and  its  brown  patches. 

Between  Paniang  Reef  and  Papolle  Island,  the  soundings  are  7  to  4  fa- 
thoms, mud  bottom  ;  and  on  the  East  and  S.E.  sides  of  the  reef  5  to  3  fa- 
thoms, towards  the  shore. 

Papolle  Island,  small,  round,  and  about  half  a  mile  in  diameter,  lies 
within  a  mile  of  the  shore,  with  which  it  is  connected  by  a  reef;  there  is, 
however,  a  channel  of  IJ  fathom  through  this  reef,  fit  for  the  navigation  of 

Tyringin  or  Tjeringie  Reef,  lying  5  miles  North  of  Papolle  Islet,  and 
two-thirds  of  a  mile  off  the  shore  near  Tjeringie,  is  of  coral,  partly  above 
water,  and  generally  breaks.  It  is  half  a  mile  in  extent  N.N.E.  and  S.S.W., 
and  very  steep,  having  close  outside  of  it  6  fathoms  water,  increasing  to  9, 
12,  and  15  fathoms  at  2  miles  distance  from  the  shore. 

Between  this  reef  and  a  small  rock  near  the  shore  there  is  a  channel  of  3 
fathoms,  often  used  by  large  proas. 

Anchorage. — Supplies  may  be  obtained  at  Tjeringie,  and  a  convenient  an- 
chorage will  be  found  to  the  northward  of  Tjeringie  Eeef,  at  1^  mile  off 
shore,  with  Papolle  bearing  S.  by  E.,  and  the  flagstaff  at  Tjeringie  E.  by  S. 
or  E.S.E.,  in  7  fathoms,  clay  bottom. 

The  COAST  from  Tjeringie  runs  N.  by  E.  and  N.N.E.,  and  may  be  ap- 
proached, with  due  attention  to  the  lead,  to  2  miles  distance,  in  18  fathoms, 
without  danger  of  striking  upon  the  Catharine  Eeef.  The  general  appear- 
ance of  the  coast  is  low,  though  occasionally  interrupted  by  hills  and  con- 
Bpicuous  rocky  points. 

Catharine  Bank,  lying  about  4  miles  to  the  southward  of  Fourth  Point, 


and  half  a  mile  off  shore,  is  a  quarter  of  a  cable  in  extent,  N.  by  E.  and 
S.  by  W.,  with  some  rocky  points  even  with  the  water's  edge,  and  in  other 
places  only  half  a  fathom  water  ;  with  a  little  breeze  the  sea  breaks  upon  it. 
From  its  outer  edge  Fourth  Point  bears  N.N.E.  ^  E.,  Krakatoa  Peak  West 
a  little  southerly,  and  the  West  point  of  Thwart-the-way  N.  2  W. 

Outside  this  reef  are  4  fathoms  water,  increasing  to  10,  14,  and  18  fa- 
thoms, the  latter  depth  being  within  a  mile  of  it;  the  channel  between  it 
and  the  shore  has  3f  and  4  fathoms,  and  is  used  by  proas. 

Directions. — With  a  steady  and  commanding  breeze  a  ship  may  steer 
N.N.E.  from  Third  Point  for  Thwart-the-way,  which  is  distant  30  miles ;  or 
a  N.N.E.  ^  E.  course  for  26  miles,  which  will  place  her  2  or  3  miles  off 
Fourth  Point,  when  she  may  either  proceed  on  her  voyage  or  haul  in  for 
Anjer  Road.  Very  often,  however,  the  winds  become  light  and  variable 
there,  and  she  may  be  compelled  to  anchor,  in  which  case  these  courses 
would  lead  too  far  from  the  land.  For  these  reasons  it  is  better  to  keep  on 
the  Java  shore,  avoiding,  however,  the  dangers  in  Pepper  Bay,  which 
should  not  be  approached  under  a  depth  of  14  fathoms. 

When  the  current  is  running  to  the  westward  in  the  middle  of  Sunda 
Strait,  an  eddy  will  be  experienced  near  the  land,  besides  which,  a  vessel 
may  be  anchored  anywhere  along  the  shore,  except  near  Fourth  Point,  where 
the  bottom  begins  to  get  foul  and  rocky.  When  beating  up,  therefore,  with 
a  contrary  wind,  it  is  advisable  not  to  keep  too  far  out  in  the  offing,  in  order 
to  make  the  eddy  available,  and  not  to  lose  favourable  anchoring  ground, 
and  perhaps  be  compelled  to  anchor  in  deep  water. 

Along  the  coast  to  the  northward  of  Tjeringie  there  are  numerous  villages 
(campongs),  the  inhabitants  of  which  frequently  come  on  board  ship  with 
fruit,  fowls,  eggs,  &c.,  and  often  with  turtle. 

FOURTH  POINT  (  Vierde  Pmit),  or  Tanjong  Tyhoravg,  bearing  N.N.E.  f  E., 
distant  nearly  27  miles  from  Third  Point,  is  low,  but  easily  discerned  from  its 
numerous  cocoa-nut  trees.  From  it  the  nearest  point  of  Thwart-the-way 
bears  N.N.W.  b\  miles,  and  Krakatoa  Peak  W.  by  S.  nearly  27  miles. 

LIGHT. — In  1865  a  stone  lighthouse  was  erected  on  Fourth  Point,  near 
to  the  old  tower.  It  is  coloured  white,  35  feet  high,  and  exhibits,  at  151 
feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea,  a.  fixed  white  light  of  the  second  order,  visible 
in  clear  weather  at  20  miles  off.  A  second  light,  visible  8  miles  off,  is  shown 
in  the  direction  of  the  telegraph  cable,  and  vessels  are  warned  not  to  anchor 
with  both  the  lights  in  sight,  or  in  the  day  time  with  the  Lighthouse  bearing 
between  S.E.  i  S.  and  E.  by  S.  f  S. 

A  signal  station  is  attached  to  the  lighthouse,  from  which  signals  by  the 
Commercial  Code  will  be  answered  or  transmitted. 

Caution  should  be  observed  in  approaching  or  rounding  Fourth  Point,  for 
a  reef  projects  from  it  more  than  half  a  mile,  with  soundings  of  20  fathoms 

I.  A.  Y 


close-to.  Outside,  or  to  the  northward,  the  depths  increase  quickly  to  25 
fathoms,  and  at  2  or  3  miles  off  the  point  to  30  fathoms.  The  point  should 
not,  therefore,  be  approached  any  nearer  than  H  niile  when  rounding  it. 
The  telegraph  cable  between  Fourth  Point  and  Anjer  is  marked  by  three 
white  huoijs. 

ANJER.— At  2  miles  E.N.E.  from  Fourth  Point  is  the  flagstaff  at  Anjer, 
in  lat.  6°  3'  10"  S.,  long.  105°  54'  50"  E.  The  town  is  not  easily  perceived  in 
coming  from  the  westward,  being  situated  in  a  bay  where  the  houses  are 
scattered  amongst  the  cocoa-nut  trees,  and  nearly  obscured  by  them,  and  by 
a  spur  of  a  chain  of  hills  inland.  The  easternmost  of  these  is  a  sharp  peaked 
hill  called  Anjer  Peak,  directly  over  the  town,  and  is  on  with  it  bearing 

A  red  light  is  shown  on  the  extremity  of  the  western  pier  of  the  boat  creek 
at  Anjer  Point.     It  is  elevated  23  ft.,  and  visible  4  miles  off. 

The  Road  or  anchorage  is  N.  by  W.  from  the  fort  in  from  12  to  19  fathoms 
water,  soft  ground.  From  a  position  in  16  fathoms,  three-quarters  of  a  mile 
off  sh'^re,  the  flagstaff  of  the  fort  bears  S.S.E.,  Fourth  Point  S.W.  \  S.,  the 
Cap  N.N.E.  i  E.,  and  the  Button  N.  ^  E.  ;  and  from  thence  the  soundings 
decrease  uniformly  to  9  and  8  fathoms  at  about  a  cable's  length  from  the 
reef  which  fringes  the  shore,  This  is  but  an  indifferent  roadstead  in  the 
N.W.  monsoon,  and  landing  is  dangerous  on  account  of  the  high  surf.  At 
this  season  the  anchorage  near  North  Island,  on  the  Sumatra  shore  might 
be  found  more  convenient. 

In  the  S.E.  monsoon,  ships,  both  outward  and  homeward  bound,  generally 
call  here  for  water  and  refreshments,  unless  they  are  content  to  purchase  the 
latter  from  some  of  the  numerous  native  boats  usually  to  be  met  with  on  the 
look  out  for  vessels  passing  through  the  strait.  Buffaloes,  poultry,  vegetables, 
and  frequently  hogs,  sheep,  and  turtle  are  to  be  procured  here :  water  may 
be  had  by  applying  to  the  shore  boats. 

There  is  a  signal  station  at  Anjer  for  communicating  with  passing  vessels. 
A  telegraph  cable  crosses  the  strait  from  Anjer  round  the  West  end  of  Thwart- 
the-way,  close  by  Hog  Point,  and  up  the  eastern  coast  of  Lampong  Bay,  to 
the  coaling  station  near  Telok  Betong.  Vessels  should  avoid  anchoring  in 
its  vicinity. 

Light. — Two  lights,  each  elevated  35  ft.,  are  exhibited  on  the  piers  form- 
ing the  boat  creek  at  Anjer  Point. 

Caution. — Ships  should  approach  the  anchorage  of  Anjer  Road  with  great 
caution,  especially  at  night,  paying  particular  attention  to  the  lead.  They 
should  not  attempt  to  bring  up  in  less  than  15  or  13  fathoms,  or  they  will 
probably  get  too  near  the  reef  fronting  the  shore,  very  close  to  which  are  8 
and  7  fathoms  water. 

"In  weighing  from  Anjer  Road  with  a  westerly  wind  and  flood  tide,  a 
vessel  should  cast  as  quickly  as  possible  with  her  head  off  shore,  and  shoot 


well  into  the  strait,  where  she  will  have  room  and  time  to  pick  her  anchor 
up  ;  it  being  dangerous  to  keep  a  ship  drifting  in  the  road  while  heaving  it 
close  up,  in  consequence  of  a  steep  rocky  point  to  leeward,  called  Lenning. 
A  large  ship  was  recently  totally  lost  upon  it,  having  drifted  on  while  get- 
ting her  anchor  to  the  bows. 

"  Ships  have  frequently  found  themselves  in  dangerous  proximity  to  this 
reef  from  anchoring  in  too  small  a  depth  of  water,  and  with  no  room  to  veer 
in  the  event  of  sudden  and  violent  squalls,  which,  as  in  most  tropical  coun- 
tries, are  very  common  in  this  strait." — Capt.  J.  B.  Caldheck. 

THWART-THE-WAY  {Dwars  in  den  weg),  or  Pulo  Renjang,  lying  in  the 
middle  of  the  narrowest  part  of  Sunda  Strait,  is  450  ft.  high,  and  easily 
recognized  by  its  irregular  shape.  It  is  2^  miles  long  N.N.W.  and  S.S.E., 
and  very  steep  all  around,  except  at  its  southern  extremity,  where  a  reef 
projects  2  or  3  cables'  lengths,  on  which  a  rock  above  water  is  visible. 
Capt.  J.  B.  Caldbeck  states  that  the  reef  projects  a  greater  distance  out  than 
is  generally  supposed  from  the  southern  end  of  Thwart-the-way ;  and  that 
at  low  water  the  sea  breaks  more  than  a  mile  from  the  island.  The 
highest  part  of  the  island  bears  N.  by  W.  f  W.,  6^  miles  from  Fourth  Point, 
S.W.  by  W.  f  W.  from  St.  Nicholas  Point,  and  N.E.  by  E.  J  E.  from 

The  West  side  of  the  island  forms  a  small  bay,  in  which  there  is  temporary 
anchorage  in  16  or  17  fathoms  pretty  close  to  the  reef,  with  the  N.W.  point 
bearing  North  to  N.N.W.,  and  the  South  point  from  E.S.E.  to  S.E.  by  E. 
A  5 -fathom  patch  lies  about  a  mile  oflf  this  part  of  the  island,  with  irregular 
depths,  10  to  26  fathoms,  around  it. 

CHANNELS. — The  channel  between  Thwart-the-way  and  Java  is  the  most 
convenient  for  sailing  vessels,  owing  to  the  depths  of  water  being  but  from 
20  to  30  fathoms,  whereas  the  channel  between  Thwart-the-way  and  Sumatra 
has  40  to  50  fathoms.  The  latter  channel,  described  hereafter,  is  moreover 
encumbered  with  the  Stroom  Rocks,  in  dangerous  proximity  to  which  ships 
are  liable  to  be  set  by  rapid  currents,  and  unable,  from  the  great  depth  of 
water,  to  bring  up  by  anchoring.*  The  narrowest  part  of  the  channel  be- 
tween the  rocks  oflF  the  South  point  of  Thwart-the-way  and   the  reef  off 

*  "  "With  regard  to  the  respective  merits  of  these  channels,  being  bound  either  way 
through  the  strait,  the  preference  may  he  decidedly  given  to  that  between  Anjer  and 
Thwart-the-way,  in  consequence  of  the  great  rapidity  and  uncertaint}'  of  the  tides  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  the  Stroom  Rocks,  rendering  their  proximity  very  dangerous,  and  unless 
in  a  strong  breeze  a  ship  is  almost  unmanageable.  The  depth  of  water  on  the  Stroom  side 
is  almost  double  that  on  the  Anjer  shore,  except  in  a  S.W.  line  from  the  Button  to  Thwart- 
the-way.  Instances  have  lately  been  known  of  ships  which,  being  drifted  dangerously 
close  to  the  Stroom  Rocks,  let  go  their  anchors  and  run  their  cables  out  to  the  clinch  ;  they 
were  of  course  still  whirled  on  until  by  a  lucky  chance  they  barely  went  past  the  rocks  and 
no  more."— Capt.  J.  B.  Caldbeck.     Naul.  Mag.,  1843. 


Foint  is  a  little  more  than  4  miles  ;  and  the  distance  is  the  same  between  the 
S.E.  end  of  Thwart-the-way  and  the  Cap. 

The  Cap  {Bralands  hoeclje),  or  Pulo  Vlar,  is  a  small  rourd-shaped  island, 
only  about  a  cable's  length  in  diameter,  lying  N.  by  E.  3  miles  from  Anjer, 
and  about  E.S.E.  4  miles  from  the  S.E.  end  of  Thwart-the-way. 

A  shoal  is  said  to  lie  between  the  Cap  and  the  main  land  of  Java,  from 
which  Fourth  Point  bears  S.W.,  and  the  Cap  N.W.  by  W.  ^  W. 

BROUWERS  SAND  is  a  dangerous  bank,  lying  between  the  Cap  and 
Merak  Island,  nearly  2  miles  off  the  Java  shore.  It  is  composed  of  very 
hard  sand,  and  extends  nearly  3  miles  along  the  coast  in  a  N.E.  f  N.  and 
opposite  direction,  its  breadth  being  only  2  cables.  There  are  three  shoal 
patches  on  the  bank,  the  least  water  being  IJ  fathom  at  low  tides,  and  the 
general  depths  3J  or  4  fathoms.  Its  southern  limit  is  2J  miles  N.E.  from 
the  Cap  ;  and  its  northern  end  forms  with  Merak  Island  a  channel  2  cables 
wide,  with  depths  of  18  to  10  fathoms  water. 

Between  this  bank  and  the  shore  there  is  a  channel  a  mile  wide,  with  6  to 
10  fathoms  water,  which  increases  in  the  direction  of  the  Cap  to  15  and  20 
fathoms.  But  in  this  channel  a  rock  called  Kroenjo,  which  partly  dries  at 
low  water,  lies  at  1^  or  2  cables  off  shore,  with  the  Cap  bearing  S.W.  by 
W.  i  W.,  the  Button  N.W.  i  N.,  and  the  West  point  of  Merak  Island 
N-  I  W.  To  avoid  it,  when  standing  in  shore,  the  Cap  should  be  kept  inside 
of  Fourth  Point,  for  the  Cap  in  line  with  Fourth  Point  leads  just  outside  the 
edge  of  the  bank. 

GREAT  MERAK  ISLAND,  or  Pulo  MeraTc  Besar,  lying  N.E.  f  N.  5 J  miles 
from  the  Cap,  is  of  considerable  height,  nearly  round,  and  about  half  a  mile 
in  diameter.  The  island  is  bordered  by  a  reef,  which  on  the  N.W.  side  pro- 
jects nearly  a  third  of  a  mile.- 

Little  Merak,  or  Pulo  Merak  Ketchil,  lies  near  the  shore,  abreast  the  North 
end  of  Brouwers  Sand,  about  half  a  mile  to  the  south-eastward  of  Great 
Merak.  It  is  connected  to  the  main  by  a  reef  of  rocks,  which  is  just  under 
water,  and  consequently  cannot  be  passed  by  laden  boats. 

MERAK  HARBOUR  is  between  Great  and  Little  Merak  Islands  and  the 
main  coast  of  Java.  It  is  nearly  half  a  mile  in  extent,  but  in  mid-channel 
between  the  islands  there  is  a  rocky  bank  called  Tarremhoe,  which  partly  dries 
at  low  water.  The  harbour  may  be  entered  by  the  channel  on  either  side  of 
this  bank,  as  they  carry  from  5  to  10  fathoms  water.  The  channel  into  the 
harbour  North  of  Great  Merak  is  the  best,  as  it  is  more  than  a  cable  in 
breadth,  and  carries  6  to  14  fathoms.  Entering  by  the  southern  channels, 
keep  nearer  to  the  Merak  Islands  than  to  the  Tarremhoe  Bank  ;  entering  by 
the  northern  channel,  keep  Great  Island  shore  aboard. 

The  anchorage  with  S.W.  winds  is  East  from  the  highest  part  of  Great 
Merak,  and  North  of  Tarremhoe  Bank,  in  6  or  11  fathoms  water,  soft  ground. 
The  Juva  shore  is  steep-to.     Sometimes  a  heavy  swell  sets  into  the  harbour, 

THE  COAST  OF  SUM  ATE  A.  165 

for  which  reason  it  is  not  to  be  considered  safe  for  ships  in  the  N.W.  mon- 
soon, but  small  vessels  will  always  find  good  shelter  under  Great  Merak. 

The  COAST  from  Merak  Island  takes  a  north-easterly  direction  for  about 
4^  miles  to  St.  Nicholas  Point.  About  midway  between  is  a  small  islet, 
named  Tempoza,  lying  close  in  shore.  A  reef  fronts  this  coast,  extending 
a  third  of  a  mile  from  it,  and  passing  just  outside  Tempoza.  Close  to  this 
reef  are  depths  of  10  and  15  fathoms.  The  shore  should  not  be  approached 
nearer  than  half  a  mile,  or  in  less  than  20  or  18  fathoms  water.  The  sound- 
ings increase  regularly  from  the  shore  to  30  fathoms  ;  at  a  distance  of  4  miles 
there  are  40  to  50  fathoms. 

The  BUTTON  {Toppers  hoedje)  is  a  high  and  steep  little  island  covered  with 
trees,  and  about  the  size  of  the  Cap,  lying  well  out  in  the  fairway  of  Sunda 
Strait,  5  miles  to  the  north-eastward  of  Thwart-the-way.  It  has  34  and  30 
fathoms  close-to,  and  bears  from  St.  Nicholas  Point  AY.  by  S.,  distant  nearly 
7  miles,  and  from  Hog  Point  E.  |  N.,  \2^  miles. 

The  Anna  anchored,  to  wait  a  tide  during  the  night,  in  28  fathoms,  E.  3°  S. 
from  the  Button  ;  and  on  another  occasion  she  anchored  for  the  night  in  37 
fathoms  of  water,  with  the  Button  bearing  S.W.  J  S.  :  here,  however,  a 
hard  bottom  was  found. 

ST.  NICHOLAS  POINT,  inlat.  5°  52'  33"  S.,  long.  106°  2'  10"  E.,  is  the 
extreme  end  of  the  high  bold  promontory  forming  the  northern  point  of  Java. 
Dangers  extend  about  a  third  of  a  mile  oflF  the  point,  and  close  to  them  are 
11  fathoms,  and  32  to  35  fathoms  at  a  distance  of  from  1  to  2  miles. 

Directions. — When  proceeding  to  the  northward  from,  or  being  abreast  of, 
Anjer  Poad,  steer  to  pass  outside  the  Cap  and  inside  the  Button,  at  any  con- 
venient distance  from  either,  taking  care  not  to  borrow  too  close  to  Brouwers 
Sand  in  passing.  When  clear  of  that  shoal  and  the  Button,  steer  about 
N.  by  E.  for  the  Two  Brothers,  if  bound  to  Banka  Strait ;  or  to  pass  St. 
Nicholas  Point  at  about  2  miles  if  bound  to  Bantam  or  Batavia. 

THE      COAST      OF      SUMATRA. 

The  western  coast  of  Sumatra,  terminating  at  the  N.W.  point  of  the  Strait 
of  Sunda,  is  described  in  our  "  Directory  for  the  Indian  Ocean."  The  deeply 
indented  southern  (.oast  of  this  great  island  forms  the  northern  side  of  the 

It  is  occupied  by  the  Lampiings,  or  Lampongs,  a  distinct  people  from  the 
other  nations  of  Sumatra,  resembling  in  this  respect  the  people  of  Java  on 
the  other  side  of  the  strait,  and  is,  like  them,  subject  to  the  Dutch  Govern- 
ment. The  geologic  formation  is  of  the  same  character  as  that  of  the  Sunda 
country  of  Java,  a  mass  of  volcanic  mountains,  some  of  which  rise  to  great 


elevation,  as  those  of  Lampong  and  Tanjamus,  7,500  ft.  The  people  are, 
compared  with  the  rest  of  the  Sumatrans,  rude  and  unpolished,  though 
having  a  written  language.  Their  country  is  far  from  fertile,  and  much  of 
it  incapable  of  being  cultivated.  The  chief  product  for  exportation  is  black 
pepper,  next  to  this  are  rattans  and  dammer  or  resiri.  It  was  formerly  the 
dominions  of  the  King  of  Bantam.  It  has  been  surveyed  by  order  of  Admiral 
E.  Lucas,  by  Lieutenants  J.  A.  G.  Eietveld  and  E.  H.  Boom,  1841.  The 
correct  Dutch  orthography  can  scarcely  be  followed,  as  many  of  the  names 
have  for  so  many  years  been  recognized  as  they  will  be  given,  that  it  has 
been  thought  advisable  to  retain  them. 

The  South  coast  of  Sumatra,  between  Flat  Point  on  the  "West  and  Hog 
Point  on  the  East,  a  distance  of  70  miles,  is  indented  by  two  large  bays, 
named  Keyser  and  Lampong,  the  shores  of  which  are  fronted  by  numerous 
islands  and  rocks. 

FLAT  POINT  ( riaklce  Hoek),  in  lat.  5°  59'  S.,  long.  104°  32'  37"  E.,  is  the 
southern  extremity  of  Sumatra,  and  the  north-western  boundary  of  Sunda 
Strait.  It  is  properly  the  western  extreme  of  the  low  projecting  tongue  of 
land  which  separates  Keyser  Bay  from  Blimbing  Bay,  and  the  East  point  of 
which  is  usually,  though  improperly,  called  Chinna  Point,  its  correct  name 
being  Rada,  another  point  3  miles  more  to  the  westward  being  Chinna  Point. 
Mada  Point  bears  East  a  little  northerly,  and  is  distant  9  miles  from  Flat 
Point.  A  small  reef  fringes  the  shore  about  Flat  Point,  but  at  a  mile  off 
shore  are  7  to  10  fathoms. 

At  2|  or  3  miles  S.W.  of  Flat  Point  there  is  a  narrow  bank,  with  8,  13, 
and  15  fathoms  water  on  it,  about  5  miles  in  length,  W.N.W.  and  E.S.E., 
and  about  a  mile  in  breadth.,  partly  consisting  of  reddish  sand.  The 
soundings  outside  this  bank  increase  rapidly  to  30,  40,  and  50  fathoms, 
and  inside  of  it  there  is  a  channel,  about  1^  mile  wide,  with  14  and  15 

LITTLE  FORTUNE  ISLAND  {Klein  Fortuin  Eiland),  or  Pulo  Batu  Ketchil, 
lies  in  front  of  Blimbing  Bay,  just  outside  Sundd  Strait,  N.W.  by  W.  9 
miles  from  Flat  Point,  and  about  5  miles  from  the  main ;  it  is  low, 
woody,  about  a  mile  in  diameter,  and  surrounded  by  a  reef  also  a  mile  in 

BLIMBING  or  Billimbing  Bay  is  inside  Little  Fortune  Island,  and  north- 
ward of  Flat  Point.  At  its  entrance  ships  may  anchor  in  7  or  8  fathoms, 
and  find  a  good  berth  with  S.E.  winds,  but  not  with  those  from  the  N.W. 
Small  vessels  will  be  sheltered  from  all  winds  by  anchoring  further  inside 
in  3  fathoms,  behind  the  projecting  reef. 

There  is  also  anchorage  off  the  East  side  or  Little  Fortune  Island,  in  9  or 
10  fathoms.  In  some  charts  two  reefs  are  placed  in  this  bay  close  in 
shore  ;  it  is  very  probable  they  do  not  exist,  but  it  will  be  advisable  to  be 


On  the  East  side  of  this  bay  is  a  small  river,  but  its  water  is  brackish  ;  a 
fresh-water  spring,  however,  may  be  found  inside  the  S.W.  point,  from 
which  a  reef  projects  a  quarter  or  half  a  mile  to  the  northward. 

Approaching  Sunda  Strait  by  night,  the  soundings  will  be  a  good  guide 
in  passing  Little  Fortune  Island  and  Flat  Point.  At  6  miles  off  shore  the 
depths  are  40  and  30  fathoms,  and,  with  a  commanding  breeze,  ships  may 
venture  into  20  or  even  15  fathoms;  but  when  too  dark  to  distinguish  the 
land,  it  is  advisable  not  to  shoal  to  less  than  20  fathoms. 

KEYSER  or  SAMANGKA  BAY  runs  inland  in  a  north-westerly  direction 
about  30  miles,  and  is  about  20  miles  wide  at  entrance.  Its  western  shore  is 
steep,  affords  no  shelter  from  south-easterly  winds,  and  has  20  or  30  fathoms 
water  within  half  a  mile  of  it. 

Tampang  Bay,  just  round  Eada  Point,  on  the  western  side  of  Keyser  (pro- 
perly Keizers)  Bay,  is  only  an  open  bight,  but  has  good  anchorage  ground 
in  depths  from  12  to  15  fathoms,  a  mile  off  shore.  A  ship  will  be  exposed 
here  to  south-easterly  winds,  and  will  have  much  difficulty,  on  account  of 
the  rocky  shore,  in  getting  water  from  the  shallow  rivulets  that  discharge 
themselves  into  the  bay. 

The  village  of  Borne  is  in  the  N.W.  part  of  Keyser  Bay,  at  the  mouth  of 
Samangka  rivulet,  the  water  of  which  is  good,  but  boats  will  find  it  difficult 
to  enter.  The  land  is  low,  and  fronting  the  sea  marshy.  The  best  an- 
chorage is  East,  or  E.  by  N.  from  the  mouth  of  the  rivulet,  1  or  1^^  mile 
distant  from  the  shore.  Ships  lie  here  usually  without  danger  from  south- 
easterly winds,  which  seldom  throw  a  very  high  swell  so  far  up  the  bay. 
Near  Belong  Point,  the  southern  extremity  of  the  bay  near  Borne,  there  is  a 
rocky  shoal  which  projects  more  than  a  mile  in  the  offing,  with  10  fathoms 
very  near  it. 

The  eastern  side  of  Keyser  Bay,  North  of  Kalang-bayang  Harbour,  is  not 
so  steep  as  the  western  side,  and  affords  good  anchorage  about  2  miles  off, 
in  20  or  30  fathoms  ;  but  it  is  also  exposed  to  south-easterly  winds. 

KEYSER  ISLAND,  or  Pulo  Lahuan,  lying  nearly  in  the  middle  of  the 
entrance  of  Keyser  Bay,  is  high  and  steep-to  all  round,  and  affords  but  one 
spot  fit  for  anchorage,  a  very  indifferent  berth  in  the  western  monsoon, 
which  is  on  the  N.E.  side  in  25  to  30  fathoms,  sand,  and  very  near  the  shore. 
There  is  fresh  water,  but  the  high  surf  renders  landing  very  troublesome. 
The  island  is  inhabited,  well  cultivated,  and  produces  large  trees  fit  for 

Kalang-Bayang  Harbour,  or  Koloemhyan  Bay,  on  the  eastern  side  of  Key- 
ser Bay,  and  about  East  from  the  North  point  of  Keyser  Island,  is  small,  but 
safe,  and  affords  good  shelter  from  all  winds,  with  sufficient  depths  of  water 
for  large  ships.  It  may  be  easily  recognised  by  the  high  and  rocky  island 
of  Eyoe,  which  lies  about  a  mile  outside,  and  can  be  seen  1 5  miles  off.  Half 
a  mile  north-westward  of  Eyoe  there  is  another  island,  or  rather  rock,  called 


Pulo  Klappa,  with  a  single  cocoa-nut  tree  upon  it.  There  is  a  safe  channel 
with  25  fathoms  water  between  these  islands. 

This  harbour  has  been  said  to  be  well  adapted  for  a  fleet  in  want  of  re- 
freshments, as  every  supply  may  be  obtained ;  but  the  Java  Guide  says  that 
refreshments  are  very  scarce.  Water  may  be  obtained  from  a  small  rivulet 
in  the  north-eastern  part  of  the  bay. 

In  the  N.W.  monsoon,  enter  the  harbour  by  the  western  passage  between 
Pulo  Klappa  and  the  North  point  called  Tanjong  Napal,  and  when  the  latter 
bears  about  West,  or  W.  by  S.,  anchor  near  the  eastern  beach  in  10  fathoms, 
soft  ground,  or  anywhere  in  the  harbour,  there  being  no  hidden  danger. 

In  the  S.E.  monsoon,  steer  in  about  N.  by  E.,  between  Eyoe  and  Klappa 
Islands.  With  a  commanding  breeze  a  vessel  may  pass  eastward  of  Eyoe, 
between  it  and  Pulo  Batu  Kabu  on  a  N.N.W.  course.  These  channels  lead 
close  to  the  Bover  Hocks,  which  are,  however,  easily  avoided,  and  left  to  the 
eastward,  as  most  of  them  are  above  water. 

Kiloang  Bay  lies  5  miles  to  the  south-eastward  of  Kalang-bayang,  and 
also  affords  safe  anchorage.  It  may  be  known  by  Tongkalie  Island,  which  is 
visible  12  miles  off,  and  lies  off  the  East  point  of  the  bay,  being  separated 
from  the  main  by  a  small  channel  only  fit  for  boats.  This  bay,  as  well  as 
Kalang-bayang  Harbour,  contains  all  sorts  of  wood. 

Coming  from  the  westward  or  southward  with  a  leading  wind,  steer  for 
Tongkalie  till  it  bears  East,  distant  2  or  3  cables'  lengths,  when  three  groups 
of  black  rocks  will  be  seen,  the  southernmost  of  which  bears  N.N.W.  from 
Tongkalie,  and  S.W.  from  the  others.  Steer  N.E.  and  E.N.E.  past  these 
rocks  in  from  30  to  20  fathoms,  for  the  eastern  side  of  the  bay,  which  is  very 
high,  till  Kiloang  Island  bears  West,  where  a  good  anchorage  may  be  taken 
in  13  fathoms  between  it  and  the  beach,  and  sheltered  from  all  winds.  Ki- 
loang Island,  which  is  small  and  not  very  high,  lies  near  the  eastern  beach 
of  this  bay,  with  some  rocks  at  its  northern  and  southern  extremities,  a  large 
reef  to  the  eastward,  and  a  smaller  one  on  its  western  side.  Although  the 
bay  is  spacious,  yet  pass  close  to  the  westward  of  Tongkalie.  Everywhere 
€lse  in  the  bay  anchoring  ground  may  be  found  in  16  to  18  fathoms,  but 
accompanied  by  a  heavy  swell. 

MOUNTAINS. — The  land  of  Sumatra,  eastward  of  Kalang-bayang  Har- 
bour and  Kiloang  Bay,  is  very  high,  consisting  of  the  Kalang-bayang  or 
Kamantara  Mountains,  3,418  ft.  high;  and  3  miles  farther  to  the  northward 
the  Ratteh  Mountains,  the  southernmost  peak  of  which  is  5,097  ft.  above  the 
sea.  More  westerly,  and  not  far  from  the  shore  of  Keyser  Bay,  the  Lani- 
pong  Mountains  rise  to  the  height  of  6,560  ft.,  and  Joukamoe,  or  Keyser  Peak, 
situated  11  or  12  miles  farther  to  the  north-westward,  and  near  the  head  of 
the  bay,  reaches  to  7,412  ft. 

Pepper  Bay  is  on  the  North  shore  of  Lagundy  Strait,  on  the  West  side  of 
Tikus  Point,  the  S.W.  point  of  entrance  of  Lampong  Bay.     It  has  a  huge 


three-cornered  rock  in  the  middle,  and  is  very  limited  ;  but  the  native  proas 
row  up  behind  the  high  western  beach,  where  there  are  18  fathoms  water 
close  in. 

LAMPONG  BAY,  formed  between  Tikus  Point  on  the  West,  and  Pvajah 
Bassa  on  the  East,  is  very  extensive,  being  about  20  miles  wide  at  entrance, 
and  stretching  northward  into  the  land  nearly  the  same  distance.  At  its 
entrance  the  Lagoendy  Islands,  hereafter  described,  extend  8  miles  to  the 
eastward  from  Tikus  Point.  Other  islands  line  the  western  shore  of  the  bay 
inside,  between  which  and  the  main  there  are  several  good  roads  or  places  of 
shielter.  In  every  part  of  the  bay,  from  North  to  South,  will  be  found  from 
10  fathoms,  mud,  to  20  fathoms,  clay  bottom. 

If  a  vessel  keep  outside  the  islands  on  the  western  shore  of  the  bay  there 
are  but  tivo  dangers,  both  of  which  may  be  easily  avoided.  The  first  is  a 
sandbank,  dry  at  low  water,  surrounded  by  a  reef,  which  rises  from  17 
fathoms,  mud,  and  bears  E.S.E.  1^  mile  from  Kalagian,  and  N.E.  :^  N.  2 
miles  from  Little  Pokowang.  The  second  is  a  reef  with  2  and  \^  fathoms 
upon  it,  bearing  S.E.  ^  S.  1;^  mile  from  the  easternmost  of  the  Choondong 

Pedada  Bay,  the  first  bight  to  the  northward  of  Tikoes  Point,  on  the 
western  side  of  Lampong  Bay,  is  1^  mile  wide  at  entrance,  and  3|-  miles 

When  running  into  this  bay  in  the  direction  of  the  southern  end  of  the 
Kalang-bayang  Mountains,  on  a  W.  ^  N.  course,  the  soundings  will  be  20 
to  15  lathoms,  clay  and  mud,  and  ihe  three  small  islands  of  Pedada,  Pena- 
rian,  and  Lilanga  will  be  seen.  Pedada  is  the  easternmost  and  highest,  but 
N.  by  E.  from  it  half  a  mile  there  are  two  detached  reefs,  usually  covered 
with  breakers  ;  and  a  third  reef  N.E.,  which  bears  W.  by  S.  from  the  North 
point  of  the  bay.  Keeping  this  last  reef  on  the  starboard  bow,  and  the  other 
two  on  the  port  bow,  will  lead  to  an  anchorage  in  15  fathoms  water,  very 
near  the  village  of  Pedada,  bearing  W.  ^  N.  This  village  is  to  the  westward 
of  Lalanga  Island,  and  stands  on  a  clear  fresh- water  stream.  The  high  rocky 
islet  of  Klappa  is  connected  with  Pedada  Point  by  three  groups  of  rocks 
above  water,  leaving,  however,  between  each  of  them  a  passage  for  small 
craft.  North-eastward  of  Klappa  lie  also  three  patches  of  rock,  with  17  and 
16  fathoms,  clay,  between  them  ;  to  avoid  them,  keep  Lalanga  Island  to  the 
westward  of  North,  This  small  island  is  also  high,  with  a  reef  extending 
about  2  cables  from  its  N.E.  point. 

Poondo  Bay,  lying  4  or  5  miles  to  the  northward  of  Pedada  Bay,  is  2 
miles  wide  and  3  miles  deep,  with  10  to  7  fathoms  water.  Across  the  en- 
trance lies  Pokowang,  the  largest  island  iu  Lampong  Bay  except  Lagoendy, 
with  a  peak  on  its  northern  side,  and  to  the  eastward  a  small  island,  to  which 
it  is  connected  by  a  reef. 

Poondo  Bay  may   be  approached  on  either  side  of  Pokowang.     When 

J.    A.  'i 


taking  the  northern  passage,  which  is  preferable,  the  white  coral  reefs  are 
seen  at  some  distance,  but  avoid  the  reef  X)rojecting  3  cables'  lengths  N.E. 
from  the  island,  with  15  fathoms  close  to  it.  There  is  also  a  detached  coral 
reef  close  to  the  N.W.  point  of  Pukowang,  which  must  be  kept  on  the  p'jrt 
side,  while  the  four  coral  reefs,  lying  mid-channel  N.AV.  and  W.N.W., 
from  the  centre  of  Pokowang,  should  be  kept  on  the  starboard  side. 

Kateh.  Bay  comes  next  to  Poondo  Bay.  It  is  3  miles  in  exteut  each  way, 
with  16  to  18  fathoms,  mud  bottom,  and  at  the  entrance  lies  Kalagian. 
Inland,  which  is  high,  and  has  a  small  island  separated  from  its  South  point 
by  a  boat  channel  of  3  to  8  fathoms  water. 

Not  quite  a  mile  S.  by  E.  from  Kalagian  lies  a  coral  reef,  showing  at  low 
water  like  a  black  speck,  and  bearing  W.  by  N.  J  N.  1^  mile  from  the 
above-mentioned  coral  reefs,  between  which  is  17  and  14  fathoms,  mud. 

Eatteh  Bay  may  be  approached  on  either  side  of  Kalagian  ;  and  the  two 
reefs,  which  dry  at  low  water,  to  the  westward  of  the  island,  may  be  discerned 
at  some  distance,  and  consequently  easily  avoided. 

Mahitam  Island  lies  off  the  North  point  of  Eatteh  Bay,  with  which  it  is 
connected  by  a  reef.  There  is  good  anchorage  on  its  North  side,  in  13 
fathoms,  mud  bottom. 

Tagal  Island,  flat-topped  and  conspicuous,  bears  N.E.  If  mile  from  Ma- 
hitam, and  about  W.  by  S.,  3^  miles  from  the  Choondong  Islands,  and  is 
visible  throughout  the  whole  of  Lampong  Bay.  When  coming  in  from  the 
eastward,  a  vessel  may  steer  for  it  on  a  N.W.  bearing,  and  pass  it  in  15 
fathoms  ;  if  entering  from  the  southward  it  is  a  mark  for  Lagoendy  Strait. 

In  the  bay  north-westward  of  Tagal  there  are  the  two  villages,  Ringong 
and  Oerong  ;  and  near  the  South  point  of  the  bay  is  the  small  island  Laho, 
connected  to  the  shore  by  a  reef,  and  throwing  out  another  to  the  nurthward. 

Tankel  Island  is  3  miles  North  of  Tagal.  The  North  side  is  low,  but  the 
South  side  high. 

The  Head  of  Lampong  Bay,  northward  of  Tankel,  narrows,  so  as  to  be 
scarcely  4  miles  wide,  but  it  contains  four  islands  : — Pomogotang,  1^  mile 
Noi'th  from  Tankel,  is  all  sand,  but  has  some  trees,  and  is  surrounded  by  a 
large  reef.  Little  Pomogotang  is  a  bank  without  trees,  1  mile  W.N.W.  from 
the  former,  and  also  begirt  by  a  broad  reef.  Koeher  Island,  lying  S.W.  from 
Pomogotang,  is  separated  from  the  main  by  a  5-fathom  channel,  and  a  reef 
runs  out  2  cables'  lengths  from  its  eastern  side.  A  black  beacon  buog  marks 
the  eastern  side  of  a  reef;  it  lies  N.  39°  E.  from  Koeber  Island,  and  South 
from  a  white  beacon  buoy,  with  the  harbour  office  at  the  mouth  of  the  river, 
N.  43°  W.,  and  the  foot  of  Mount  Apen  N.  7°  E.  The  fourth  is  the  low 
island  of  Passarang,  in  Telok  Betong  Road,  S.E.  from  the  river.  Besides 
these  islands  there  are  some  coral  reefs. 

Telok  Betong,  situated  in  the  north-western  part  of  the  bight,  is  the  chief 
town  of  Lampong  Bay.     Its  population  consists  of  natives  of  Sumatra  and 


Bugis,  with  a  Regent  from  the  Dutch  Grovernment  as  their  chief.  They 
trade  with  the  Javanese  in  Larapong  tobacco,  which  is  highly  esteemed.  A 
telegraph  cable  connects  Telok  Betong  with  Anjer.  The  Dutch  Government 
have  a  coal  store  at  or  near  here,  but  fresh  provisions  are  reported  as  difficult 
to  be  obtained.     A  red  light,  elevated  39  ft.,  is  shown  from  an  iron  column. 

The  eastern  side  of  Lampong  Bay,  between  Telok  Betong  and  the  Choon- 
dong  Isles,  is  high,  free  from  dangei',  and  may  be  approached  in  safety  to 
14  and  15  fathoms,  close  to.  From  the  Choondong  Islands  to  Rajah  Bassa 
the  coast,  at  2  or  3  cables'  lengths  distance,  is  fronted  by  a  line  of  rocks. 

The  Choondong  Islands  are  three  in  number,  of  which  the  northernmost  is 
a  steep  rock,  and  the  two  others  are  larger,  but  not  so  high.  A  detached 
6-ft.  reef  is  reported  1 J  cable  E.  of  the  southernmost  of  the  Choondong  Isles. 

To  the  northward  of  the  Tiega  Islets  the  Sumatra  coast  forms  a  deep 
curve,  called  Blantong  or  Lohogh  Bay^  with  4  or  5  fathoms,  mud,  and  a  salt- 
water river.  The  points  of  the  bay  on  each  side  are  covered  with  rocks  and 
a  high  surf. 

Tiga  or  Tiega  Islets,  three  rocky  islets  lying  3  miles  off  shore,  appear  as  one 
when  coming  from  the  eastward,  and  do  not  begin  to  open  until  Rajah  Bassa 
Road  is  approached. 

Eajah  Bassa  Road. — The  land  forming  the  south-eastern  part  of  Lampong 
Bay  is  high,  and  rises  to  two  conspicuous  peaks,  3  or  4  miles  inland,  named 
Rajah  Bassa  Mountains.  The  height  of  the  N.W.  peak  is  4,398  tt.,  and  that 
of  the  S.E.  peak  4,093  ft.  Rajah  Bassa  Road,  which  lies  directly  off  the 
high  land,  was  frequently  visited  by  the  China  ships,  it  being  an  excellent 
place  to  obtain  good  water  with  facility,  and  other  refreshments,  although 
Anjer  is  still  better. 

There  are  three  villages  on  the  shore  of  Rajah  Bassa  Road.  The  first  is 
Kalinda,  bearing  N.N.E.  f  E.  from  the  Tega  Islets,  and  having  in  front  of 
the  white  sandy  beach  some  large  rocks  above  water,  between  which  are  the 
openings  that  make  it  easy  to  land.  The  anchorage  is  in  7  to  10  fathoms, 
mud.  West  from  the  village,  and  a  mile  off  shore.  The  second  village  is 
Tyanti,  which  lies  E.N.E.  from  the  largest  Tiga  Islet,  and  abreast  that  part 
of  the  road  where  is  the  best  anchorage,  and  the  best  watering  places.  The 
third  village,  called  Rajah  Bassa,  is  just  to  the  northward  of  Cocoa-nut  Point, 
and  about  East  from  the  Tega  Islets  ;  it  is  the  largest  one  of  the  three,  but 
the  watering  there  is  very  difficult,  at  least  much  more  so  than  at  Tyanti, 
and  the  landing  dangerous  with  westerly  winds. 

KLAPPA,  or  Cocoa-nut  Point,  or  Rajah  Bassa  Point,  is  low,  covered  with 
cocoa-nut  trees,  and  bears  N.W.  by  W.  nearly  8  miles  from  Hog  Point,  and 
E.  by  S.  \  S.  from  the  Tiga  Islets.  Between  Cocoa-nut  and  Hog  Points  the 
coast  curves  in  to  the  north-  eastward  2  miles,  and  at  the  bottom  of  this  bight 
are  the  two  small  Bight  Islands,  surrounded  by  reefs. 

About  li  mile  north-webtward  of  Hog  Point,  and  about  1^-  mile  off  shore. 


is  the  Tims  Klip  or  Collier  Hod;  6  or  7  ft.  above  water,  and  56  ft.  In  circuit. 
It  is  fringed  by  a  reef,  which  on  the  N.E.  side  projects  about  50  ft.  Another 
rock  above  water  lies  about  a  cable's  length  westward  of  Hog  Point,  with 
deep  water  all  around  it. 

The  LAGXTNDY  or  LAGOENDY  GROUP,  lying  in  the  S.W.  part  of  the 
entrance  to  Lampong  Bay,  consists  of  seven  islands,  viz.,  Lagoendy,  Eound, 
Saka,  Soengal,  Tims,  Sussarat,  and  Mangoman.  They  are  uninhabited,  but 
produce  good  timber,  deer,  and  wild  hogs.  Along  the  southern  shores  of  the 
first  four  islands  the  sea  in  the  western  monsoon  is  very  violent 

Lagoendy,  the  largest  island  of  the  group,  is  nearly  5  miles  in  length, 
E.N.E.  and  W.S.W.,  and  close  to  the  southward  of  its  West  point'  are  two 
liigh,  round-shaped  rocks,  covered  with  verdure,  N.E.  ^  E.  and  S.W.  ^  "W. 
from  each  other,  with  a  boat  channel  between  them.  On  the  S.E.  side  of 
Lagoendy  there  is  another  rook  or  islet  of  the  same  character. 

On  the  North  side  of  Lagoendy  there  is  a  small  but  safe  bay,  Navgga  Har- 
hour,  with  depths  of  15  to  7  fathoms.  In  the  middle  of  the  entrance  is  the 
small  island  Fafappati,  behind  which  a  ship  may  find  good  shelter  from  wind 
and  sea.  There  is  room  for  ten  or  twelve  ships,  and  fresh  water  is  found  on 
Lagoendy,  S.E.  from  Patappan. 

Mangoman  Island,  lying  a  little  outside  Nangga  Harbour,  has  15  to  22 
fathoms,  clay,  all  round  it,  except  on  its  eastern  side,  where  there  are  only 
10  to  15  fathoms.  When  coming  from  the  eastward  or  northward,  a  mistake 
may  occur  between  this  island  and  Patappan,  but  the  latter  is  lower  and 
smaller  than  Mangoman. 

LAGOENDY  STEAIT,  between  Tikoes  Point  and  the  Lagoendy  Islands, 
is  2  miles  wide,  and  may  be  recommended  to  ships  working  out  of  Lampong 
Bay  in  the  N.W.  monsoon.  About  mid-channel  is  the  high  island  of  Sus- 
sarat, with  10  fathoms,  sand,  close-to,  and  30  fathoms  farther  off.  Near  its 
W^est  point  there  are  some  rocks,  but  they  are  high  above  water.  Although 
this  island  is  in  the  middle  of  the  channel,  yet  in  a  calm  ships  need  not  be 
alarmed  by  the  current  whieh  seems  to  set  towards  it.  The  passages  on 
either  side  of  Sussarat  are  equally  good. 

A  Coral  Reef,  carrying  only  2  fathoms  water,  and  having  13  fathoms 
around  it,  lies  northward  of  Mangoman  Island,  and  from  its  N.E.  side  the 
highest  point  of  Sussarat  bears  S.W.  by  W.  \  W.  ;  the  West  point  of 
Lagoendy  S.W.  \  S.  ;  the  North  point  S.E.  ^  E. ;  and  the  middle  of  Man- 
goman S.  \  E.  The  reef  is  about  75  yards  long,  and  cannot  be  distinguished 
by  discoloured  water. 

A  rock  awash,  which  breaks  in  moderate  weather,  has  been  discovered  in 
Lagoendy  Strait,  S.  24°  E.  from  Tanjong  Blantong  (^?). — Naut.  Mag.^  June, 
1877,  pp.  622-3. 

Eound  Island  lies  ofi"  the  East  end  of  Lagoendy,  its  length  being  about 
2^  miles,  N.W.   and  S.E.,  and  its  breadth  nearly  a  mile,     Saka  lies  about 


one-third  of  a  mile  off  the  S.W.  point  of  Eound  Island  ;  and  Soengal  about 
the  same  distance  off  the  S.E.  point. 

The  passage  between  Lagoendy  and  Round  Island  cannot  be  recommended, 
nor  that  between  Eound  Island  and  Soengal,  for  although  the  water  is  every- 
where deep,  the  gr"und  is  foul  and  the  current  strong. 

Tims  Island,  lying  3  miles  eastward  of  Soengal,  is  very  small  and  low, 
consists  chiefly  of  red  day,  and  is  surrounded  by  a  broad  reef  with  heavy 
breakers  ;  bnt  thp  channels  on  either  side  of  it  are  quite  clear. 

KRAKATOA  ISLAND  (or  Krahatou),  lying  in  the  middle  of  Sunda  Strait, 
is  about  5  miles  in  extent  N.N.W.  and  S.S.E.,  and  3  miles  broad.  Its  fine 
conical  peak,  rising  boldly  up  to  the  height  of  2,623  ft.,  may  be  seen  at  a 
considerable  distance,  and  serves  as  a  fairway  mark  for  ships  entering  the 
strait  from  the  westward.  It  is  in  lat.  6°  9J'  S.,  long.  105°  27'  20"  E.  Arange 
of  high  land  runs  from  the  peak  in  a  northerly  direction  for  \\  mile,  when  it 
turns  to  the  north-westward,  and,  gradually  diminishing  in  height,  disap- 
pears at  the  N.W.  point  of  the  island  ;  the  outline  of  the  range  is  marked  by 
several  prominences  or  peaks.  The  North  coast  of  the  island  consists  of 
rocky  hills,  without  any  vegetation  whatever.  The  West  and  South  coasts 
also  consist  of  a  steep  and  rocky  shore,  and  it  is  only  on  the  eastern  coast 
that  there  is  any  level  land. 

There  is  a  small  spring  of  fresh  water  on  the  N.E.  side  of  Krakatoa,  oppo- 
site the  South  end  of  Lang  Island,  but  it  can  only  be  approached  by  boats 
at  high  water,  and  ships  should  not  depend  upon  watering  there.  A  short 
distance  to  southward  is  a  hot  spring,  in  which  the  thermometer  rose  to  154°. 

A  bank  of  soft  mud  extends  from  the  Eist  side  of  Krakatoa  and  Lang 
Island  about  3  miles,  with  the  peak  bearing  W.S."W.  to  S.W.  by  W., 
affording  excellent  shelter. from  westerly  gales,  by  anchoring  in  from  20  to 
23  fathoms  about  Ij  or  2^  miles  off  shore.  The  peak  bearing  S.W.  by  W. 
is  the  best  berth  ;  but  a  ship  should  not  anchor  with  the  North  end  of  the 
island  to  the  southward  of  West,  or  she  will  be  exposed  to  a  heavy  eea 
rolling  in  from  the  westward  between  Krakatoa  and  Pulo  Bezee,  during  a 
westerly  gale. 

A  submerged  rock,  hereafter  described,  is  marked  on  the  chart  nearly  East 
from  the  peak  of  Krakatoa,  and  a  quarter  of  a  mile  off  shore. 

On  the  21st  February,  1829,  the  Russian  corvette  Holler,  commanded  by 
Captain  Liitke,  although  only  drawing  14  ft.,  touched  on  a  coral  patch, 
said  to  lie  \\  mile  from  the  nearest  point  of  Krakatoa,  and  S.E.  from  the 
isle  lying  off  its  N.E.  point ;  but  the  description  of  its  position,  being  rather 
ambiguous,  is  not  satisfactory. 

Verlaten  (or  Fomaken  Island),  2  miles  long,  and  half  a  mile  broad,  lies 
close  off  the  N.W.  end  of  Krakatoa,  from  which  it  is  separated  by  a  narrow 
channel  with  numerous  reefs,  which  make  it  dangerous  for  boats  to  pass 
through.     A  white  rock  60  ft,  high,  and  another  rock  80  ft.  high,  lie  about 


three-quarters  of  a  mile  oflF  its  S.  W.  end  ;  and  about  a  mile  East  of  that  end 
of  the  island,  between  it  and  Krakatoa,  is  a  rock  or  islet,  with  a  rock  awash 
a  short  distance  to  the  southward  of  it. 

Lang  Island,  about  1|  mile  long  North  and  South,  and  about  half  a  mile- 
broad,  is  separated  from  the  N.E.  side  of  Krakatoa  by  a  channel  barely  2 
cables  wide  at  its  narrowest  part.  A  reef  stretches  out  from  its  N.W.  side 
nearly  half  a  mile,  and  encircles  its  North  and  East  sides  at  an  average  dis- 
tance of  half  a  mile,  terminating  off  its  South  point.  The  West  side  of  the 
island  is  bold  and  cliflPy,  with  deep  water  close  to.  The  Polish  Hat  {Poohche 
hoed)  is  a  round  islet,  lying  off  the  West  side  of  Lang  Island,  between  it 
and  Krakatoa ;  a  reef  projects  about  half  a  cable's  length  from  its  N.E.  side. 

The  Channel  between  Lang  Island  and  Krakatoa  is  from  one-half  to  one- 
quarter  of  a  mile  wide.  The  shore  of  Krakatoa,  forming:  the  West  side  of 
the  channel,  is  fringed  with  a  reef  extending  about  a  cable's  length  from  it, 
except  at  the  point  nearest  Lang  Island,  where  it  projects  only  about  a 
quarter  of  a  cable.  The  soundings  in  the  channel  are  deep,  30  and  28 
fathoms,  but  they  are  very  irregular,  decreasing  towards  the  Polish  Hat 
from  the  southward. 

A  shoallies  a  mile  S.S.E.  from  the  South  point  of  Lang  Island,  and  about 
a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  the  shore  of  Krakatoa.  It  extends  about  1^  cable 
in  the  direction  of  the  chai  nel,  and  has  a  rock  which  is  sometimes  awash, 
and  others  just  under  water,  upon  it.  The  West  extreme  of  Lang  Island  in 
line  with  the  Eist  extreme  of  Krakatoa  leads  between  this  shoal  and  the  reef 
extending  off  to  the  S.E.  point  of  Lang  Island,  although  it  passes  very  close 
to  both. 

BEZEE,  or  Tamarind  Island,  bearing  about  N.  by  E.,  nearly  12  miles  from 
Krakatoa  Peak,  is  nearly  3  miles  in  extent  North  and  South,  and  3;^  East 
and  West.  This  island  has  also  a  high  peak,  named  Sehezee,  sharper  than 
that  of  Krakatoa,  and  resembling  a  sugar-loaf,  which  rises  abruptly  to  a 
height  of  2,825  ft.  from  the  southern  extremity  of  the  island,  and  slopes 
gently  down  to  the  northward.  A  reef  projects  about  a  third  of  a  mile  from 
the  West  side  of  the  island,  some  rocky  points  of  which  are  visible  above 
■water ;  and  off  the  N.E.  side  there  are  three  small  islets  called  Huisman, 
Little  Tamarind,  and  Govts,  all  of  which  are  surrounded  by  small  reefs  having 
banks  between  them ;  the  islands  and  reefs  extend  a  little  over  half  a  mile 
from  the  shore.  Bezee  Island  produces  a  certain  tjuantity  of  pepper,  and  is 
inhabited  by  natives  belonging  to  the  villages  in  Lampong  Bay.  The  village 
is  on  the  East  side,  opposite  Little  Tamarind  Island. 

All  around  this  island  there  is  good  anchorage  in  15  to  25  fathoms  water ; 
and  at  a  mile  from  tlie  N.E.  side  there  is  an  excellent  roadstead,  even  in 
S.W.  gales,  with  13  fathoms  water. 

Bezee  Channel,  between  Krakatoa  and  Bezee,  is  7  miles  wide,  and  fre- 
quently used  by  ships  working  out  in  the  N.W.  monsoon,   in  preference  to 


the  Great  channel,  because  here  they  have  regular  soundings  from  18  to  30 
fathoms,  and  may  anchor  when  convenient. 

Boom  Eock,  lying  nearly  half  a  mile  off  the  South  point  of  Bezee  Island, 
is  a  few  feet  above  water. 

Hindostan  Rock  is  the  only  known  danger  in  this  passage.  A  ship  of 
that  name  is  said  to  have  struck  upon  it  in  1791,  and  found  on  its  summit, 
which  was  only  6  or  8  ft.  in  diameter,  15  ft.  water,  and  10  fathoms  close-to. 
Krakatoa  Peak  bore  from  it  S.  by  W.  i  W. ;  the  "West  extremity  of  Verlaten 
Island  S.W. ;  the  East  extreme  of  Lang  Island  S.  5  W.  ;  Bezee  Island  from 
N.E.  to  N.  i  W. ;  the  peak  of  Keyser  Island  W.  by  N. ;  and  the  Zeeklip 
W.  i  N.,  well  open  to  the  southward  of  Keyser  Island. 

Lieutenants  Eietveld  and  Boom  tried  to  discover  this  rock,  but  without 
success,  though  they  found  a  shoal  with  5^  fathoms  least  water,  consisting 
of  hard  rock  and  coral,  and  having  all  around  6  to  13  fathoms,  soft  mud  and 
clay,  and  at  some  distance  19  fathoms.  From  this  slioal  Krakatoa  bore 
8.  by  W.  J  W.  ;  West  extremity  of  Verlaten  Island  S.W.  ;  South  point  of 
Zeeklip  West ;  and  the  angle  between  the  two  extremes  of  Bezee  Island  waa 
68°  30'.  Some  of  these  bearings  agree  exactly  with  the  former,  and  it  is 
more  than  probable  that  it  is  the  same  rock  ;  but,  if  not,  the  true  Hindoston 
ruck  must  be  very  near  to  this  shoal,  possibly  a  little  to  the  north-eastward 
or  eastward  of  it.  To  avoid  the  Hiudostan  rock  or  rocks,  keep  at  least  2 
miles  from  the  South  side  of  Bezee  Island  The  best  mark  for  proceeding 
through  this  channel,  is  never  to  bring  Gap  Eock  open  to  the  southward  of 
Keyser  Islaud,  W.  by  N.  Between  Hindostan  Eock  and  Boom  Eock  there 
are  10,  16,  and  20  fathoms  water,  rocky  bottom;  but  between  this  latter 
rock  and  Bezee  there  are  8,  9,  13,  11,  and  8  fathoms,  with  foul  bottom. 
Lieut.  Eietveld  saw  here  different  patches  of  light-coloured  water,  owing, 
apparently,  to  an  eddy  current,  and  although  they  much  resemble  sunken 
rocks,  all  the  casts  of  the  lead  indicated  IG  to  19  fathoms. 

Zee-Klip  {Sea  Eock),  bearing  W.  by  S.  6  miles  from  Sebezee  Peak,  con- 
sists of  three  pyramidal  rocks  very  near  each  other,  and  showing  above 
water ;  the  southernmost  is  the  largest,  and  is  often  called  the  Gap  Hock,  on 
account  of  a  cleft  in  it.  They  are  visible  at  a  considerable  di:?tance,  bearing 
N.  5  E.  and  S.  J  W.  from  each  other,  and  are  connected  under  water  by 
reefs,  upon  which  the  sea  continually  breaks.  They  are  steep-tu  and  inac- 
cessible; and  near  them  are  26  and  30  fathums,  mud  and  clay. 

SEBUKO  ISLAND  (or  Seboeko),  N.N.E.  a  mile  distant  from  Bezee,  is  not 
so  high  as  the  latter,  and  consists  mostly  of  craggy  hills.  It  is  inhabited  by 
natives  of  Enjah  Bassa,  who  cultivate  some  pepper  plantations.  Its  extent 
is  3i  miles  North  and  South,  and  about  3  miles  East  and  West. 

Close  to  the  East  side  of  Sebuko  is  Beschutter  Islet,  which  is  high  on  the 
East  side,  has  a  reef  on  its  South  side,  and  forms  with  Sebuko  a  small  bay, 
with  15  to  19  fathoms  water,  affording  good  anchorage  for  proas.     A  coral 


rock,  lying  mid-channel  between  the  East  point  of  Sebuko  and  North  point 
of  Beschutter,  renders  it  dangerous  to  enter  this  little  bay  from  tlie  north- 
ward with  westerly  gales;  but  there  is  a  good  road  for  large  vessels  in 
11  and  13  fathoms,  1  or  Ij  mile  from  Sebuko,  near  the  East  side  of  Bes- 

Eeefs  project  from  the  numerous  points  of  Sebuko,  and  in  some  places 
they  either  show  above  water,  or  the  sea  breaks  over  them,  but  they  do  not 
seem  to  extend  far  off,  except  from  the  West  point,  from  which  a  reef 
stretches  off  nearly  2  miles  ;  it  is  very  steep-to,  but  not  dangerous,  because 
the  westernmost  rock  on  it  rises  to  a  considerable  height  out  of  the  water, 
and  has  a  slight  resemblance  to  Zeeklip.  This  rock  lies  W.N.W.  from  the 
South  point  of  Sebuko;  S.W.  by  W.  i  W.  from  its  N.W.  point;  N.  |  E. 
from  the  West  point  of  Bezee,  and  If  mile  from  the  West  side  of  Sebuko. 

The  Channel  between  Sebuko  and  Bezee  Islands  is  not  quite  a  mile  wide, 
with  soundings  from  19  to  23  fathoms,  hard  sandy  bottom;  the  passage 
northward  of  Sebuko,  between  it  and  the  Tega  Islets,  is  1^  or  2  miles  wide, 
and  has  20  to  34  fathoms.  A  sandbank  lies  West  \h  mile  from  Tiga  Isles, 
and  N.  by  W.  from  the  North  end  of  Sebuko. 

HOG  POINT,  or  Varkenshoek,  Tanjong  Toka,  bearing  S.E.  by  E.  7*  miles 
from  Cocua-nut  Point,  is  the  south-eastern  extreme  of  Sutuatra,  and  between 
narrowest  part  of  Sunda  Strait,  across  which  tlie  Telok  Betono;  telegraph  cable 
is  carried  to  Anjer.  The  point  has  a  round  hilly  appearance,  and  is  easily 
distinguished  when  approaching  it  from  the  eastward  ;  but,  coming  from 
the  westward,  it  has  been  mistaken  for  one  of  the  Zutphen  Islands.  The 
soundings  a  mile  distant  from  it  are  from  40  to  60  fathoms. 
it  and  Fourth  Point  on  the  Java  coast,  which  bears  S.E.  ^  E.  13  miles,  is  the 

The  ZUTPHEN  ISLANDS  front  the  coast  of  Sumatra  to  the  north-east- 
ward of  H(jg  Point.  Four  of  them  are  large,  and  the  remainder  are  very 
small,  the  whole  extending  N.E.  and  S.W.  about  4  miles,  and  within  2^ 
miles  of  the  main.  There  are  several  shoals  in  the  passage  between  them 
and  the  coast,  amongst  which  there  is  said  to  be  anchorage  in  some  places. 
This  passage  is  generally  used  by  proas,  and  might  be  taken  by  large  ships 
with  a  commanding  breeze,  there  being  sufficient  depth  of  water,  but  great 
caution  is  recommeudud.  The  islands  are  steep-to  on  their  South  side, 
having  40  and  50  fathoms  water  very  near  them. 

Kandang,  the  south-westernmost  island  of  the  Zutphen  Group,  is  about  a 
mile  long  N.E.  and  S.W.,  and  half  a  mile  broad,  of  considerable  height,  and 
covered  with  large  trees.  Off  its  N.W.  side  aie  two  coral  rocks,  visible  above 
water,  and  steep-to  on  their  western  sides.  Near  these  rocks,  on  the  N.W. 
side  of  Kandang,  there  is  a  small  bay  that  affords  a  safe  anchorage  to  proas 
in  11  or  12  fathoms  water,  close  in-shore,  and  even  large  vessels  would  find 
ealety  there;  very  often  it  is  frequented  by  pirates. 

High  and  Kout  Islands  [high  and  woody  islands),  lying  to  the  eastward  of 


Kandang,  are  of  considerable  height,  rocky,  and  covered  with  trees.  They 
are  about  half  the  size  of  Kandang,  the  three  islands  being  separated  by 
narrow  channels.  Between  Kandang  and  High  Island  is  a  small  islet,  with 
some  cocoa-nut  trees  upon  it. 

A  reef  of  rocks  lies  2  cables'  lengths  from  the  N.E.,  East,  and  S.E.  sides 
of  Hout  Island,  with  10  or  12  fathoms  in  the  narrow  gut  between  it  and  the 
island.  The  soundings  eastward  and  south-eastward  of  Kandang,  and  High 
and  Hout  Islands  are  very  deep,  there  being  40  to  50  fathoms  a  short  dis- 
tance off'  them. 

Cocoa-nut  Island,  lying  westward  of  Kandang,  is  small,  very  low,  and  sur- 
rounded by  a  reef,  which  is  very  steep-to.  The  Brothers,  two  small  islands 
lying  to  the  northward  of  High  and  Hout  Islands,  are  low  and  sandy, 
covered  with  small  wood,  and  surrounded  by  a  narrow  but  steep  reef,  with 
15  and  18  fathoms  water  close-to. 

Hemoa  Island,  the  northernmost  and  largest  of  the  Zutphen  Islands,  is 
also  the  highest,  being  elevated  300  or  400  ft.  above  the  sea.  To  the  N.W. 
there  is  a  low  neck  of  land,  which  at  2  cables'  lengths  from  the  ground  be- 
gins to  rise  ;  the  South  end  is  the  highest.  Part  of  the  low  neck  is  a  sandy 
beach,  which  atfords  a  good  place  for  boats,  it  being  very  difficult  to  land 
anywhere  else.  Eemoa  is  covered  with  trees,  large  and  small,  as  also  are 
the  other  islands  belonging  to  this  group. 

The  South  side  of  Eemoa  is  fronted  by  a  reef,  partly  above  water,  with  a 
very  narrow  channel  between  it  and  the  island ;  it  is  called  Boompjes  Reef, 
and  carries  some  small  brushwood ;  from  its  South  point  the  N.E.  point  of 
Thwart-the-way  bears  S.E.  ^  E. 

Fatal  Islet  and  Eeef.— Close  to  the  N.E.  point  of  Eemoa  is  a  high  rocky 
islet,  called  Fatal,  and  from  thence  a  reef  projects  to  the  North  and  N.W., 
on  which  is  a  separate  cural  rock,  dry  at  low  water,  and  all  stretching  otf 
about  half  a  mile,  with  depths  of  11  and  12  fathoms  close  to  them,  so  that 
the  lead  gives  but  little  warning.  Erom  the  northern  point  of  this  reef  the 
North  point  of  Fatal  Island  is  on  with  the  Button  ;  and  from  its  western  edge 
the  West  point  of  Eemoa  is  on  the  West  point  of  Kandang  Island.  Toempal 
Island,  lying  westward  of  Eemoa,  is  small,  very  low  and  woody,  and  sur- 
rounded by  a  reef,  which  is  steep-to. 

South  of  Toempal,  and  nearly  in  mid-channel,  are  two  steep  coral  rocks, 
with  2  or  3  ft.  water  upon  them  at  oi'dinary  tides,  and  sometimes  dry.  They 
lie  in  the  line  of  the  Boompjes  Ee  f  and  the  N.E.  point  of  Thwart-the-way 
in  one,  S.E.  |  E.  A  little  further  South  lies  a  small  but  steep  coral  rock, 
sometimes  dry  at  low  water,  from  which  Boompjes  Eeef  is  on  with  theNortli 
point  of  the  Button,  E.  by  S. 

On  account  of  the  rapid  currents  experienced  at  times  near  the  Zutphen 
lelands,  in  the  westerly  mousoou,   ships  oujjht  not  to  approach  their  South 

I.    A.  2  A 


and  S.E.  parts  nearer  than  U  or  U  mile,  particularly  in  passing  Hont 
Island,  where  the  current  runs  with  great  velocity,  sweeping  to  the  S.W.  and 
W.S.W.  round  Hog  Point. 

Lieut.  Prins,  in  1844,  discovered  an  excellent  anchorage  for  a  dozen  or 
more  large  vessels  between  Hog  Point  and  the  Zutphen  Islands.  He  says, 
if  in  either  of  the  monsoons  a  vessel  cannot  beat  through,  or  is  detained  by 
calms  cT  currents,  she  may  bring  Kandang  Island  to  bear  N.E.,  and  Sindo 
Island  North,  and  to  the  westward  of  that  line  she  may  choose  her  berth  in 
from  30  to  5  fathoms,  sand ;  and  from  thence  the  land  wind  will  enable  her 
on  the  following  morning  to  pursue  her  voyage.  Moreover,  just  to  the 
westward  of  Sindo  there  is  a  small  river,  with  good  water,  near  Pagatau 

Vessels  are  strongly  advised  not  to  try  the  intricate  and  dangerous  passage 
inside  the  Zutphen  Islands,  especially  as  there  is  no  reliable  chart  of  it  yet 

The  Channel  between  Thwart-the-way  and  the  Zutphen  Islands  is  but  3^ 
miles  wide,  and  encumbered  with  two  dangers,  viz.  :  the  Stroom  Rocks  off 
Thwart-the-way,  and  the  Winsor  Eoek  off  the  Button.  Owing  to  the  great 
depth  of  water  in  it,  40  to  50  fathoms,  it  is  not  so  convenient  as  the  channel 
between  Thwart-the-way  and  Java,  where  the  depths  being  only  20  to  30 
fathoms,  much  greater  facility  is  afforded  for  anchoring  in  calms.  The 
channel  between  Thwart-the-way  and  Sumatra  is  much  frequented  in  the 
westerly  monsoon  by  ships  bound  to  the  westward. 

STROOM  ROCKS,  lying  N.N.W.  i  W.,  li  mile  distant  from  the  West 
point  of  Thwart-the-way,  are  a  group  of  three  or  four  rocks  very  near  each, 
other,  with  some  of  their  tops  visible  above  the  sea  at  high  water,  and  then 
only  discernible  in  fiue  weather  at  a  short  distance ;  at  other  times  they  may 
be  seen  at  a  considerable  distance  by  the  breakers  on  the  reef  which  connects 
them  under  water.  They  are  steep-to,  having  40  and  50  fathoms  very  near 

The  currents  which  meet  about  here  from  the  North  and  East  are  very 
strong,  and  with  the  opposite  wind  there  is,  near  these  rocks,  such  a  boiling 
and  eddying  of  the  water  all  around,  that  it  almost  appears  as  if  they  are 
connected  to  Thwart-th.e-way,  the  light-coloured  patches  between  them  ap- 
pearing like  rocks  under  water. 

Winsor  Rock,  on  which  the  American  ship  Claudius,  Capt.  Winsor,  struck 
in  May,  1837,  was  examined  by  Lieut.  B.  Gr.  Escher,  D.R.N.  From  it  the 
middle  of  the  Button  bears  S.E.  by  E.  |  E.,  distant  1 J  mile  ;  the  S.E.  point 
of  Thwart-the-way,  S.S.W.  ^  W. ;  its  N.W.  point,  S.W.  |  W.  ;  and  the 
South  point  of  the  southernmost  Zutphen  Island  is  just  in  one  with  the 
northernmost  visible  point  of  Bezee  Island.  The  least  water  on  it  is  16  ft., 
the  depths  increasing  suddenly  in  every  direction.  Other  rocks  were  seen 
in  the  edd}'  on  the  lee  side  of  the  rock. 


The  COAST  of  SUMATRA  from  the  Z  itphen  Islands  runs  N.N.E.  J  E. 
for  the  distance  of  3  miles  to  a  point,  not  named  on  the  charts,  where  it 
trends  away  to  the  northward.     This  part  of  the  coast  is  fronted  by  rocks. 

Pulo  Logok  is  a  small  but  very  high  island,  lying  1  mile  North  of  the 
above-mentioned  point,  and  4  miles  N.  by  E.  from  the  Zutphen  Islands ;  the 
coast  near  it  is  rocky  and  steep.  Lieut.  Kolff  found  there  15  and  20  fathoms 
hard  sand ;  but  further  to  the  southward  towards  the  steep  point  near  the 
Zutphen  Islands,  a  mud  bank  projects  from  the  shore  ;  the  lead  is  there  a 
sure  guide,  for  the  bottom  in  9  and  10  fathoms  is  hard,  while  in  7  and  6  fa- 
thoms it  becomes  soft. 

The  Sisters  {De  Gezusters)  are  three  small  islands,  lying  about  N.  by  E.  3 
to  4^  miles  from  Logok  Island.  S.E.  nearly  a  mile  from  them  is  a  small 
reef  with  only  2  fathoms  water,  on  which  a  ship  was  aground,  with  North 
Island  bearing  N.  \  E.,  and  the  middle  of  the  Sisters  W.N.  W.  Another  in 
the  same  predicament  had  the  East  point  of  North  Island  N.  by  E.,  and  the 
outermost  Sister  N.  by  W.  \  W.  to  N.W,  It  is,  therefore,  advisable  to  give 
the  Sisters  a  berth  of  2  miles,  where  irregular  soundings  of  16,  12,  and  8 
fathoms  will  be  found. 

North  Island,  in  lat.  5°  40^'  S.,  long.  105°  50'  W.,  is  small,  bushy,  and  a 
full  mile  distant  from  the  coast  of  Sumatra.  There  is  a  small  islet,  called 
Sina,  at  its  southern  extremity  ;  and  extending  to  the  S.E.  of  it  is  a  shoal  of 
3 J  fathoms  water.  The  island  therefore  requires  a  berth  of  at  least  1^  mile; 
its  North  and  S.W.  sides  are  steep-to. 

Lieut.  Riddle,  E.N.R.,  recommends  North  Island  as  a  suitable  stopping- 
place  during  the  westerly  monsoon.  He  anchored  his  vessel  in  13  fathoms, 
with  North  Island  bearing  N.  by  E.  2  miles  distant,  and  found  a  deep  ship 
channel  between  the  island  and  the  main  ;  but  a  spit,  steep-to,  extends  100 
or  200  ft.  from  the  N.W.  end  of  the  island.  Between  Sina  Island  and  North 
Island  is  a  narrow  and  deep  channel,  bounded  on  either  side  by  coral  reefs. 
The  natives  of  North  Island  were  friendly,  and  showed  where  the  best 
water  could  be  obtained  :  this  was  easily  shipped,  while  at  the  same  time  at 
Anjer  the  surf  was  too  violent  to  allow  boats  to  come  off  with  water. 

Between  North  Island  and  the  Sisters  the  coast  bends  in  a  little,  and  is 
edged  by  a  mud  bank  ;  so  that  2  miles  from  the  shore  will  be  found  good 
soft  ground  for  anchoring,  in  8  to  12  fathoms,  with  North  Island  bearing 
N.  by  E.  Small  vessels  will  find  good  anchorage  between  the  Sisters  and 
the  main,  in  2  or  3  fathoms  water.  Abreast  of  the  Sisters  there  is  a  fresh 
water  spring,  but  Lieut.  Kolff  found  its  contents  detrimental  to  the  health  of 
his  crew,  although  it  was  clear,  and  free  from  any  unpleasant  taste. 

The  Winds  experienced  in  the  Strait  of  Sunda  have  been  briefly  described 
on  page  14. 

The  Currents  are  also  described  on  page  27. 

DIRECTIONS. — The  brief  instructions  for  passing  along  either  coast  of  the 


strait,  before  given,  will  be  sufficient  for  passing  it  with  a  fair  wind.     The 
following  is  for  the  return  voyage. 

Working  out  of  the  Strait  ix  the  North-west  Monsoon. — The  best 
way  is  to  pass  between  the  Zutphen  Islands  and  the  Stroom  Eock,  and  give 
the  Zutphen  a  berth  of  at  least  1}  or  1^  mile  on  their  eastern  side,  and 
beat  up  by  short  tacks  along  the  coast  of  Sumatra  between  them  and  Hog 
Point.  Afterwards,  passing  either  North  or  South  of  the  Tega  Islets,  as  the 
strong  currents  and  hard  squalls  may  allow,  try  to  get  westing  in  Lampong 
Bay,  to  the  northward  of  Tims  Island,  and  to  pass  between  it  and  Soengal, 
or  through  Lagoendy  Strait.  In  this  manner  a  ship  will  make  a  quick  pas- 
sage through  the  strait,  if  the  wind  be  not  too  variable,  besides  having  the 
advantage  of  anchoring  behind  Sebuko  Island,  or  in  Lampong  Bay,  it  the 
currents  or  winds  are  too  strong. 

There  are,  however  on  record  many  instances  of  vessels  having  beaten  out 
of  the  strait  along  the  coast  of  Java,  during  the  western  monsoon,  with  more 
ease  and  celerity  than  could  have  been  effected  by  stretching  into  Lampong 
Bay,  in  consequence  of  the  westerly  current  having  at  those  times  developed 
its  chief  strength  along  the  former  side  of  the  strait. 

It  has  been  generally  supposed  that  the  currents  at  both  ends  of  Java  are 
regulated  by  the  monsoons ;  but,  according  to  Captain  M.  H.  Jansen,  of  the 
Dutch  Royal  Navy,  who  has  had  great  experience  in  the  Indian  Archipelago, 
it  appears  that  most  part  of  the  year  a  westerly  current  sets  out  of  Sunda 
Strait.  It  is  much  to  be  wished  that  this  important  element  in  Indian  navi- 
gation should  no  longer  be  left  a  matter  of  doubtful  opinion. 

Some  remarks  on  this  subject  will  be  found  on  page  54. 



The  EAST  COAST  of  SUMATRA,  between  Sunda  and  Banka  Straits,  has 
never  been  regularly  surveyed.  The  coast  is  generally  low,  and  covered  with 
wood  to  the  water's  edge,  and  does  not  therefore  present  much  variation  in 
aspect.  It  is  fronted  by  some  very  extensive  shoal  banks,  which  in  some 
places  project  14  or  15  miles  from  the  shore,  but  their  exact  boundaries  are 

The  Winds  of  the  Java  Sea  are  described  on  pages  14 — 16  ante. 

The  Currents  in  the  Java  Sea  are  for  the  most  part  influenced  by  the  pre- 
vailing monsoon.  They  incline  to  the  northward  or  southwai'd,  according  to 
the  influence  of  the  currents  of  the  straits  of  Sunda,  Banka,  and  Gaspar ; 
for  during  the  western  monsoon  they  run  to  the  eastward,  or  more  southerly 
according  to  the  set  of  these  which  come  from  the  straits  ;  and  in  the  eastern 
monsoon  they  run  to  the  westward  or  more  northerly  from  a  similar  cause. 
Through  a  succession  of  tides  which  were  observed,  chiefly  during  the 
eastern  monsoon,  it  was  found  that  those  which  followed  the  direction  of  the 
monsoon  were  stronger  and  of  longer  duration,  so  that  a  daily  allowance 
from  8  to  12  miles  may  be  made  in  the  eastern  monsoon,  and  from  20  to  24 
miles  in  the  western  monsoon. 

The  COAST  trends  from  abreast  North  Island  with  a  slight  curve  inland, 
nearly  North  for  13  miles,  to  a  point  at  which  is  the  entrance  of  a  small 
river  named  Nihonng.  Two  other  rivers,  the  Sakampang  and  the  Niale,  also 
appear  on  the  chart  of  this  part  of  the  coast.  From  the  Nihoung  Eiver,  the 
coast  line  runs  nearly  straight,  N.  by  W.  for  another  13  miles,  where  it 
forms  a  small  bay,  and  from  thence  it  assumes  for  a  distance  of  20  miles  a 
rather  irregular  outline,  in  a  general  direction  about  N.  by  E.  |  E.  to  Tan- 
jong  Supong. 

Mount  Imbong,  in  lat.  S''  20^'  S.,  generally  described  as,  and  sometimes 
named,  Knoh  Hill,  is  the  most  prominent  hill  on  the  coast  near  the  Brothers, 


but  the  latter  name  tends  to  mislead.  It  is  of  low  elevation,  of  ver^-  gradual 
ascent,  and  clothed  with  trees.  There  is  a  hill  to  the  N.W.  of  it,  of  hum- 
mock form. 

SHAHBUNDAR  BANK  and  SHOALS.— Abreast  of  Mount  Imbong  and 
of  Tanjong  Supoug,  the  bank  fronting  the  Sumatra  shore  projects  about  a 
mile  only  ;  but  between  these  points  it  stretches  10  miles  in  the  direction  of 
the  Two  Brothers  ;  the  channel  between  the  bank  and  those  islands  being 
about  6  or  7  miles  wide.  Upon  the  outer  edge  of  the  bank  are  several  slioal 
patches,  upon  one  of  which  the  Dutch  ship  Shahhundar  narrowly  escaped 
destruction.  As  the  depths  decrease  gradually  towards  this  bank,  the  lead, 
if  attended  to,  will  indicate  its  proximity. 

From  Tanjong  Supong  to  a  point  l^  mile  north-eastward  of  the  river 
named  Eali  Saputi,  the  bearing  is  North  a  little  easterly,  and  the  distance 
13  miles,  the  coast  between  forming  a  bight  3|  miles  deep.  From  thence 
the  coast  line  runs  N.  J  W.  for  11  miles,  and  then  a  little  more  westerly  for 
11  miles  further,  to  the  large  river  Kali  Tulang  Bawang  or  Toelang.  The 
hank,  fronting  the  coast  between  Tanjong  Supong  and  the  entrance  of 
the  Kali  Saputi,  extends  a  little  more  than  half  a  mile  from  the  shore.  The 
Kali  Saputi,  the  mouth  of  which  is  in  4°  44'  S.,  may  be  approached  as  near 
as  3  or  2  miles  out. 

Tulang  Bank. — Northward  of  the  Kali  Saputi,  the  extensive  hard  sand- 
bank of  Tulang  projects  as  far  as  14  miles  from  the  shore;  but  its  South 
side,  bending  in  to  the  northward,  forms  a  kind  of  bay. 

Kali  Tulang  Bawang. — The  mouth  of  this  river,  in  4°  21'  S.,  may  be  closely 
approached.  Near  its  entrance  there  is  a  small  village ;  and  three  days* 
journey  up  the  river,  according  to  the  natives,  is  a  town  called  Mmigala, 
where  the  Eajah  resides.     Pirates  sometimes  hide  tliemselves  there. 

The  Coast  from  the  Kali  Tulang  Bawang  to  Tree  Island,  37  miles  to  the 
North,  curves  inland  3  or  4  miles,  and  about  the  middle  of  it  is  the  mouth 
of  the  Eiver  Masudyi.  Tree  Island  is  in  about  lat.  3°  41'  S.,  and  close  to  a 
point  of  land,  to  which  it  is  joined  at  low  water.  From  thence  the  coast 
curves  round  to  a  point  N.  by  E.,  distant  17  miles;  from  which  Lucipara 
Point,  at  the  entrance  of  Banka  Strait,  bears  about  N.E.  by  N.,  distant  15 
miles,  the  coast  between  forming  a  bight  3  miles  deep. 

Between  the  Toelang  and  the  Mesudji  Rivers  the  bank  extends  from  the 
shore  about  3  miles  only,  but  a  little  northward  of  the  latter  it  again  projects 
to  the  distance  of  14  or  15  miles;  from  thence  it  edges  away  towards  the 
coast  in  a  N.  by  W.  direction  to  about  7  miles  northward  of  Tree  Island, 
where  it  approaches  the  shore  within  3  miles;  it  then  runs  N.E.  for  16  or 
17  miles,  where  its  edge  is  11  miles  distant  from  the  land;  here  it  falls  back 
again  towards  the  coast,  and  takes  a  northerly  direction  to  Lucipara  Point, 
from  which  it  projects  but  2  miles.     On   this   bank   between  the  Mesudji 


Eivpr    and    Lucipara    Point,    are   many   dangerous,    and    occasionally   dry 

Some  of  the  dangers  supposed  to  exist  between  the  Thousand  Islands 
and  the  Sumatra  shore,  known  as  the  Dolphin,  Antelope,  Banterer,  and 
Paulowna,  were  searched  for  in  vain  by  Com^mander  C.  Bullock  in  H.M.S. 
Serpent  (1865),  and  expunged  from  the  chart.  The  position  of  the  Lynn 
Bank,  as  well  as  that  of  the  Coventry  Reef,  both  of  which  uncover  at 
low  water,  were  accurately  determined.  The  positions  of  several  other 
dangers  in  this  route  were  also  rectified,  but  as  no  complete  survey  has 
been  made,  vessels  navigating  this  locality  are  recommended  to  proceed  with 

Jason  Rock,  searched  for  in  vain  by  Commander  Buckle  in  1865,  was 
found  about  2  miles  out  from  its  original  position  in  1870  by  the  master  of 
the  English  ship  Tewkeslury.  It  is  described  as  40  ft.  in  diameter,  with  13  ft. 
least  water  and  10  fathoms  around  it.  The  Netherlands  Gruvernment  steamer 
Borneo  afterwards  examined  it,  giving  the  following  bearings : — North 
Watcher,  N.  40°  E. ;  Pulo  Doea,  S.  89°  E.  ;  and  W.  Island  or  Pulo  Pablo- 
kan,  S.  62°  E. 

Helens  Rock. — The  barque  Helens,  Captain  Inkster,  on  a  voyage  from 
Bangkok  to  Melbourne,  struck  on  a  rock  6  miles  E.N.E.  of  the  position 
assigned  to  Jasan  Rock.  The  lead  was  immediately  hove,  and  got  5-^-  fathoms 
in  starboard  gangway,  and  suddenly  deepened  to  10  and  15  fathoms.  The 
bearing  of  several  islands  were  as  follows  : — North  Watcher,  N.  bv  E.  |  E.  ; 
West  end  of  North  Island,  just  open  to  the  westward  of  Doea  Island  ;  Ran- 
gat,  S.E.  by  S.  ;  Peblakan,  S.  ^  E. 

WEST  ISLAND,  or  Pulo  Peblaken,  in  lat.  5°28J'S.,  long.  106°  23'  E.,  is  a 
quarter  of  a  mile  in  length,  and  low,  but  the  trees  on  it  may  be  seen  13  or 
14  miles  from  a  vessel's  deck.  It  is  steep-to  on  all  sides  at  half  a  cable  dis- 
tant, except  round  its  N.E.  sandy  point,  off  which  a  coral  reef  extends  a 
quarter  of  a  mile. 

COVENTRY  REEF,  of  coral,  dries  at  low  water,  and  was  seen  always  to 
break  in  the  calmest  weather.  The  shoalest  part  is  S.S.W.  1  mile  from 
West  Island,  and  is  about  a  cable  in  extent,  but  it  appearpd  to  shelve  off  to 
the  S.W.  for  a  quarter  of  a  mile,  which  would  agree  with  the  account  given 
at  the  time  of  its  discovery  by  the  Caroline  Coventry,  in  1858.  It  is  probably 
the  same  as  that  stated  to  have  been  seen  by  the  Anna  Paidoivna.  Pulo 
Doea  kept  open  West  of  West  Island  will  clear  it  to  the  westward  ;  and 
Pulo  Gosong  Rangat  in  line  with  any  part  of  North  Island  will  clear  it  to 
the  eastward. 

NORTH  ISLAND  and  PULO  DOEA,  the  two  north-westernmost  of  the 
Thousand  Islands,  stand  out  very  conspicuously  from  the  group.  They  lie 
respectively  N.E.  by  E.  \  E.  6 J  miles,  and  N.E.  i  E.  6  miles  from  West 
If-land.     In  the  channel    1  mile  wide  between  them,  Mr.  Roes,   proprietor 


of  the  Keeling  Islands,  reported  a  detached  reef,  which  was  seen  breaking 
from  the  mast-head  of  the  Serpent.     It  lies  nearer  to  North  Island. 

The  NORTH  WATCHER  and  LIGHTHOUSE.— The  North  Watcher  js 
a  narrow  island,  half  a  mile  in  length,  the  N.E.  part  covered  with  high 
trees,  the  S.W.  part  with  low  trees,  visible  in  clear  weather  18  or  20  miles 
off.  A  coral  reef,  with  only  6  ft.  water  in  some  places,  stretches  about 
half  a  mile  round  the  South  end  of  the  island,  with  a  rock  in  one  place  above 

The  ligJithouse  on  the  North  Watcher  is  a  white  iron  tower,  in  lat.  5°  13'  30" 
North,  lono-.  106°  26'  30"  East.  The  light,  first  exhibited  in  June,  1869,  is 
a  bright  light,  revolving  once  in  every  minute,  elevated  159  ft.,  and  visible 
20  miles  off. 

The  wreck  of  the  War  Eagle  was  reported  in  the  last  edition  of  this  work 
to  lie  S.W.  by  W.  5  miles  from  the  S.W.  point  of  the  North  Watcher,  in 
12  fathoms,  mud  bottom,  her  topmast  heads  showing  above  water.  A  blue 
flag  was  placed  on  the  main  topgallant  mast-head.  She  is  alleged  to  have 
struck  on  a  reef  2  miles  to  the  N.W.  of  the  North  Watcher,  for  which  a 
Netherlands  vessel  was  sent  to  search. 

OMEGA  ROCK,  on  which  the  American  ship  Omega  struck  in  1835,  lies 
about  E.  by  S.,  distant  three-quarters  of  a  mile  from  the  North  Watcher. 
According  to  her  captain,  it  is  composed  of  coral,  about  150  to  200  yards  in 
extent,  N.N.E.  and  S.S.W.,  and  about  60  or  70  yards  broad,  is  steep-to,  and 
has  not  more  than  9  to  12  ft.  on  the  shoalest  parts.  It  should  be  given  a 
wide  berth  by  a  vessel  passing  eastward  of  the  North  Watcher,  from  which 
it  is  separated  by  a  narrovC  channel  with  11  and  12  fathoms  water. 

EDELING  SHOALS.— Between  Pulo  Doea  and  West  Island  lie  some 
patches  of  rocky  ground,  named  the  Edeling  Shoals,  to  avoid  which  it  is 
recommended  that  vessels  of  heavy  draught  should  not  pass  eastward  of  a 
line  joining  the  two  islands,  unless  South  of  Pulo  Gosong  Eangat,  the 
small  island  surrounded  by  a  sand  beach,  which  lies  2f  miles  E.N.E.  of 
West  Island. 

These  shoals  consist  of  two  coral  patches  East  and  West  of  each  other,  and 
half  a  mile  apart.  On  the  eastern  shoal  there  may  be  as  little  as  3  fathoms 
at  low  water;  on  the  western,  4J  fathoms.  They  lie  directly  between  Pulo 
Doea  and  Eangat ;  from  the  latter  they  bear  N.E.  f  N.,  and  N.N.E.  i  E.  1 J 
and  I5  mile  respectively.  There  were  found  two  other  patches  of  9  fathoms, 
and  so  many  indications  of  sandstone  bottom,  that  vessels  should  appi'oach 
this  vicinity  with  caution. 

E.  ^  N.  from  the  South  point  of  Peblakan  or  West  Island,  distant  about 
3^  miles,  is  a  reef  of  coral  and  stone  ;  this  reef  extends  about  1  cable  North 
and  South,  and  2^  cables  East  and  West.  There  is  about  4  ft.  water  over 
the  shoalest  part,  and  from  4  to  5  fathoms  around  the  reef;  from  it  the  ex- 
tremes of  Kangat  Island  bore  N.W.  \  N.  and  N.W.  by  N.  respectively. 


A  reef  also,  on  which  the  sea  breaks  heavily,  extends  a  distance  of  about 
2  cables  (by  estimation)  from  the  North  and  N.E.  sides  of  Rangat  Island. 

The  TWO  BROTHERS  are  low  islands,  which  together  extend  1  mile  in 
a  N.  I  E.  direction.  The  North  Brother  is  small  and  round,  with  high  trees ; 
the  South  Brother  is  4  cables  long,  and  two  of  its  trees  are  very  high  and 
conspicuous,  and  may  be  seen  in  clear  weather  20  to  23  miles  off.  Broad 
coral  reefs  surround  the  South  Brother  ;  round  the  North  Island  they  are 
narrower.  There  is  a  passage  between  the  islands  2  cables  wide,  carrying  7 
to  5  fathoms  over  an  apparently  regular  bottom.  To  the  East  of  the  islands 
is  good  anchorage  in  9  to  10  fathoms.  The  South  point  of  the  South  Brother 
is  in  lat.  5°  10'  25"  S.,  long.  106°  6'  E.* 

SWALLOW  ROCK.— In  April,  1866,  Mr.  Wilds,  Master  Commanding 
H.M.  surveying  vessel  Swallow,  succeeded  in  finding  the  rock  marked  ou 
former  charts  at  about  8  miles  S.S.W.  of  the  Brothers.  Its  position  is  in 
lat.  5°  17'  40"  S.,  long.  106°  3'  50"  E.,  the  South  Brother  bearing  N.  17°  E. 
(true),  distant  7f  miles.  There  are  only  22  ft.  water  on  the  rock,  and  vessels 
of  heavy  draught  should  be  careful  to  give  it  a  wide  berth,  as  there  was 
neither  ripple,  break,  or  swell  over  it  to  indicate  its  position.  At  half  a  mile 
S.  by  W.  i  W.  from  the  rock,  soundings  in  5  fathoms  were  obtained  on  a 
small  patch  of  sand  and  shells,  with  9  fathoms  between  it  and  the  rock.  The 
depths  around  the  rock  and  patch  were  9  to  10  fathoms,  sand. 

LYNN  BANK  is  composed  of  coral,  a  cable's  length  in  extent,  N.N.E.  and 
S.S.W.,  and  half  a  cable  in  breadth,  carrying  general  depths  over  it  of  3  to 

*  Doubtful  Dangers. — The  dangers  said  to  lie  in  the  track  of  vessels  sailing  direct 
between  Sunda  Strait  and  the  North  Watcher  were  searched  for  by  the  Serpent  during 
several  days.  The  hand  and  deep-sea  leads  were  kept  constantly  going,  and  the  sharp- 
ness of  the  mast-head  man's  eyesight  was  stimulated  by  the  ofler  of  a  reward  for  their 

A  short  time  was  also  devoted  to  the  Antelope  and  other  shoals,  reported  to  lie  South 
and  S.S.W  of  the  Brothers,  but  nothing  was  seen  of  them.  A  9-fathom  bank  of  fine 
speckled  sand  was  found  2\  to  Z\  miles  S.  \  E.  of  the  South  Brother.  This  bank,  which 
showed  of  a  pale  green  colour,  visible  2  miles,  would  prove  at  times  a  convenient  an- 
chorage ;  the  Brothers  just  touching  lead  over  the  shoalest  part.  There  are  not  more  than 
10  fathoms  between  this  and  the  Brothers. 

The  Dolphin  Kock,  on  which  the  ship  Dolphin  was  said  to  have  been  aground,  was 
searched  for  by  the  Serpent  during  part  of  two  days.  It  was  described  as  nearly  even 
with  the  water's  edge,  and  to  lie  about  6  miles  S.S.E.  from  the  South  end  of  the  Two 
Brothers,  but  it  does  not  appear  ever  to  have  been  seen  by  any  other  vessel.  The  distance 
from  the  Brothers  is  precisely  that  of  the  Lynn  Bank,  and  a  change  in  the  bearing  from 
S.S.E.  to  E.S.E.  (such  an  error  being  not  an  uncommon  one),  would  make  it  the  Lynn.  If 
it  were  not  for  some  indication  of  sandstone  bottom,  no  credibility  need  be  attached  to  the 
statement  which  records  its  existence. 

Pruisen  Bank,  sometimes  placed  in  lat.  5'  17'  S.,  long.  107°  9' E.,  does  not  exist,  nor  does 
there  appear  to  be  any  authority  whatever  to  place  it  in  that  position. 

1.  A.  2  B 


4  feet,  with  some  rocks  that  dry  at  low  water.  There  are  8  fathoms  close  to 
the  rock,  deepening  to  13  and  14  fathoms  at  a  cable's  distance.  It  is  in 
lat.  5°  12'  S.,  long.  106°  12'  E.,  and  from  it  the  North  extreme  of  the  North 
Brother  bears  N.  68°  W.  6§  miles,  and  the  South  extreme  of  the  South 
Brother,  N.  77°  W. 

These  extremes  of  the  islands  subtend  an  angle  of  9  degrees ;  if,  therefore, 
they  be  made,  whilst  passing  on  (or  within  a  point  or  more  of)  the  above 
bearings,  to  subtend  an  angle  of  8°,  a  vessel  will  pass  about  a  mile  outside 
the  bank  ;  and  if  an  angle  of  10°,  half  a  mile  inside  it.  In  calm  weather  the 
shoal,  from  its  dark  colour,  is  extremely  difficult  to  see  until  close  upon  it ; 
the  above  method  as  a  safeguard  will  then  be  invaluable,  and  may  be  used 
with  confidence.  A  sharp  lookout  should  always  be  kept,  as  the  shoal  may 
only  be  detected  by  a  slight  ripple.  At  night  it  is  recommended  to  close  the 
Brothers  and  pass  them  at  1  to  2  miles. 

BROTJWERS  REEFS  are  two  dangerous  coral  shoals,  separated  about 
half  a  mile  from  each  other,  with  a  dry  patch  of  sand  and  coral  upon  each. 
They  are  together  a  mile  in  extent,  and  a  quarter  of  a  mile  in  breadth,  with 
depths  of  4f  to  15  fathoms  in  the  swatch  between  them.  Hard  ground 
stretches  out  from  their  North  and  South  ends  ;  at  a  short  distance  to  the 
eastward  and  westward  the  bottom  is  soft,  and  the  depths  1^  mile  eastward 
are  generally  H|^  and  15  fathoms,  regular  soundings. 

The  Serpent  anchored  near  the  N.E.  part  of  these  reefs.  No  astronomical 
observations  were  obtained,  but  the  position  of  the  North  reef,  by  careful 
magnetic  bearings,  was  made  to  be  in  lat.  5°  4f'  S.,  long.  106°  15'  E.,  the 
North  Brother  bearing  S.  60°  W.,  distant  10  miles,  and  the  North  Watcher 
S.  58°  E.,  15  miles.  This  is  rather  nearer  the  Brothers  than  the  commonly 
received  position. 

A  vessel  passing  eastward  of  the  Brouwers  and  Lynn  Eeefs  should  keep 
nearer  to  the  North  Watcher  than  to  the  Two  Brothers.  The  high  moun- 
tain seen  to  the  southward  is  Mount  Karang,  South  of  Anjer,  and  in  lat. 
6°  15'  S.,  but  from  the  above  reef  and  islands  the  round  hill  over  St.  Nicho- 
las Point  is  more  often  visible,  and  is  a  good  landmark.  The  latter  is  named 
Mount  Agoeng  on  some  charts,  but  is  called  by  the  Dutch  Gedeh,  and  its 
height  is  2,100  ft. 

Clifton  Shoal. — The  ship  Clifton,  of  Bristol,  is  reported  to  have  grounded, 
in  November,  1850,  on  a  shoal  with  2 J  fathoms  on  it,  lying  N.  J  W.,  10^ 
miles  from  the  Brothers.  It  is  now  marked  on  the  Dutch  charts  with  1 8  ft. 
and  24  to  27  ft.  to  seaward,  about  9  miles  to  the  eastward  of  Cape  Scopong 
or  Supong,  in  lat.  4"  56'  S.,  long.  106°  3'  E. 

Comara,  a  shoal  danger  of  doubtful  existence,  with  7  fathoms  close-to, 
placed  on  the  Dutch  Government  charts  about  9  leagues  to  the  N.W.  of  the 
North  Watcher,  and  7  leagues  from  the  coast  of  Sumatra,  in  lat.  4°  49'  30" 
South,  long.  106°  14'  30"  East. 


Ocean  Mail,  marked  on  the  Dutch  Grovernment  charts  with  18  ft.  and  7 
and  8  fathoms  all  round,  is  situated  11  leagues  to  the  eastward  of  the 
Toelang  River,  in  lat.  4°  18'  S.,  long.  106°  26'  E. 

A  patch  of  hard  ground,  about  2  miles  in  extent,  having  but  4^  fathoms 
least  water  over  it,  appears  on  the  chart  in  lat.  4°  11'  S.,  long.  106°  8' E.  The 
soundings  around  it  are  irregular,  6  to  1 1  fathoms  on  the  East  side,  and  6  to 
9  on  the  West. 

Arend  Bank,  in  lat.  3°  45'  S.,  long.  106°  16'  E.,  is  2  miles  in  length,  and 
the  same  in  breadth,  consisting  of  fine  gray  sand  and  broken  shells.  It  has 
4^  to  6  fathoms  water  over  it,  and  is  surrounded  by  a  depth  of  6  fathoms, 
which  rapidly  increases,  over  a  soft  bottom. 

Boreas  Bank  lies  E.  by  N.  11^  miles  distant  from  the  Arend  Bank,  in 
lat.  3°  44'  S.,  long.  106°  27^'  E.  It  is  also  composed  of  a  fine  gray  sand,  and 
the  least  water  upon  it  is  5  fathoms.  Around  it  the  depth  increases  rapidly 
to  10  and  13  fathoms,  except  on  the  N.W.  side,  where  the  soundings  are 
regular  for  some  time  with  5  and  6  fathoms.  Between  the  Arend  and  Boreas 
Banks  there  are  irregular  depths  of  8  to  14  fathoms. 

City  of  Carlisle  Patch. — A  ship  of  this  name,  in  1861,  reported  a  patch 
of  16  ft.  to  exist  in  lat.  3°  46'  S.,  long.  106°  20'  E.,  or  S.W.  by  W.  *  W.,  3^ 
miles  from  the  Boreas  Bank.  Its  North  end  is  now  marked  on  the  charts 
in  lat.  3°  27'  S.,  long.  106°  24^'  E.,  whence  the  bank  extends  2^  miles  to  the 
S.E.,  with  5  and  4  J  fathoms. 

Caution. — Vessels  in  this  neighbourhood  unexpectedly  shoaling  their 
water  at  night  ought  to  be  very  careful,  for  many  that  considered  themselves 
to  be  upon  these  banks  were  in  fact  upon  those  off  the  coast  of  Sumatra,  near 
Tree  Island,  and  consequently  in  great  danger.  These  two  banks  consist  of 
fine  gray  sand,  while  those  near  Tree  Island  are  of  coarse  sand  with  gravel. 

The  depths  in  that  part  of  the  sea  which  lies  between  the  North  Watcher, 
Two  Brothers,  and  Lucipara,  are,  except  the  banks  of  Comara,  Ocean  Mail, 
Arend  and  Boreas,  tolerably  regular  from  10  to  16  fathoms;  but  nearer  to 
Sumatra,  about  22  or  24  miles  from  the  coast,  they  become  irregular,  chang- 
ing often,  and  suddenly,  from  10  to  5  and  6  fathoms.  Towards  Lucipara,  in 
the  usual  track  towards  Banka  Strait,  the  water  shoals  gradually  to  6  and 
4 A  fathoms. 


General  Description. — The  Strait  of  Banka  separates  the  islands  of  Banka 
and  Sumatra,  and  trends  with  many  bondings  to  the  north-westward. 

In  the  ensuing  account  of  it  we  have  followed  entirely  that  given  in  the 
China  Sea  Pilot,  as  the  features  of  this  important  passage  have  been  carefully 
and  recently  surveyed  by  our  officers. 


The  coast  of  Sumatra  is  very  low,  densely  covered  with  wood,  and  offers 
no  other  variation  than  a  few  points,  or  rather  roundings,  which  are  only 
clearly  distinct  at  short  distances,  and  are  easily  mistaken  for  the  so-called 
false  points,  which  are  observed  immediately  after  rounding  the  real  points. 
The  shore  being  inundated  at  high  flood,  the  distance  from  it  is  generally 
over  estimated. 

The  Island  of  Banka  is  covered  with  hills  and  mountains,  varying  from 
930  to  2,320  ft.  in  height ;  and  it  is  remarkable  that,  notwithstanding  their 
comparatively  small  heiglit,  their  summits  are  generally  covered  with  clouds, 
whifh  accounts  for  the  erroneous  heights  given  to  these  hills  by  various 
authors,  who  have  estimated  them  at  upwards  of  9,000  ft. 

On  the  Banka  Coast  are  prominent  points,  sandy  beaches,  and  in  some 
places  deep  bights,  as  on  the  Sumatra  side  ;  as  a  rule,  wherever  sand  occurs 
casuarina  trees  will  be  found ;  the  other  trees  are  principally  pine,  teak,  and 
aspen.  Near  the  western  point  of  Banka  stands  the  capital  of  the  colony 
(or  residency)  of  that  name,  called  Mintok,  and  its  roadstead  is  much  visited 
by  the  coasters  that  supply  the  Chinese  miners  with  rice. 

The  whole  coast  of  Sumatra  is  bordered  by  a  mud  flat,  which  is  narrower 
off  the  points,  but  in  some  of  the  bights  from  2  to  4  miles  wide.  Towards 
the  Banka  side  the  bottom  becomes  gradually  harder,  and  even  rocky. 
Besides  the  few  small  islets  and  rocks  in  this  strait,  there  are  the  group  of 
Nangka  Islands,  where  vessels  sometimes  proceed  to  procure  fresh  water 
and  wood.  Many  rivers  discharge  themselves  into  the  strait,  of  which  the 
principal  are  the  Soensang  and  the  Assing,  both  navigable  to  a  great  distance 
for  vessels  of  heavy  burden. 

The  entrance  to  Banka  Strait  is  encumbered  with  numerous  long  and 
narrow  banks  of  sand,  having  various  depths  of  water  over  them,  and  deep 
channels  between.  Only  two  of  these  channels,  however,  are  available  for 
the  ordinary  purposes  of  navigation,  as  it  is  not  possible  to  give  any  direc- 
tions which  would  enable  vessels  to  use  the  others  with  safety  ;  but  in  the 
event  of  a  vessel  from  accident  or  other  cause  finding  herself  amongst  the 
banks,  she  would  be  enabled,  by  careful  attention  to  the  Admiralty  Chart,  to 
extricate  herself  without  much  difficulty.* 

Until  the  survey  of  this  strait  by  Mr.  "W.  Stanton,  assisted  by  Mr.  J.  W. 
Eeed,  Masters  E.N.,  in  H.M.S.  Saracen,  during  the  years  1859  and  1860, 

*  Caution — Buoys  and  Beacons. — The  Captain  of  the  French  transport  La  Correze  reports, 
in  1873,  several  of  the  beacons  and  buoys  in  Banka  Strait  as  out  of  position,  while  others 
have  disappeared.  Captain  F.  G.  Petersen,  also,  in  a  letter  to  the  "  Nautical  Magazine  "  of 
February,  1875,  says — "  In  the  Admiralty  charts  are  mentioned  a  lot  of  beacons  and  buoys, 
■which  can  never  be  seen  in  reality.  I  saw  only  one  buoy  in  the  whole  strait  on  the 
Fredrik  Hendriks  Rock.  In  the  same  charts  are  many  conspicuous  trees  mentioned,  which 
are  all  or  most  of  them  gone.  On  the  points  of  Sumatra  should  be  some  beacons  and  fishing 
stakes,  but  anything  of  them  was  not  to  be  seen. 


very  little  was  known  of  the  banks  at  its  entrance.  The  Dutch  had  published 
a  chart  compiled  from  the  observations  of  the  officers  of  the  Dutch  men-of- 
war  employed  at  various  times  on  the  station,  which  furnished  a  pretty  cor- 
rect outline  of  the  coasts  on  both  sides  the  strait,  and  showed  the  positions 
of  the  prominent  dangers  in  the  fairway,  but  the  soundings  on  it  were  very 
imperfect,  and  the  space  eastward  of  Lucipara,  occupied  by  the  numerous 
long  narrow  sandbanks  above  referred  to,  was  almost  a  blank. 

The  ordinary  route  of  vessels  up  to  the  time  of  the  Sara<:en\  survey,  was 
through  the  Lucipara  Channel,  between  the  Island  of  Lucipara  and  the  Coast 
of  Sumatra ;  but  the  advantages  which  a  navigable  channel  along  the  coast 
of  Banka  Island  would  offer  to  vessels  passing  through  Banka  Strait  had 
been  long  felt  by  seamen,  and  Melvill  Van  Carnbee,  in  the  Java  Guide,  re- 
marks upon  this  want  as  follows  : — 

"  The  passage  between  Lucipara  and  Banka  would  have  great  advantages 
in  entering  or  leaving  the  Strait  of  Banka,  were  it  not  encumbered  so  much 
with  shoals  and  banks,  the  positions  of  which  are  not  known  correctly,  and 
which  render  this  passage  unsafe,  at  least  for  large  vessels,  although  Com- 
modore Watson  took  the  Revenge  by  night  to  the  eastward  of  Lucipara,  into 
the  Strait  of  Banka,  and  had  not  less  than  b^  fathoms  water.  For  vessels 
of  light  burden  and  beating  up  against  the  western  monsoon,  this  eastern 
channel  into  the  strait  is  very  desirable,  as  it  is  almost  impossible  to  make 
any  progress  against  the  strong  and  continual  currents  in  the  Lucipara 

During  the  Saracenh  survey,  an  excellent  passage,  now  named  Stanton 
Channel,  nearly  5  miles  wide  in  its  narrowest  pai't,  and  with  depths  varying 
from  7  to  20  fathoms,  was  found  between  Lucipara  and  Banka.  Mr.  Stanton 
gives  the  following  reasons  for  preferring  this  channel  to  the  old  one  between 
Lucipara  and  Sumatra. 

"  The  Stanton  Channel  will  be  found  to  possess  many  advantages  over 
that  of  Lucipara,  for  it  is  a  mile  wider,  the  approaches  to  it  are  marked  by 
well-defined  hills  on  Bmka  Island,  and  a  vessel  of  the  largest  draught  may 
pass  through  it  at  any  time  of  tide ;  whereas  vessels  frequently  get  on  shore 
in  using  the  latter  channel,  for  the  coast  of  Sumatra,  consisting  of  low  muddy 
mangrove  shores  about  50  or  60  ft.  in  height,  is  unmarked  by  a  single  con- 
spicuous object  to  assist  the  seaman  to  clear  the  mud  flat  bordering  its  entire 
length,  and  which  a  few  miles  southward  of  Lucipara  Point  extends  1 1  miles 
from  the  land.  The  island  of  Lucipara  also  is  small,  about  half  a  mile  in 
length,  and  no  marks  can  be  given  to  avoid  the  rocks  extending  a  consider- 
able distance  to  the  southward  and  eastward  of  it. 

"  The  water  also  in  the  Stanton  Channel  being  much  deeper  than  in  the 
Lucipara,  causes  the  banks,  which  are  mostly  of  sand,  to  be  easily  recog- 
nized by  the  light  colour  of  the  water  on  them.  The  tide  also  ebbs  and  flows 
more  regularly  in  this  channel,  and  sets  directly  through   it,    which  enables 

190  BANK  A  STRAIT. 

vessels  even  in  calms  to  drop  through  ;  whereas  in  light  winds  and  calms  they 
are  often  set  over  amongst  the  dangerous  banks  whilst  rounding  First  Point 
in  endeavouring  to  get  through  the  Lucipara  Channel. 

•*  The  wind  in  the  N.W.  monsoon  blows  off  the  Banka  coast,  and  through- 
out the  year  land  breezes  generally  occur  during  the  night.  A  strong  land 
wind  from  the  N.E.  has  been  experienced  in  the  Stanton  Channel  during  the 
S.E.  monsoon,  when  the  wind  was  blowing  directly  through  the  Lucipara 
from  the  S.W. 

"  There  is  also  but  little  variation  in  the  depth  of  water  between  th© 
Sumatra  coast  and  the  Lucipara  shoals;  and  it  is  stated  that  during  the 
months  of  January,  February,  and  March,  when  the  N.W.  monsoon  is  at  its 
full  strength,  the  southern  current  continues  from  14  to  18  hours  successively, 
with  a  velocity  of  2  to  2  J  knots,  which  would  make  it  almost  impossible  for 
an  indifferent  sailer  to  make  any  progress  against  it.  It  is  also  said  that 
during  the  latter  part  of  the  S.E.  monsoon,  it  frequently  blows  hard  from 
the  S.W.,  accompanied  with  much  rain  ;  this  would  considerably  retard 
vessels  going  to  the  southward  through  the  Lucipara  Channel,  and  offer  a 
fair  wind  to  those  proceeding  through  the  Stanton  Channel. 

TIDES  and  CURRENTS. — The  tides  in  Banka  Strait  are  strong,  but  irre- 
gular, and  are  greatly  influenced  by  the  monsoons.  The  flood-tide,  entering 
the  strait  from  the  southward  out  of  the  sea  of  Java,  meets  another  flood, 
about  the  Nangka  Islands,  coming  from  the  northward  out  of  the  China 
Sea.  The  direction  of  the  streams  is  entirely  influenced  by  the  windings 
of  the  strait,  forming,  at  their  meeting,  whirls  and  eddies  in  the  bights  of 
the  land. 

In  the  Lucipara  Channel  and  the  southern  parts  of  the  strait,  sometimes 
there  are  two,  but  generally  only  one  6bb  and  flood  in  the  24  hours,  the 
former  running  to  the  southward  and  the  latter  running  to  the  northward. 
During  the  months  of  January,  February,  and  March,  at  the  greatest 
strength  of  the  N.W.  monsoon,  the  southern  current  continues  often  from  14 
to  18  hours  successively,  with  a  velocity  of  from  2  to  3 J  knots  ;  the  flood-tide 
is  then  very  trifling,  and  sometimes  not  at  all  perceptible.  On  the  contrary, 
during  the  S.E.  monsoon,  the  stream  of  flood  runs  sometimes  14  to  18  hours 
with  great  velocity  into  the  strait,  and  the  ebb  runs  out  during  the  other  10 
or  8  hours  with  but  little  strength. 

In  the  northern  parts  of  the  strait  during  the  N.W.  monsoon  the  southern 
current  or  flood  remains  longer  and  is  stronger  than  the  ebb,  and  the  reverse 
during  the  eastern  monsoon.  The  velocity  of  the  tide  is  sometimes  2  or  2^ 
knots,  and  the  range  from  7  to  12  ft.,  and  sometimes  more;  and  in  the 
mouth  of  the  rivers  the  water  during  the  western  monsoon,  from  the  heavy 
rains  which  prevail  at  that  period,  is  much  higher  than  during  the  eastern 

Between  the  monsoons  flood  and  ebb  succeed  each  other  generally  every 


1  2  hours,  and  the  one  or  the  other  is  then  stronger,  according  to  the  -wind 
being  northward  or  southward.  The  rise  of  an  ordinary  tide  is  5  to  7  ft., 
and  a  spring  tide  9  to  10  ft.,  and  sometimes  12  ft.;  but  the  average  rise 
seems  to  be  much,  greater  during  the  eastern  monsoon  than  during  the 
western  one. 

Mr.  Stanton  observes,  that  on  the  Sumatra  shore,  when  the  monsoon  is 
blowing  strong,  a  constant  surface  current  will  be  found  setting  to  leeward, 
and  extending  nearly  mid-channel,  except  between  Fourth  and  Batakarang 
Points,  where  it  is  influenced  by  the  numerous  branches  of  the  Palembang 

On  the  coast  of  Banka,  owing  to  the  formation  of  the  land,  more  regular 
tides  will  be  found  ;  therefore,  ships  in  working  should  only  keep  on  the 
Sumatra  side  between  Batakarang  and  Fourth  Points,  and  when  Tanjong 
Tadah  bears  N.E.  f  N.,  work  along  the  Banka  coast,  as  by  so  doing,  and 
leaving  either  extremity  of  the  strait  at  low  water,  they  may  carry  a  fair 
tide  all  the  way  through,  and  generally  have  the  advantage  of  a  land  wind 
at  night. 

Throughout  the  strait,  a  difference  of  12  hours  in  the  tides  was  observed 
in  the  opposite  monsoon.  It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  in  the  S.E. 
monsoon  about  8^  30"  p.m.,  but  in  the  N.W.  monsoon  high  water  takes 
place  at  nearly  the  same  time  in  the  morning. 

Eddies  in  the  Bights. — When  beating  through  the  middle  of  the  strait 
during  the  strength  of  the  monsoons,  continuous  and  contrary  currents  are 
certain,  and  the  skilful  seaman  will  therefore  find  great  advantage  in  avail- 
ing himself  of  the  eddies,  as  well  as  of  the  more  regular  changes  of  tide,  by 
standing  into  the  bights  and  bays  in  those  parts  of  the  strait  where  he  can 
safely  approach  the  land. 

Inshore  Tides. — In  the  Toboe  AH  Channel,  also  in  the  bay  North  of  the 
Nangka  Islands,  and  in  the  passage  between  Brom-Brom  Eeef  and  Banka, 
we  meet,  even  in  the  western  monsoon,  a  pretty  regular  succession  in  the 
roadstead  tides.  It  has  been  often  observed,  when  passing  the  road  of 
Mintok,  that  the  vessels  were  lying  with  their  heads  in  a  contrary  direction 
to  those  at  anchor  upon  the  bank  outside.  In  that  road  the  flood  comes 
from  the  westward,  and  the  ebb  from  the  eastward  ;  but  near  the  mouth  of 
the  Assing  Eiver  the  contrary  occurs ;  the  flood  there  runs  West,  and  the 
ebb  East.  In  the  bays  between  Eerste  and  Tweede  Points,  and  again  be- 
tween Derde  and  Vierde  Points,  there  are  probably  eddies  of  which  vessels 
of  light  burden  may  make  use,  and  heavier  vessels  may  no  doubt,  in  many 
places,  run  close  enough  to  the  shore  to  keep  out  of  the  influence  of  the 

Freshes. — Between  Bata-karang  and  Fourth  Points  the  ordinary  current 
in  Banka  Strait,  after  heavy  rains,  is  considerably  accelerated  and  diverted 
in  the  direction  of  Kalian  Point,  until  it   nearly  reaches  mid-channel,  by 

192  BANK  A  STRAIT. 

the  freshes  from  the  many  rivers  in  this  vicinity.     Vessels  sometimes  take 
advantage  of  this  to  complete  water,  as  it  is  frequently  quite  fresh  on  the 


During  the  westerly  monsoon,  which  is  the  rainy  season,  these  freshes  set 
out  of  the  rivers  on  the  Sumatra  coast  with  great  force,  and  they  require  to 
be  carefully  guarded  against  in  the  night.  Upon  one  occasion,  when  H.M.S. 
Saracen  was  at  anchor  near  Lalarie  Point,  her  decked  pinnace,  moored  at 
the  boom,  was  fairly  pressed  under  the  water  and  swamped  by  the  force  of 
the  current. 

LUCIPARA  ISLAND,  half  a  mile  long,  W.N.W.  and  E.S.E.,  and  a 
quarter  of  a  mile  broad,  lies  at  the  southern  entrance  of  Banka  Strait,  9 
miles  East  of  Lucipara  Point,  in  lat.  3°  13'  S.,  long.  106°  13'  E.,  and  is 
visible  in  clear  weather  at  14  or  15  miles.  It  is  surrounded  by  a  reef,  which 
from  its  S.E.  end  extends  rather  more  than  1^  mile  ;  and  around  this  reef  is 
a  bank,  with  2^  and  3  fathoms  over  it,  extending  about  1^  mile  to  the  north- 
westward from  the  island,  and  2  miles  to  the  south-eastward  of  it. 

Formerly,  the  trees  on  the  S.E.  end  of  the  island  rose  to  a  sort  of  peak  164 
feet  high,  but  all  the  trees  on  this  peak  have  been  cut  down  (1875). 

Rocky  Patches. — Lucipara  should  not  be  approached  on  its  S.E.  side 
nearer  than  3i  miles,  for  a  rocky  patch  with  2^  fathoms  water  over  it  lies 
S.E.  by  E.  i  E.,  distant  nearly  2 J  miles  from  the  island;  and  a  mile  to  the 
westward  of  this  patch  is  another  of  2f  fathoms. 

LUCIPARA  POINT,  which  forms  the  south-western  limit  of  Banka  Strait, 
is  in  lat.  3°  13^'  S.,  long.  106°  3'  E.  It  is  covered  with  trees,  the  tops  of  the 
highest  being  89  ft.  above  the  level  of  the  sea. 

The  COAST  between  Lucipara  and  First  Points  is  formed  of  mangrove 
jungle,  and  was  found  in  the  survey  of  1859  to  extend  considerably  more 
eastward  than  shown  in  the  Dutch  chart.  This  extension  has  evidently 
taken  place  since  their  survey  in  1818,  and  it  may  be  attributed  to  the  sedi- 
ment from  the  numerous  small  rivers  in  that  vicinity  affording  more  soil  for 
the  growth  of  the  prolific  mangrove.  The  contour  of  the  dry  mud  was  ob- 
tained and  sounded  close-to  at  the  springs,  and  it  will  be  a  guide  to  show  any 
further  extension. 

Green  Point,  so  called  from  the  trees  on  it  being  of  a  lighter  and  brighter 
green  than  elsewhere,  bears  N.  ^  W.,  distant  9  miles  from  Lucipara  Point, 
the  coast  between  forming  a  bight  about  1|^  mile  deep.  Between  these  points 
is  a  ridge  of  high  trees  standing  about  1^  mile  back  from  the  coast  line,  with 
a  conspicuous  tree,  153  ft.  high,  near  their  centre. 

EERSTE,  or  Pirst  Point,  bears  N.  J  W.,  distant  4^  miles  from  Green 


Point,   the  coast  between  fornaing  a  bight.     The  trees  on  it  are  of  equal 
height,  60  ft.,  and  present  a  level  appearance. 

Mud  Bank. — From  the  southward  the  coast  line  approaches  Lucipara 
Point  in  a  north-easterly  direction  ;  but  the  3-fathoms  line,  which  may  be 
considered  the  edge  of  the  mud-bank  which  fronts  the  whole  coast  of  Suma- 
tra, from  a  distance  of  10  or  12  miles  southward  of  the  point,  approaches  it 
nearly  straight  in  a  N.  by  W.  direction,  and  passing  Lucipara  Point  about  2 
miles  off,  follows,  with  a  slight  curve  in  towards  the  coast,  the  same  general 
direction  until  abreast  of  Green  Point,  from  which,  it  extends  a  little  over  a 
mile  ;  it  then  takes  a  direction  a  little  more  westerly  until  abreast  of  the 
South  part  of  First  Point,  from  which  it  is  distant  three-quarters  of  a  mile. 
In  rounding  First  Point,  the  bank  approaches  nearer  to  it,  and  on  its  N.E. 
side  projects  only  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  the  shore. 

From  10  or  11  miles  to  the  southward  of  Lucipara  Point,  to  within  2  miles 
of  Grreen  Point,  the  soundings  decrease  regularly  towards  the  bank ;  but 
just  to  the  southward  of,  and  fronting  Green  Point,  the  water  shoals  sud- 
denly from  6  to  3  fathoms  ;  and,  therefore,  this  part  of  the  flat  should  never 
be  approached  into  less  water  than  7  fathoms.  Near  First  Point  the  bank 
is  also  steep-to,  especially  on  the  N.E.  side,  and  should  not  be  approached 
under  12  or  10  fathoms,  those  depths  extending  to  the  distance  of  1  to  1^ 
mile  off  the  point. 

The  COAST  from  First  Point  takes  a  N.W.  by  W.  f  W.  direction  for  6f 
miles  to  False  First  Point,  having  a  small  bight  or  indentation  between,  at 
about  two-thirds  of  that  distance  from  First  Point.  From  False  First  Point 
it  falls  back  S.W.  by  W.,  about  3  miles,  and  then  forming  a  deep  bay, 
gradually  curves  round  to  a  slight  point  (False  Tweede  Point  of  the  Dutch), 
from  whence  it  runs  pretty  straight  about  N.  J  W.  for  7  miles  to  Tweede  or 
Second  Point. 

VALSCHE  EERST,  or  False  First  Point.— The  trees  upon  this  point  are 
more  elevated  than  those  on  First  Point,  being  105  ft.  high.  Lalarie  Point, 
on  the  Banka  side,  bears  from  it  N.  ^  W.  nearly  7^  miles,  and  Second  Point 
N.W.  i  N.  18^  miles. 

The  mud-bank  projects  two-thirds  of  a  mile  from  False  First  Point,  and 
more  than  3  miles  from  the  shore  in  the  depth  of  the  bay  between  that  point 
and  Second  Point.  The  bank  is  very  steep  close-to,  and  should  not  be  ap- 
proached under  a  depth  of  12  fathoms  near  the  points,  nor  under  10  fdthoms 
in  the  bight  between  them. 

TWEEDE,  or  Second  Point,  the  trees  on  which  are  81  ft.  high,  bears 
from  First  Point  N.W.  i  N.  21^  miles,  and  from  Lalarie  Point  N.W.  |  W. 
13  miles.  From  this  point  the  coast  falls  back,  and  curves  round  until 
within  5  miles  of  Third  Point,  forming  a  bay  about  5  miles  deep  ;  it  then 
runs  nearly  straight  to  Third  Point. 

I.  ▲.  So 


The  mud-bank  extends  about  two-thirds  of  a  mile  from  Second  Point,  and 
being  very  steep-to  should  not  be  neared  under  a  depth  of  12  fathoms. 
Between  Second  and  Third  Points  it  runs  very  nearly  straight  from  point  to 
point,  filling  up  the  bay.  The  soundings  here  do  not,  as  a  general  rule, 
shoal  so  suddenly  as  they  have  been  described  to  do  between  the  other 
points,  but  at  2  or  3  miles  South  of  Third  Point  the  bank  curves  out  consi- 
derably, and  is  dangerous  to  strangers,  particularly  when  coming  from  the 
northward,  as  they  are  likely  to  infer  that  the  bank  falls  back  in  the  direction 
of  the  land.  The  depths,  too,  here  again  begin  to  shoal  suddenly,  adding  to 
the  danger,  so  that  it  is  necessary  to  exercise  caution  and  give  a  good  berth 
to  this  part  of  the  bank. 

A  Spit  or  Horn  extends  1^  mile  from  the  above  mud  flat,  and  then  in  a 
south-easterly  direction  for  2  miles,  with  depths  from  2J  to  3  fathoms,  mud, 
on  it,  and  from  4  to  5  fathoms  between  it  and  the  flat ;  from  its  northern 
extreme  Second  Point  bears  S.S.E.  8  miles,  and  Parmassang  Peak  E.  by  S. 
12^  miles ;  therefore  in  passing  this  spit.  Second  Point  should  not  be  brought 
eastward  of  S.  by  E.  f  E.  until  Parmassang  Peak  bears  E.S.E. 

Doubtful  Patch. — There  is  said  to  be  as  little  as  4  fathoms  over  muddy 
bottom,  with  Little  Nangka  Island  bearing  North,  and  the  middle  of  Par- 
massang Hill  East. 

DERDE,  or  Third  Point,  bearing  N.N.W.  f  W.  20J  miles  from  Second 
Point,  is  78  ft.  high,  and  has  on  its  North  side  a  square  beacon,  with  a  white 
top  and  ball.  From  this  point  the  coast  runs  back  about  W.S.W.  for  2 
miles  to  the  entrance  of  a  small  river,  named  Songi  Kisoegean,  which,  from 
native  information,  is  said  to  connect  with  a  branch  of  the  Palembang  River ; 
from  thence  it  curves  round  in  a  West  and  W.N.W.  direction  for  4  or  5 
miles,  and  then  assumes  a  tolerably  straight  outline  until  within  3  or  4  miles 
of  Fourth  Point,  which  it  approaches  in  a  N.W.  by  W.  ^  W.  direction. 

The  mud-bank  does  not  extend  more  than  half  a  mile  off  Third  Point, 
but  is  very  steep-to,  and  should  not  be  approached  under  three-quarters 
of  a  mile,  or  in  less  than  15  to  13  fathoms  water.  Between  Third  and 
Fourth  Points  the  bank  runs  pretty  nearly  straight,  the  edge  of  it  being 
distant  from  1  to  H  J^il©  ivovtx  the  shore,  except  in  front  of  the  bight  just  to 
the  westward  of  Third  Point,  where  it  is  2  miles  distant  from  the  shore. 

The  soundings  between  Third  and  Fourth  Points  are  irregular,  but  vessels 
may,  with  careful  attention  to  the  lead,  stand  towards  the  mud-bank  into  7 
or  6  fathoms,  until  nearly  abreast  of  Fourth  Point,  where  the  bank  gets 
steeper,  having  10  fathoms  close-to,  and  only  8  fathoms  a  little  further  off. 

Four-and-Three-quarters  Fathoms  Bank. — A  mud-bank,  about  2  miles  in 
length,  and  three-quarters  of  a  mile  in  breadth,  and  having  4|  fathoms  water 
over  it,  lies  between  Third  and  Fourth  Points,  about  two-thirds  of  the  dis- 
tance from  the  former,  and  nearly  3  miles  from  the  shore ;  between  this  bank 


and  the  edge  of  the  mud  flat  extending  from  the  shore,  is  a  channel  about 
three-quarters  of  a  mile  broad,  with  7  to  9  fathoms  water  in  it. 

VIERDE,  or  Fourth  Point,  bears  from  Third  Point  W.  J  N.  distant  23i 
miles.  The  trees  upon  it  are  112  ft.  high;  and  a  square  beacon,  with  white 
top  and  ball,  stands,  or  used  to  stand,  at  the  edge  of  the  mangrove. 

The  coast  from  Fourth  Point  stretches  westward  for  22  or  23  miles,  and 
in  this  space  the  different  branches  of  the  Palembang  River  fall  into  the 

Banks  off  Fourth  Point. — A  bank  of  sand  and  shells,  having  4f  to  6  fa- 
thoms water  over  it,  lies  4  miles  off  Fourth  Point.  It  is  3  miles  long 
W.N.W.  and  E.S.E.,  about  1:^  mile  broad,  and  from  its  western  extreme  the 
beacon  on  Fourth  Point  bears  S.  by  W.  I  W.  3  miles,  and  from  its  eastern 
extreme  the  beacon  bears  S.W.  by  W.  |  W.  4  miles.  Between  it  and  the 
mud-bank  extending  from  the  shore  are  from  7  to  9  fathoms. 

Another  patch,  about  a  mile  in  extent,  and  having  6  fathoms  water  over 
it,  lies  nearly  2  miles  north-eastward  of  the  last-mentioned  bank,  with  the 
beacon  on  Fourth  Point  bearing  S.W.  J  S.  6J  miles,  and  the  dry  rocks  on 
the  Brom-Brom  Reef  N.E.  by  N.  3  miles. 

Between  these  banks  the  depths  are  from  8  to  14  fathoms. 

The  Mud  Bank  from  Fourth  Point  takes  a  W.N.W.  direction  for  18  miles, 
where  it  trends  away  near  South,  forming  one  side  of  the  entrance  to  the 
Soengsang  River  ;  a  spit  projecting  from  the  land  forms  the  other  side  of  the 
entrance  to  that  river,  as  also  the  S.E.  side  of  the  entrance  to  the  River 

Caution. — This  bank,  for  6  miles  westward  of  Fourth  Point,  is  composed 
of  hard  sand,  covered  with  a  thin  stratum  of  soft  mud,  and  is  exceedingly 
dangerous,  being  steep-to,  and  many  ships,  including  H.M.Ss.  Himalaya  and 
Assistance,  have  grounded  upon  it.  The  lead  cannot  at  all  be  relied  upon 
for  giving  warning  in  time  to  avoid  it,  for  1 1  fathoms  may  be  had,  and  the 
ship  be  aground  the  next  instant.  The  safest  plan  is  not  to  pass  the  beacon 
on  Fourth  Point  within  3  miles,  and  having  passed  it  not  to  bring  it  to  the 
eastward  of  S.E.  ^  S.  until  Monopin  Hill  bears  North. 

From  10  to  12  fathoms  will  be  obtained  very  close  to  this  steep  bank,  out- 
side of  which  is  a  long  strip  of  8  and  9  fathoms  ;  outside  of  this  strip  are  10 
to  13  fathoms,  so  that  it  is  not  at  all  possible  for  a  vessel  to  discover  her 
position  by  the  lead  only.  The  soundings,  however,  become  more  regular 
off  the  mouths  of  the  Palembang  Rivers,  and  towards  and  abreast  Bataka- 
rang  Point  the  lead  will  in  those  localities,  if  properly  attended  to,  enable  a 
vessel  to  proceed  with  ease  and  safety,  as  the  soundings  decrease  regularly 
towards  the  shore. 

Great  care,  however,  is  requisite  in  navigating  this  part  of  the  strait 
during  the  rainy  season,  for  large  drifts  are  then  brought  down  these  rivers 
by  the  freshes,  which  set  strong  over  to  the  West  end  of  Banka  ;   and  as  the 


flood  runs  strong  into  them  on  the  springs,  a  vessel  may  be  driven  too  near 
either  shore,  both  sides  of  which  are  fronted  by  dangers. 

SUMATRA  EIVERS. — To  the  westward  of  Fourth  Point  are  the  entrances 
of  the  Elvers  Saleh  and  Oepan,  then  the  Soensang,  and  lastly  the  Assing ; 
the  last  two  are  navigable  for  vessels  of  light  draught  as  far  as  Palembang. 

SOENGSANG  or  PALEMBANG  RIVER.— Mr.  Stanton  has  furnished  the 
following  account  of  this  river  and  town: — Since  the  survey  of  the  N.W. 
part  of  Banka  Strait  in  1860,  a  deeper  and  more  direct  entrance  to  the  main 
channel  of  this  river  has  been  formed,  carrying  9  ft.  at  low,  or  22  ft.  at  high 
water  springs. 

This  new  entrance  is  marked  with  beacon  poles,  similar  to  those  in  the  old 
passage,  but  as,  on  account  of  the  many  floating  trees  and  strong  freshes, 
they  will  probably  not  remain  long  in  their  position,  a  vessel  of  large 
draught  may  safely  enter  at  high  water  by  bringing  the  trees  forming  the 
West  point  of  the  river  entrance  S.  by  W.  f  W.,  and  running  for  them  on 
that  bearing  until  Pulo  Payong  (Umbrella  Island)  bears  South  ;  then  steer 
for  the  island,  but  take  care  in  approaching  it  to  keep  close  to  the  eastern 
bank  of  the  river,  to  avoid  the  spit  extending  2  miles  off  its  North  end. 
If  a  pilot  is  required,  one  may  be  obtained  at  Kampong  Soengsang,  the 
small  village  on  the  left  bank,  but  there  is  no  channel  available  for  ships  ou 
the  West  side  of  Payong. 

This  branch  of  the  Soengsang  at  its  entrance  is  upwards  of  a  mile  wide, 
but  within,  the  navigable  channel  is  contracted  in  some  places  to  the  width 
of  a  cable's  length  by  the  different  islands  and  banks,  until  close  up  to  the 
town  of  Palembang,  when  the  river  widens  to  three-quarters  of  a  mile  with 
6  and  6  fathoms  close  to  the  shore. 

Vessels  can  navigate  the  whole  length  of  the  river  up  to  the  town  by  keep- 
ing close  to  the  right  bank  ;  but  those  of  large  draught  are  recommended, 
when  passing  Pulo  Singris  and  the  bank  off  Kampong  Maya,  to  keep  near 
the  opposite  shore.  Both  sides  of  the  river  are  wooded,  and  on  nearly  all 
the  isolated  banks  there  are  small  trees,  and  on  others  fishing  slakes,  conse- 
quently there  will  not  be  much  difficulty  in  avoiding  them. 

PALEMBANG,  one  of  the  largest  Malay  towns  in  the  Archipelago,  and 
the  largest  in  Sumatra,  derives  its  name  from  the  many  bridges  across  the 
numerous  creeks  that  intersect  it.  A  Dutch  resident  and  other  officials 
reside  here,  and  to  support  their  authority  there  is  a  military  force,  con- 
sisting of  one  European  and  two  native  companies.  The  total  number  of 
Europeans  in  the  town  is  109,  and  by  the  last  census  the  native  population. 
consisted  of  45,000  Malays,  4,000  Chinese,  and  1,000  Arabs.  The  climate  in 
the  vicinity  is  considered  so  salubrious  that  convalescent  soldiers  are  sent 
here  from  Banka. 

Near  the  extreme  end  of  the  town,  commanding  the  mouth  of  the  Ogan 
Eiver,  is  a  substantially  built  fort.     It  is  a  square  enclosure  of  masonry, 


with  walls  8  ft,  thick,  about  50  ft.  high,  loop-holed,  and  at  each  angle  a 
circular  bastion  mounting  eight  guns  in  casemate  embrasures.  The  fort 
could  easily  accommodate  1,500  men,  and  is  surrounded  outside  with  strong 
wooden  palisades,  a  thick  bamboo  hedge,  and  a  ditch  20  ft.  broad.  The 
fort  is  in  lat.  2°  59i'  S.  There  are  several  smaller  forts  some  distance  up 
the  river. 

Covered  prahus  (called  bedahs)  daily  arrive  from  the  interior,  laden  with 
large  supplies  of  cotton  for  exportation.  This  useful  article  grows  quite 
wild  some  distance  up  the  river,  in  some  places  close  to  the  stream,  and 
covering  many  miles  of  land.  The  greater  portion  of  it  is  sent  to  Batavia. 
The  total  quantity  exported  this  season  is  estimated  at  1,735,500  lbs. 

All  the  necessaries  of  life  are  here  found  in  abundance.  The  country 
abounds  in  large  game,  deer,  wild  pigs,  &c.  The  river  swarms  with  fish. 
Beef,  fruit,  vegetables,  &c.,  are  cheap  and  plentiful.  Foreign  vessels  are  not 
permitted  to  trade,  and  Dutch  European  vessels  are  not  allowed  to  enter  the 
river  unless  under  special  circumstances.  The  export  trade,  consisting 
principally  of  pepper,  rattans,  cotton,  honey,  dye-woods,  and  gutta-percha, 
is  confined  to  thirteen  European  built  ships,  and  numerous  country  craft,  all 
owned  by  wealthy  natives. 

Erom  November  to  March  rains  prevail,  and  the  wind  varies  from  N.W. 
to  N.E.  At  this  period  vessels  belonging  to  Palembang  either  remain  ia 
port  or  trade  to  other  places,  as  it  is  almost  impossible  for  sailing  vessels 
at  this  period  to  make  any  progress  up  the  river  against  the  freshes. 
During  a  stay  of  five  days  off  the  town  in  January,  the  influence  of  the 
flood  was  not  once  felt.  The  ebb  slackened  during  the  day,  but  at  night  it 
often  ran  5  knots.  After  much  rain  the  freshes  out  of  the  river  are  felt  in 
Mintok  Bay. 

ASSING  or  SALT  EIVER  offers  the  best  passage  to  Palembang,  being 
at  ail  times  navigable  for  vessels  of  the  heaviest  burden,  but  the  shallow  at 
its  entrance  often  causes  a  delay  of  several  days.  At  its  mouth,  which  was 
surveyed  in  the  beginning  of  1846,  Monopin  Hill  bears  N.E.  by  E.,  and 
Assing  Point  N.W.  by  N.  At  the  entrance,  in  mid-channel,  there  are  8  to 
10  fathoms  ;  and  close  to  the  poles  at  the  back  on  the  eastern  side  of  the 
channel  from  4  to  5  fathoms.  Higher  up  this  river  the  Pontain  and  Jarang 
Channels  are  just  as  good  as  that  through  the  Soensang. 

Directions. — To  enter  the  Assing,  bring  Monopin  N.E.  by  E.,  and  Teloo 
Point  N.W.  by  N.,  then  steer  in  a  S.W.  direction,  according  to  the  state  of 
the  tide,  for  the  ebb  runs  strongly  over  the  very  shallow  outer  bank  towards 
Soensang,  and  the  flood  towards  the  inner  banks. 

Having  reached  as  far  as  Api  Point,  take  the  mid-chaanel,  between  the 
beacon-poles,  towards  Bayan  Point,  and  then,  though  still  following  the 
middle  of  the  river,  keep  rather  towards  the  Laga  Point  side,  round  which 
the  Pontian  Channel  is  entered.     With  a  flood  tide  keep  on  the  eastern 


shore,  as  the  stream  runs  with  force  past  that  channel ;  taking  care,  at 
the  same  time,  to  avoid  the  shoals  which  surround  the  point.  In  this  river 
we  have  only  to  mind  the  points,  as  from  most  of  them  project  small  mud 

Pontian  and  other  Affluents. — The  juntion  of  the  rivers  Pontian,  Kietjar, 
Gassing,  and  Sebalick,  which  last  unites  the  Pontian  to  the  Jarang,  causes 
a  part  of  the  ebb  to  run  from  the  first  two  rivers  through  the  Sebalick,  and 
compels  vessels  having  come  so  far  with  the  flood  to  anchor,  and  to  wait  for 
the  ebb.  The  Pontian  is  generally  deepest  on  its  western  side,  except  near 
its  mouth,  where  the  greatest  depth  is  in  the  middle ;  but  again  towards  the 
western  side,  higher  up,  and  in  front  of  the  shoal  off  the  point,  between  the 
Kietjar  and  the  Sebalick.  When  near  its  junction  with  the  Sleino  and 
Jarang  Rivers,  keep  close  to  the  eastern  shore,  in  6  to  8  fathoms,  to  avoid  the 
reef  which  projects  from  the  point  between  the  Sebalick  and  Jarang.  When 
there  is  no  wind,  it  is  necessary  to  anchor  and  wait  for  the  flood  coming  up 
by  the  Sleino,  in  order  to  proceed  up  the  Jarang,  and  it  will  be  found  that  a 
great  part  of  the  flood  goes  into  the  Tambangadin  Eiver,  while  that  going 
up  the  Jarang  is  very  trifling.  Having  reached  the  Jarang  Ketjil,  anchor 
again  till  high  water,  to  wait  for  the  ebb  from  this  river,  which  will  soon 
take  the  vessel  into  the  Soengsang. 

Jaraxg  Bank. — The  bank  off  the  Jarang  is  very  shallow,  but  on  the  North 
side  there  is  a  narrow  passage  with  5  or  6  fathoms.  Vessels  of  less  draught 
than  15  ft.  can  also  find  a  passage  on  the  South  side. 

The  AssiNG,  always  navigable. — The  difficulties  in  going  up  the  Assing, 
caused  by  the  narrowness  of  the  rivers  Pontian,  Sebalick,  and  Jarang,  and 
the  necessity  of  stopping  so  often  to  wait  for  the  tide,  are  amply  compensated 
by  the  advantage  that  vessels  of  even  the  greatest  burthen  suffer  no  delay  at 
its  mouth. 

Freshes. — Vessels  navigating  these  rivers,  especially  during  the  western 
monsoon,  should  be  aware  that  the  heavy  rains  in  the  interior  cause  such 
strong  freshes  to  run  out  of  the  river  as  to  reach  towards  the  opposite  shore, 
and  that  in  the  spring,  especially  during  the  eastern  monsoon,  very  powerful 
floods  pour  into  the  rivers.  High  up  the  rivers  are  seen  ripplings  like 
breakers,  caused  by  these  tides  and  freshes,  which  frequently  bring  down 
large  detached  masses  of  grass  and  brushwood  like  floating  islands. 

BATAKARANG  POINT,  the  N.W.  boundary  of  Banka  Strait,  is  in  lat. 
2°  r  S.,  long.  104°  50'  E.,  and  bears  N.W.  f  W.  32  miles  from  Fourth  Point. 
It  may  be  known  by  a  group  of  trees,  130  ft.  high,  which  gives  it  a  bluff  and 
jagged  appearance. 

Valsche  or  False  Point  is  more  sloping  and  flat,  and  lies  9  miles  to  the 
south-eastward  of  Batakarang  Point ;  and  there  is  another  point  about  3 
miles  in  the  same  direction  from  Batakarang  Point. 

The  mud-bank  projects  4^  miles  off  Batakarang  Point,  and  2  miles  off 


False  Point.  It  then  trends  away  to  the  south-westward,  bounding  the 
entrance  of  the  Assing  Eiver  on  its  N.W.  side,  to  Tanjong  Kampie,  from 
which  it  projects  not  quite  a  mile. 

The  soundings  off  Batakarang  Point  are  regular,  and  the  point  may  be 
passed  in  from  6  to  4|  fathoms  water. 

COAST  OF  BANKA.— This  coast,  which  separates  the  straits  of  Banka 
and  Gaspar,  is  treated  of  here,  as  being  intimately  connected  with  the 
former,  for  Mr.  Stanton  observes,  that  at  the  entrance  of  Banka  Strait,  in 
the  S.E.  monsoon,  the  ebb  tide  during  the  night  at  springs  will  be  found 
setting  to  the  south-eastward  ;  consequently  many  vessels,  although  steering 
a  course  for  the  strait,  get  set  between  Pulo  Dapur  and  Baginda  Point. 

The  SOUTH  COAST,  between  Baginda  Point  and  the  Dapur  Islands,  in 
extent  about  14  miles  E.  f  N.  and  "W.  |  S.,  is  generally  low,  and  covered 
■with  trees ;  it  presents,  however,  some  points  sloping  down  from  hills  of 
moderate  elevation.  It  should  not  be  approached  under  3  miles,  for  it  is 
fronted  with  a  mud-bank,  extending  in  places  nearly  2  miles  from  the  shore, 
upon  which  are  many  rocks  above,  and  many  others  below  water. 

TANJONG  BAGINDA,  the  south-eastern  extreme  of  Banka,  is  in  lat. 
3°  4'  40"  S.,  long.  106°  44'  E.  It  slopes  gradually  in  a  south-easterly  direc- 
tion from  a  hill  387  ft.  high,  which  rises  a  mile  inside  the  point.  Two  miles 
inside  the  point,  in  a  NW.  by  W.  J  W.  direction,  is  another  hill,  named 
Baginda  Peak,  521  ft.  high. 

Tanjong  Dua  {Doeija)  bears  W.  by  S.  J  S.  2J  miles  from  Baginda  Point, 
from  which  it  is  separated  by  a  bay  about  half  a  mile  deep.  N.N.W.  1^ 
mile  from  the  point  is  a  hill,  432  ft.  high,  from  which  the  land  slopes  down  to 
the  coast. 

Eocks,  some  of  which  are  above  water,  extend  to  the  southward  of  this 
point  and  for  more  than  a  mile  along  the  coast  to  the  westward,  to  the  dis- 
tance of  half  a  mile.  A  sand-bank,  with  rocky  patches,  commences  about 
1^  mile  S.S.E.  i  E.  from  it,  and  extends  to  the  westward  until  it  meets 
the  mud -bank  which  fronts  the  coast  as  far  as  Tanjong  Tan  ah  Eoboe. 

Tanjong  Kejang  is  231  ft.  high,  and  bears  West-southerly  2f  miles  from 
Tanjong  Dua,  from  which  it  is  separated  by  a  sandy  bay  about  two-thirds  of 
a  mile  deep. 

Karang  Layar  is  a  rocky  reef  above  water,  lying  on  the  outer  edge  of  the 
bank  above  mentioned,  and  S.W.  by  W.  distant  If  mile  from  the  East  ex- 
treme of  Tanjong  Kejang,  Inside  these  rocks  to  the  north-westward  is 
another  bed  of  rocks,  some  of  which  are  above  water. 

Tanjong  Bantil,  240  ft.  high,  bears  W.  by  N.  2J  miles  from  the  nearest 
part  of  Tanjong  Kejang.  The  bay  between  these  points  seems  to  be  full  of 
rocks  ;  and  large  and  small  rocks  above  water,  with  others  awash,  extend 
to  the  southward  of  the  point,  nearly  to  the  edge  of  the  mud-bank,  which 
projects  neai'ly  a  mile  off  shore. 


Tanjong  Tanah  Roboe  is  3-J-  miles  W.  by  S.  ^  S.  from  Tanjotig  Bantil,  and 
off  it,  as  at  Tanjong  Bantil,  a  number  of  rocks,  some  above  and  others 
below  water,  project  nearly  a  mile  to  the  southward  to  the  edge  of  the 
bank  ;  the  bank  curves  round  this  point,  and  terminates  just  to  the  westward 
of  it. 

Dapur  Point. — The  coast  from  Tanjong  Tanah  Eoboe  runs  West  about 
a  mile,  and  then,  curving  to  the  north-westward  into  a  small  bay  about  half 
a  mile  deep,  runs  about  S.W.  by  W.  with  a  rugged  outline  to  Dapur  Point, 
under  Toboe  Ali  Lama  Peak,  which  forms  the  south-western  extreme  of 
Banka.  Adjoining  Dapur  Point  is  an  islet  or  rock  40  ft.  high,  with  smaller 
rocks  above  water  on  both  sides  of  it. 

Dapur  Islands  *  are  two  islets  lying  a  little  more  than  a  mile  S.  by  E. 
from  Dapur  Point,  and  forming  a  good  landmark  when  approaching  from 
the  southward.  They  form  the  south-eastern  limit  of  the  entrance  to  Banka 
Strait  by  the  Stanton  Channel,  are  nearly  round,  and  about  a  cable's  length. 
in  diameter,  and  connected  at  low  water  by  rocks.  The  southern  one  is  120 
feet  high,  resembles  a  shoe  in  appearance,  and  is  fronted  by  a  coral  sandy 
beach.  Some  rocks  above  water  lie  about  a  cable's  length  to  the  southward, 
and  a  rock  under  water  about  2  cables  to  the  south-eastward  of  the  islet. 

There  is  a  narrow  channel,  half  a  mile  wide,  with  depths  of  5  J  fathoms, 
between  the  Dapur  Islands  and  Dapur  Point ;  from  thence  to  Nangka  Point 
there  are  several  white  rocks  lying  inside  the  mud  flat  close  to  the  shore. 

Sand  Ridges  off  the  South  end  of  Banka. — H.M.S.  Saracen,  when  searching 
for  the  coral  reef  reported  by  the  Netherlands  barque  Banha  f  (many  promi- 
nent points  offering  good  objects  for  fixing  her  position),  was  enabled  to 
extend  the  soundings  20  miles  off  the  land.  The  soundings  were  found  to 
be  very  irregular,  long  sand  ridges,  with  deep  water  over  a  muddy  bottom 
between.  None  of  these  banks  have  less  than  5  fathoms  on  them,  with  the 
exception  of  one  lying  S.E.  1^  mile  from  Pulo  Dapur,  where  there  are 
several  patches  of  3J  fathoms  over  a  sandy  ground.  At  7  miles  E.  by  S.  of 
these  patches,  and  separated  by  deeper  water,  is  a  bank  of  4^  fathoms,  coral 
and  sand,  extending  in  an  easterly  direction  for  3  miles  ;  it  appears  to  be  a 
continuation  of  the  Dapur  Bank,  and  from  its  shoalest  part  Tanjong  Baginda 
bears  N.E.  by  N.  6  miles. 

Overfalls. — At  full  and  change  great  overfalls  were  repeatedly  noticed, 
caused  by  the  meeting  of  the  ebb  stream  from  Banka  and  Graspar  Straits 
over  an  uneven  bottom. 

*  Dapur  means  cooking  place.  Prahus,  in  passing,  generally  land  on  these  islands  to 
catch  turtle,  as  it  is  the  only  place  in  Banka  Strait  where  thej"^  are  seen. 

t  This  coral  reef,  ahout  3  miles  in  circumference,  and  prohablj'  only  6  ft.  water  on  it, 
was  reported  as  lying  15  miles  from  the  South  end  of  Banka  Island.  Its  position  was 
given  aslat.  3°  21'  S.,  long.  106°  41'  E,,  and  the  land  in  sight  (probably  Mount  St.  Paul, 
930  It.  high)  bore  N.N.W. 


TOBOE  ALI  LAMA  is  a  hill  about  IJ  mile  N.N.E.  of  Dapur  Point.  Its 
peak  is  of  p3'ranii(ial  lorm,  and  rises  to  an  elevation  of  512  ft. 

NANGKA  POINT  is  2  miles  N.W.  from  Dapur  Point,  and  the  coast  be- 
tween is  ironted  by  rocks  extending;  about  half  a  mile  from  it.  The  edge  of 
the  bank  is  nearly  a  mile  from  Narigka  Point,  and  has  5  fathoms  water  close 
to,  so  that  it  must  be  approached  carefully.  The  point  may  easily  be  dis- 
tinguished by  a  round  hillock  over  it  264  ft.  high,  and  also  the  land  receding 
forming  Toboe  (Tobu)  Ali  Bay,  the  shore  of  which  is  low,  and  fringed  at  high 
•water  with  sandy  beaches  inside  the  mud  flat,  which  here  extends  2  miles  ofif 
the  land. 

TOBOE  ALI  POINT,  bearing  N.W.  byN.,  distant  5^  miles  from  Nangka 
Point,  has  several  white  rocks  near  it,  and  has  or  had  a  conspicuous  tree  on 
its  summit,  elevated  213  ft.,  and  visible  14  miles  ofll'. 

Toboe  Ali  Port,  with  its  red-roofed  barracks,  stands  half  a  mile  S.E.  of 
Toboe  Ali  Point,  upon  a  low  mound  40  ft.  in  height,  at  the  left  point  of 
entrance  of  a  small  river,  on  the  banks  of  which  is  the  village  of  Sabang, 
situated  close  to  the  fort,  and  containing  (^in  1860)  a  mixed  population  of  600 
Malays  and  Chinese.  At  low  water  the  river  dries  to  a  distance  of  3  cables' 
lengths  from  its  mouth.  A  Dutch  Administrator  and  a  Captain  with  a  small 
military  force  garrison  the  fort. 

The  anchorage  off  Toboe  Ali  Port  is  in  4  fathoms,  mud,  with  Toboe  (Tobu) 
Ali  Lama  Peak  S.E.  by  E.  ^  E.,  and  Gadong  Peak  in  line  with  Taboe  Ali 
Fort  N.E.  J  N.  Smaller  vessels  may  approach  on  this  bearing  nearer  the 
shore,  as  the  soundings  decrease  regularly.  In  southerly  and  south-westerly 
winds  there  is  a  heavy  swell  here,  which  makes  landing  difficult. 

No  supplies  of  any  description  can  be  procured  but  water  and  wood  ;  the 
former  may  be  obtained  at  the  above  river,  or  at  a  small  stream  half  a  mile 
to  the  eastward  of  it,  from  half  flood  to  half  ebb. 

Mount  St.  Paul,  5  miles  E.N.E.  from  Toboe  Ali  Point,  rises  with  a  gradual 
acclivity  on  its  south-eastern  shoulder  to  a  peak  990  ft.  in  height,  with  two 
others  adjoining  of  nearly  the  same  eleviition,  the  western  peak  terminating 
rather  abruptly  to  a  lower  spur  in  the  direction  of  Gradong  Hill.  When  to 
the  westward  of  Puui  Island,  owing  to  a  projecting  spur  from  the  middle 
peak,  the  eastern  peak  of  St.  Paul  is  hidden,  and  the  western  one  then  ap- 
pears the  highest,  and  forms,  with  the  N.W.  brow,  a  saddle  hill. 

Gadong  Hill  is  a  pyramidal  peaked  hill  593  ft.  high,  W.  by  N.  distant 
nearly  2^  miles  from  Mount  St.  Paul. 

Owing  to  the  land  contiguous  to  these  hills  and  to  Toboe  Ali  Lama  being 
low,  they  appear  as  islands  at  a  distance  over  15  miles. 

Gossong  Point  bears  N.W.  byAV.  4  miles  from  Toboe  Ali  Point,  the  land 
between  forming  a  deep  bay,  with  low  mangrove  trees.  From  Gossong  to 
Laboh  Point  the  laud  is  more  elevated,   with  numerous  rocks  close  to  the 

I.    A.  ii  D 


shore.  Puni  Island,  lying  midway  between  Gossong  and  Laboh  Points  is 
a  small  islet,  47  ft.  in  height,  and  conspicuous  from  its  white  granite  rucks. 
"  The  small  Puni  Island  and  Gossong  Point,  seen  in  one,  is  a  good  mark  for 
being  clear  of  the  banks.  Seen  from  a  northerly  bearing,  this  poiut  looks 
like  an  island."— (F.  G.  Petersen,  1875.) 

Laboh  Point  bears  N.W.  f  W.,  distant  12  miles  from  Nangka  Point. 
There  is  a  hill,  250  ft.  high,  about  a  mile  to  the  eastward  of  it,  and  another, 
about  the  same  height,  and  the  same  distance,  to  the  nurthward.  This  point 
from  the  suuth-eastward  presents  rather  a  shelving  appearance,  with  large 
white  rocks  extending  from  it. 

Dahun  Point  is  7^  miles  N.W.  by  W.  \  W.  from  Laboh  Point,  and  the 
shore  between  is  low  and  covered  witn  mangroves  ;  a  range  of  hillocks  runs 
parallel  to  the  coast. 

The  land  at  Dahun  Point  attains  a  greater  elevation,  and  is  faced  with 
sandy  beaches  and  rocky  points.  At  4|^  miles  N.N.E.  ^  E.  from  the  pcjint  is 
around  woody  hill,  315  ft.  in  height.  Close  to  the  coast,  2  miles  N.  by 
W.  i  W.  from  Laboh  Point,  is  a  remarkable  square  tree,  167  ft.  high, 
which  is  very  conspicuous,  there  being  no  others  of  the  same  elevation  near 
it.  In  clear  weather  it  may  be  seen  12  miles  off,  closely  resembling  a  ship 
under  sail. 

Pulo  Dahun,  30  ft.  in  height,  is  one  of  a  cluster  of  rocks  lying  off  Dahun 
Point,  nearly  all  of  which  are  covered  at  high  water.  It  is  or  was  remark- 
able by  having  a  solitary  tree  on  it.  Paiijang  Hill  (or  Long  Hill)  rises 
close  to  the  coast  between  Dahun  and  Banka  Points.  It  had  one  conspi- 
cuous tree  on  it  in  1875.  "When  seen  from  the  south-eastward  it  shows  as  a 
•wedge,  with  its  greatest  elevation,  316  ft.,  on  the  eastern  end.  A  stream  of 
fresh  water  runs  close  to  the  North  side  of  this  hill. 

Banka  Point  and  Hill.— Banka  Point  is  12^  miles  N.W.  by  W.  |  W.  from 
Laboh  Point,  and  the  laud  to  the  westward  of  it  recedes  into  a  bay.  The 
point  is  about  the  same  elevation  as  Pulo  Besai,  but  at  1^  mile  to  the  north- 
ward it  rises  to  Banka  Hill.  From  the  north-westward  it  shows  with  a  flat 
top,  having  three  clumps  of  trees  on  its  summit,  the  whole  height  being  256 
feet.  Pulo  Besar  is  nearly  connected  with  Banka  Point  by  rocks.  It  is  but 
3  cables  in  extent,  and  b3  ft.  high,  but  shows  up  well  when  bfcaring  between 
S.E.  and  East. 

The  Coast,  from  the  foot  of  Banka  Hill,  takes  a  W.N.W.  direction  for 
about  4  miles,  when  it  turns  more  to  the  northward  to  the  entrance  of  a 
small  river  ;  from  thence  it  curves  round,  formiiig  a  small  bay  to  Pudi  Point, 
•when  it  runs  pretty  straight  for  5  miles  in  a  W.  by  N.  direction,  to  Lalarie 
Point.  Mamelon  Hummoch  is  a  small  round  hill  265  It.  high,  standing  by 
itself  3  miles  inland,  in  a  N.  by  E.  direction  from  Pudi  Poiut.  Two  miles 
and  a  half  E.  by  N.  of  the  Mamelon  is  another  small  hill ;  2^  miles  N.  by  E. 


of  which  is  a  double-peaked  hill,  396  ft.  high;  about  1^  mile  east-northerly 
of  this  last,  is  a  hill  471  ft.  high. 

Lalarie,  or  Langhong  Point,  75  ft.  high,  is  very  conspicuous.  It  had  a 
clump  of  trees  on  its  extremity;  those  around  it  (in  186;^)  have  been  cut 
down,  and  their  trunks  whitewashed.  It  is  the  turning  point  into  the  main 
part  of  the  strait  for  vessels  that  have  passed  through  the  Stanton  Channel. 
"Round  Lalarie  Point  should  be  '  whitewashed  stumps,'  but  are  not.  The 
point  itself  is  very  sharp  and  good  for  bearing.  From  N.E.  the  point  looks 
at  first  as  if  it  were  an  island  ;  from  the  South  the  point  is  very  sharp. 
Clump  of  trees  mentioned  ia  the  chart  I  could  not  distinguish." — (F.  G. 
Petersen,  1875.) 

A  mud  bank  fronts  the  whole  coast  just  described  between  Dapur  and  La- 
larie Points.  The  3-fathom  line  may  be  considered  to  mark  its  edge,  which 
in  most  places  shoals  very  quickly  inside  that  line.  The  chart  will  best  show 
its  features.     It  should  not  be  approached  under  10  fathoms. 

Casuarina  Point,  so  called  from  a  number  of  casuarina  trees  on  it,  is  nearly 
midway  between  Lalarie  and  Brani  Points  ;  seen  from  the  northward  it  ap- 
pears as  an  island.  The  coast  between  is  low,  with  sandy  beaches  at  high 
■water  mark, 

Brani,  or  Bold  Point,  1 1  miles  N.  by  W.  f  W.  from  Lalarie  Point,  is  a 
termination  of  a  spur  I'rom  the  Parmassang  range,  with  a  conical  peak,  516 
feet  high,  over  it,  showing  very  prominently  both  from  the  northward  and 

Timbaga  Rocks  (or  Copper  Each),  so  called  from  their  reddish  colour,  are 
three  small  rocks,  lying  East  and  West  of  each  other,  about  a  cable's  length 
in  extent.  The  highest  and  westernmost  rock  is  4  ft.  above  high  water, 
and  from  it  Second  Point  bears  W.  I  N.  5f  miles,  and  Brani  Point  N.  by  E. 
3  miles.  With  a  setting  sun  their  reddish  colour,  from  the  contrast  to  the 
green  verdure  of  the  land,  makes  them  readily  identified,  but  to  render  thera 
more  conspicuous  at  high  water,  and  in  the  forenoon  when  they  are  not  so 
clearly  seen,  a  white  conical  beacon,  surmounted  with  a  ball,  was  erected 
on  the  highest  rock,  and  the  whole  height  being  24  ft.  will  make  it  visible 
in  clear  weather  at  6  or  7  miles.  Shoal  water,  about  half  a  mile  in  breadth, 
extends  nearly  half  a  mile  to  the  northward  of  the  group,  and  2^  miles  to  the 
southward,  and  forms,  with  the  shore  and  bank  of  Banka,  a  channel  three- 
quarters  of  a  mile  wide. 

Several  shoal  patches  of  coral  and  sand  have  been  found  nearly  1^  mile 
"W.N.W.  from  these  rocks,  but  they  are  all  inside  the  10-fathom  line,  the 
depth  vessels  are  cautioned  not  to  go  within  when  passing  them.  These 
patches  are  about  a  cable's  length  apart,  having  2  fathoms  least  water  on 
them,  and  8  fathoms  close  to.  In  approaching  them  the  soundings  shoal 
suddenly  from  20  to  10  fathoms.     As  a  guide  to  lead  ships  clear,  a  temporary 


Hack  huoy  has  been  placed  in  4  fathoms  on  the  outer  patch,  about  2  cables' 
lengths  westward  of  the  shoalest  water.* 

From  the  middle  patch  of  2  fathoms  the  Timbaga  Rocks  appear  nearly  in 
line  with  a  sharp  peak  (130  feet  high)  South  of  Bukit  Limmaun,  bearing 
E.S.E. ;  and  the  apex  of  a  distant  long  hill  (657  ft.  high)  is  just  open  West 
of  a  white  rock  off  Tanjong  Bedaauw,  N.  by  E.  f  E.  These  patches  and  the 
Timbaga  Eocks  will  be  avoided  by  not  bringing  Lalarie  Point  South  of 
S.E.  f  S.,  until  Brani  Peak  bears  E.  by  N.  f  N. 

A  rocky  batik,  about  a  mile  in  extent  East  and  West,  and  half  a  mile 
North  and  South,  having  7  to  9  fathoms  water  over  it,  and  14  to  20  fathoms 
close-to  all  around,  lies  W.N. AV.  of  the  shoal  patches  just  mentioned.  From 
its  outer  edge  the  largest  of  the  Timbaga  Eocks  bears  E.  by  S.  ^  S.,  distant 
3  miles,  and  Brani  Peak  E.N.E.  5  miles.  Lalarie  Point,  bearing  S.E.  ^  S., 
which  leads  clear  of  the  Timbaga  Eocks  and  the  above-mentioned  patches, 
also  leads  just  outside  the  edge  of  this  bank. 

Water  may  be  procured  at  a  stream  about  half  a  mile  to  the  northward  of 
the  Timbaga  Rocks,  from  half  flood  to  half  ebb,  after  which  the  mud  pre- 
vents a  boat  approaching  near  the  shore. 

Parmassayig  Range  is  a  chain  of  hills  running  from  Brani  Point  in  a  N.E. 
by  N,  direction  for  nearly  4  miles,  to  the  highest  peak,  which  rises  to  an 
elevation  of  1,608  ft.  ;  the  range  then  turns  more  to  the  eastward,  for  a  dis- 
tance of  about  3  miles,  where  it  disappears. 

Tanjong  Bedaauw  is  a  bold  headland,  N.  \  E.  3^  miles  from  Brani  Point, 
the  coast  between  forming  a  bay  half  a  mile  deep.  A  conspicuous  white  rock 
45  ft.  high,  lies  immediately  off  the  point.  Pulo  Pemein,  a  good  sharp  mark 
to  be  seen  7  miles  off,  is  a  small  round  island,  50  ft.  high,  lying  N.W.  by  N. 
2  miles  from  Bedaauw  Point.  Tanjong  Karrah,  171  ft.  high,  bears  N.N.E. 
^  E.,  nearly  3  miles  from  Tanjong  Bedaauw.  Many  rocks,  some  above  and 
others  below  water,  extend  more  than  half  a  mile  off  this  point. 

SLAN  BAY. — The  coast  from  Tanjong  Bedaauw  falls  back  to  the  eastward, 
and  between  Tanjong  Karrah  and  a  point  about  9  miles  to  the  eastward  of 
the  Nangka  Islands  is  a  deep  shallow  bight,  named  Slan  Bay,  into  which  the 
Rivers  Kotta  and  Slan  disembogue.  From  the  latter  point  the  coast  runs, 
with  a  slight  bend  in  towards  a  small  river,  about  N.W.  f  N.,  3^  miles  to 
Tanjong  Tedong.  On  the  coast  line,  in  the  depth  of  Slan  Bay,  is  a  conspi- 
cuous tree,  196  ft.  high. 

Slan  is  the  chief  town  of  a  pangkal,  or  district,  and  is  municipally  governed 
by  the  administrator  of  the  tin  mines.  Here,  as  at  all  other  chief  towns  of 
districts,  a  small  number  of  Dutch  troops  are  stationed. 

*  Captain  Petersen  reports  that  both  the  beacon  and  the  buoy  could  not  be  seen  by  hira 
in  1876,  while  passing. 


The  edge  of  the  Shore  Mud  Bank  is  nearly  a  mile  outside  Lalarie  Point, 
and  from  thence  its  direction  is  nearly  straight,  about  North  by  West  for 
18J  miles,  or  for  2h  miles  beyond  Pulo  Pemein,  passing  Casuarina  and 
Brani  Points  a  little  less  than  half  a  mile.  It  then  assumes  somewhat  the 
form  of  Slan  Bay,  which  it  fronts,  and  surrounding  the  Great  Nangka 
Island,  projects  a  couple  of  spits  or  horns  towards  the  bank  extending 
northward  from  the  middle  Nangka,  From  thence  the  edge  falls  back  in  a 
north-easterly  direction  towards  Tanjong  Tedong,  from  which  it  extends 
little  more  than  a  mile. 

About  two-thirds  of  a  mile  south-westward  of  Tanjong  Bedaauw,  a  nar- 
row inlet,  having  3^  to  5  fathoms  depths  of  water,  runs  into  the  bank  in  a 
north-westerly  direction,  and  turns  to  the  northward  nearly  as  far  as  Pulo 

Northward  of  the  Timbaga  Pocks  the  bank  may  be  approached  to  8  or  7 
fathoms,  as  far  as  a  mile  or  two  to  the  northward  of  Pulo  Pemein,  when 
vessels  may  stand  into  7  or  6  fathoms,  until  near  the  Nangka  Islands,  which 
should  not  be  approached  on  the  West  side  nearer  than  12  fathoms. 

The  NANGKA  ISLANDS,  three  in  number,  lie  about  the  middle  part  of 
the  strait,  from  1^  to  4  miles  distant  from  the  shore  of  Banka  Island,  and  8 
or  9  miles  eastward  of  Third  Point,  on  the  Sumatra  coast.  Great  Nangka, 
285  ft.  high,  is  If  mile  long  North  and  South,  and  1^  mile  broad  ;  Middle 
and  West  Nangka  are  each  about  half  a  mile  long,  the  former  being  125  ft., 
and  the  latter  205  ft.  high. 

Great  Nangka  is  nearly  half  a  mile  within  the  edge  of  the  mud-bank 
which  extends  from  the  Banka  shore.  From  the  Middle  Nangka  a  bank  of 
2  to  8  fathoms  extends  S.S.E.  1^  mile;  from  West  Nangka  a  similar  bank 
projects  to  the  southward  for  nearly  a  mile,  and  S.S.E.  distant  three-quarters 
of  a  mile  from  its  tail  is  a  3^-fathoms  patch. 

A  small  flat  rock,  6  ft.  above  water,  named  West  Reef,  lies  about  1^  cable 
off  the  West  end  of  West  Nangka ;  and  another,  32  ft.  high,  named  Tree 
Hock,  lies  nearly  one-third  of  a  mile  south-eastward  of  Middle  Nangka,  be- 
tween it  and  Great  Nangka. 

A  reef,  named  North  Reef,  with  rocks  above  and  below  water,  lies  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  off  the  North  end  of  Middle  Nangka,  the  mud-bank  extending  off 
in  the  same  direction  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  further. 

Between  the  banks  which  surround  the  islands  are  intricate  channels,  from 
2  to  4  cables  broad,  having  from  4  to  7  fathoms  water  in  them. 

Water. — There  is  a  stream  of  water  on  the  West  side  of  Great  Nangka, 
and  another  and  smaller  stream  on  the  N.E.  side ;  but  both  streams  are  fre- 
quently dry  in  the  S.E.  monsoon,  and  are  difficult  of  approach  for  ships'  boats. 
H.M.S.  Belleisle  was  watering  at  Great  Nangka  night  and  day,  and  only  filled 
30  tons  in  36  hours.  The  natives  are  not  to  be  trusted,  but  on  the  contrary 
much  caution  is  necessary  while  watering. 

206  BANK  A  STRAIT. 

In  the  N.W.  monsoon  it  is  higli  water,  full  and  change,  at  the  Nangka 
Islands,  at  7  a.m.,  and  the  rise  is  about  9f  ft.  Many  eddies  and  small 
races  will  be  met  with  in  the  vicinity  of  these  islands.  They  are  caused 
by  the  tidal  fluod  wave  from  the  China  Sea  meeting  the  flood  from  the  south- 

TANJONG  TEDONG,  bearing  N.E.  by  E.  i  E.,  ",^  mile  from  the  West 
Nangka,  is  a  conspicuous  point,  234  ft.  hi^h,  inside  tlie  Nangka  Islands,  to 
which  it  is  connected  by  the  mud  baiik.  A  large  cluster  of  rocks,  some 
above  and  others  below  water,  lie  about  a  mile  north-westwar-d  of  the  point, 
only  a  short  distance  from  the  edge  of  the  nmd-bank. 

The  Coast  from  Tanjong  Tedong  falls  back  to  the  N.E.  into  the  bay,  at  the 
bottom  of  which  is  the  small  liiver  Semhoehn  ;  from  thence  it  curves  to  the 
N.W.  to  Tanjong  Peiiegan,  from  which  it  again  falls  back  about  a  mile  to  the 
entrance  of  a  small  river  of  that  name.  The  const  line  from  this  river  rounds 
the  foot  of  the  higher  lani  sloping  down  from  Mundo  Peak,  and  then  forming 
a  small  bay,  tr'^nds  N.N.W.  to  a  point  bearing  E.  by  S.  2  miles  from  the 
largest  of  the  Meddang  Islands,  when  it  again  bends  to  the  N.E.  for  li  mile 
to  the  entrance  of  the  Mundo  River. 

Mundo  Bay.— From  the  Mundo  River  the  coast  trends  to  the  N.W.  about 
8  miles  to  Tanjong  Jurung-patt,  forming  the  shore  of  Mundo  Bay,  with  a 
point  about  the  centre  of  it  projecting  nearly  a  mile.  T^^e  -shore  of  this  bay 
is  low,  and  covered  with  trees,  which,  at  the  entrance  of  the  Kotta  Waringin 
River,  are  121  ft.  high.  Tanjong  Jurung-patt,  240  ft.  high,  is  the  western 
limit  of  Mundo  Bay.  The  land  here  begins  to  be  more  elevated,  and  con- 
tinues to  be  so  as  far  as  the  entrance  of  the  Jiring  River. 

The  coast  from  Tanjong  Jurung-patt  takes  a  westerly  direction  for  nearly 
3  miles  to  Tanjoyig  Raya,  where  it  falls  back  northerly  about  a  mile  to  the 
Tempelang  River ;  from  thence  it  takes  again  a  westerly  direction  for  nearly  4 
miles  to  Tanjong  Ressam,  the  eastern  extreme  of  Jiring  Bay.  This  latter 
point  is  prominent,  and  faces  the  S.W.  ;  it  lies  N.W.  by  AV.  12  miles  from 
the  Meddang  Islands. 

Jiring  Bay  is  the  deep  bight  between  Tanjong  Rpssam  and  Tanjong  Tadah, 
the  coast  trending  away  from  the  former  point  in  a  N.N.W.  direction  to  the 
entrance  of  the  River  Jiring,  and  from  thence  curving  round  about  W.S.W. 
and  S.W.  to  Tanjong  Tadah,  which  bears  from  Tanjong  Ressam  W.  ^  S., 
distant  8f  miles.  The  shore  of  the  bay  is  low,  with  three  conspicuous  trees 
152  ft.  high  in  its  N.W.  part.  Tanjong  Tadah,  203  ft.  high,  is  readily  recog- 
nized, the  land  on  botli  sides  being  lower,  and  curving  into  two  bays,  giving 
it  a  very  prominent  appearance. 

Between  Tanjong  Tadah  and  Tanjong  Puni,  which  lie  nearly  Eist  and 
West  of  each  other,  about  8  miles  apart,  there  are  two  bays,  each  about 
three-quarters  of  a  mile  deep,  with  a  point  having  a  hummock  or  mound, 
256  ft.  high,  upon  it  midway  between. 


Tanjong  Snkal,  2  miles  East  by  North  from  TanjongPuni,  has  a  hill  209 
feet  high  upon  it,  and  a  small  river  oa  its  West  side.  Tanjong  Pani  is  low, 
and  the  coast  line  rounds  away  very  gradually  on  either  side  of  it.  From 
thence  to  a  point  7|-  miles  to  the  N.AV.  by  W.  h  W.,  the  coast  falls  back  and 
forms  a  bay  about  a  mile  deep.  From  the  latter  point  to  Kalian  Point  the 
bearing  is  W.  f  S.,  and  the  distance  nearly  4  miles,  the  coast  between  form- 
ing Mintok  Bay. 

There  are  several  hills  from  100  to  600  ft.  high  on  the  part  of  the  coast 
just  described  between  Tanjong  Tedong  and  the  Mundo  River.  Mundo  Peak 
612  ft.  high,  and  bearing  E.  by  S.  ;^  S.  4  miles  from  the  Meddang  Islands, 
is  the  most  convenient  for  fixing  the  vessel's  position. 

About  three-quarters  of  a  mile  to  the  eastward  of  the  Tempelang  River  is 
a  small  hill  263  ft.  hi^jh  ;  and  N.E.  3  miles  from  its  entrance  is  Buht  Tem- 
pelang, a  hill  412  ft.  high  ;  W.  by  N.  |  N.  from  Bukit  Tempelang  is  Biikit 
Pandin,  585  ft.  high,  which  will  be  found  very  useful  when  in  this  part  of 
the  strait  Solitary  Sharp  Peak,  661  ft.  high,  is  the  summit  of  a  sharp  cone 
hill  standing  by  itself,  N.  ^  E.,  distant  10^  miles  from  Tanjong  Tadah  ;  this 
is  also  very  useful  when  brought  in  line  with  nearer  objects,  for  giving  a 
correct  line  of  direction. 

Four  or  5  miles  inland  from  the  coast  between  Puni  Point  and  Mintok  are 
some  hills,  one  of  which,  Bukit  Beloe,  IIZ  ft.  high,  serves  as  a  mark  to  clear 
the  Brom-Brom  Reef  and  Amelia  Bank ;  a  little  to  the  westward  is  another 
hiU  427  ft.  high. 

About  2  miles  north-eastward  of  Bukit  Beloe  is  Buht  Panjang,  or  long 
hill,  661  ft.  high  ;  and  nearly  3  miles  north-westward  of  Beloe  is  a  hill  454 
feet  high. 

Meddang  Islands  are  three  islets  lying  about  3  miles  off  the  entrance  of 
the  Mundo  River,  and  forming  the  SDUth-western  extreme  of  Mundo  Bay, 
being  joined  to  the  main  land  by  the  mud  flat.  The  largest  islet  is  147  ft. 
high,  and  bears  North  9  miles  from  the  West  Nangka.  A  small  island, 
named  Pulo  Antu,  lies  about  1^  mile  north-eastward  of  the  Meddang 

Pulo  Sambayang  is  an  islet  175  ft.  high,  lying  about  E.  J  S.  nearly  3 
miles  from  Tanjong  Ressam,  and  \\  mile  W.S.W.  of  the  entrance  to  the 
Tempelang  River. 

Karang  Sarabu  are  a  cluster  of  rocks,  some  above  and  others  below  water, 
extending  in  a  S.  by  E.  J  E.  direction  nearly  2  miles  from  the  point  with  a 
hummock  on  it  between  Tanjong  Tadah  and  Tanjong  Sukal. 

MONOPIN  HILL,  or  Gunong  Manomhing,  in  lat.  2°  U'  S.,  long.  105°  12'  E., 
rises  near  the  West  end  of  Banka,  and  its  summit  being  1,456  ft.  high,  may 
be  seen  at  a  considerable  distance,  and  serves  as  a  guide  in  approaching  to 
or  departing  from  the  North  end  of  Banka  Strait.     It  frequently  happens  at 


the  North  entrance  of  the  strait,  that  this  hill  is  the  only  visible  object, 
especially  when  a  vessel  is  near  Sumatra  in  5  or  6  fathoms  water. 

The  edge  of  the  bank,  after  passing  a  cable's  length  outside  the  rocks  off 
Tanjong  Tedong,  takes  a  N.N.W.  direction,  till  abreast  of  the  Meddang 
Islands,  outside  of  which  it  extends  nearly  a  mile.  From  thence  it  curves 
round  Mundo  Bay,  projecting  4  miles  to  the  southward  of  Tanjong  Jurung- 
ptitt ;  it  then  runs  to  the  westward,  passing  Tanjong  Eessam  at  4^  miles, 
and  Tanjong  Tadah  at  nearly  3  miles. 

Mundo  Peak,  well  open  to  the  southward  of  the  Meddang  Islands,  leads 
clear  of  the  edge  of  this  bank  between  those  islands  and  Tanjong  Tadah. 

From  Tanjong  Tadah  the  bank  still  follows  a  westerly  direction  till  South. 
of  Tanjong  Puni,  when  it  trends  away  sharply  to  the  north-westward,  fol- 
lowing the  curve  of  the  coast  line  at  an  average  distance  of  about  \\  mile, 
until  abreast  the  East  point  of  Mintok  Bay,  from  which  it  is  distant  only 
half  a  mile. 

Between  Tanjong  Tedong  and  Tanjong  Tadah,  the  soundings  decrease 
regularly  towards  the  bank,  which  may  there  be  approached  to  5  or  even  4 
fathoms,  except  near  the  Meddang  Islands,  where  a  vessel  should  not  shoal 
under  9  fathoms.  At  Tanjong  Tadah  the  bank  begins  to  get  steeper  to,  and 
abreast  of  the  Karang  Sarabu  Eocks,  there  are  9  and  10  fathoms  pretty  close 
to  its  edge. 

Caution. — The  bank  South  of  Puni  Point  is  very  shallow  and  steep-to, 
having  from  11  to  16  fathoms,  almost  close  to  its  edge.  Tanjong  Tadah, 
bearing  E.  by  N.  \  N.,  jutt  clears  this  dangerous  spit  to  the  eastward,  and 
Monopin  Hill  N.W.  by  N.,  just  clears  it  to  the  westward. 

KARANG  BROM-BROM  is  an  extensive  shoal  of  rocks  and  sand,  dry  in 
some  places  at  low  water,  lying  4|  miles  South  from  the  shore  between  Tan- 
jong Puni  and  Sukal.  It  is  a  little  more  than  2  miles  long  in  a  W.  ^  N. 
and  opposite  direction,  and  nearly  half  a  mile  wide  at  its  western  end,  where 
the  rocks  are,  and  from  which  Monopin  Hill  bears  N.W.  ^  N.  ;  the  eastern 
end  tapers  away  to  a  sandy  point.  This  danger  was  marked  by  a  temporary 
beacon,  which  is  said  to  have  disappeared  (1875). 

A  red  buoy  was  placed  off  the  southern  side  of  Karang  Brom-Brom,  in  1875, 
in  5  fathoms  water,  with  the  middle  of  Monopin  Hill  bearing  N.  40°  W., 
and  the  East  point  of  Cape  Tadah,  N.  50°  E. 

The  highest  part  of  the  hummock  on  the  point  behind  the  Karang  Sarabu 
Eocks  bearing  N.  ^  E  ,  or  the  highest  part  of  Tanjong  Tadah  bearing 
N.E.  t  N.,  clears  the  eastern  end  more  than  half  a  mile  ;  and  Bukit  Beloe, 
bearing  N.  ^  W.,  clears  the  western  end  nearly  a  mile. 

A  channel,  2  miles  wide,  having  7  to  15  fathoms  water  in  it,  lies  between 
the  Broni-Brom  and  the  shore  bank.  Nothwithstanding  that  the  channel 
between  the  Brom-Brom  Eeef  and  Banka  is  only  2  miles  wide,  a  vessel  may 
easily  work  through  it  by  day,  during  the  western  monsooD,  because  she  cau 


take  advantage  of  the  tides;  but  on  the  coast  of  Sumatra  a  strong  easterly- 
current  runs  with  little  interruption  ;  she  must,  however,  be  very  careful  in 
crossing  over  to  the  coast  of  Banka,  as  the  bank  is  very  steep,  and  she  might 
suddenly  fall  from  7  to  3  fathoms  before  there  would  be  time  for  a  second 
cast  of  the  lead. 

Amelia  Bank  is  a  small  patch  of  hard  ground,  with  2|  fathoms  water  over 
it,  at  the  S.E.  extreme  of  the  Mintok  Bank,  to  the  shoal  patches  of  which  it 
is  connected  by  a  ridge  of  4  and  5  fathoms  water.  From  it  the  western  ex- 
treme of  the  Brom-Brom  bears  East  4i  miles,  and  Monopin  Hill  N.  by  W.  JW. 
12  miles. 

Bukit  Boloe  bearing  N.  i  E.  leads  a  mile  to  the  eastward  of  the  Amelia 
Bank  ;  and  the  same  hill  N,  by  E.  ^  E.  leads  the  same  distance  to  the  west- 

Mintok  Bank  extends  from  the  Amelia  Bank  in  a  direction  nearly  parallel 
to  the  shore,  for  a  distance  of  10  or  11  miles,  to  within  about  the  third  of  a 
mile  of  the  Karang  Hadji  Eeef,  off  Kalian  Point.  It  is  composed  of  hard 
sand,  and  has  several  patches  with  only  2^  and  3  fathoms  water  over  them, 
and  4  or  5  fathoms  between.  A  2-fathoms  patch  lies  N.W.  by  N.  2i  miles 
from  the  Amelia  Bank.  Bukit  Beloe,  bearing  N.  by  E.  5  E.,  which  clears 
the  Amelia  Bank  to  the  westward,  also  clears  the  patch  to  the  eastward. 

From  this  last-mentioned  patch,  other  patches  of  2^  and  3  fathoms  extend 
N.AV.  by  W.  for  5  miles,  this  part  of  the  bank  being  about  IJ  mile  wide. 
For  2|  miles  further  in  the  same  direction  the  bank  has  from  4k  to  7  fathoms 
water  over  it,  the  deepest  water  appearing  to  be  with  Mintok  Fort  flagstaff 
in  line  with  the  pier-head,  bearing  about  N.  by  E.  5  E. 

Another  3-fathoms  patch  lies  with  the  lighthouse  on  Kalian  Point  bearing 
N.  ^  E.  1 J  mile,  from  which  5  fathoms  may  be  carried  towards  the  Karang 
Hadji  Eeef  until  very  close  to  it,  when  the  water  will  suddenly  deepen  to  11, 
17,  or  20  fathoms.  Monopin  Hill,  in  line  with  the  lighthouse  on  Kalian 
Point,  N.E.  2  N.,  leads  westward  of  the  3-fathoms  patch,  between  it  and  the 
Karang  Hadji  Eeef. 

A  ship  working  through  the  strait,  to  keep  clear  of  Mintok  Bank,  should 
take  care  not  to  bring  the  lighthouse  on  Kalian  Point  to  the  westward  of 
N.W.  byN. 

KARANG  HADJI  is  a  dangerous  reef  of  rocks  and  sand  lying  close  to 
the  N.W.  end  of  the  Mintok  Bank ;  the  rocks  on  it  are  all  covered  at  high 
water,  but  many  of  them  are  visible  at  half  tide.  The  beacon  marked  on  the 
chart  was  not  visible  in  1875.  The  reef  is  1 S- mile  long  N.W.  by  W.  and 
S.E.  by  E.,  and  half  a  mile  broad,  and  from  its  western  and  outer  extreme 
Kalian  lighthouse  bears  E.  |  N.  2^  miles,  and  Tanjong  Oelar  and  Tanjong 
Bersiap  are  in  line  ;  its  eastern  extreme  bears  S.'W.  by  W.  J  W.  1|  mile 
I.  A.  2  b 

210  BANK  A  STRAIT. 

from  Kalian  Point.  Close  to  it  on  the  North,  West,  and  South  sides,  the 
depths  are  irregular  from  16  to  21  fathoms. 

A  rock,  with  1 2  ft.  over  it  at  low  water,  lies  about  2  cables  northward  of 
the  Hadjie  Reef,  with  Tanjong  Bersiap,  the  western  point  of  Banca  Island, 
bearing  N.  %  E.,  and  Kalian  Point  lighthouse  E.  J  N. 

Tanjong  Oelar  kept  well  open  of  Tanjong  Bersiap  clears  the  West  end 
of  this  reef ;  the  highest  part  of  Monopin  Hill  in  line  with  the  lighthouse 
clears  its  eastern  extreme ;  and  Tanjong  Puni  bearing  E.  f  S.  clears  it  to 
the  soil th ward. 

A  red  himj  was  placed  off  the  N.W.  side  of  Karang  Hadjie,  in  1875,  in  4^ 
fathoms  water;  from  it  Tanjong  Kalean  bears  N.  87°  E.,  and  Bersiap  Hill 
N.  26°  E. 

Inner  or  Binnen  Bank,  of  hard  sand,  with  2^  fathoms  water  on  it,  and  7  or 
8  fathoms  close-to,  extends  East  If  mile  from  Kalian  Point,  when  it  turns  to 
the  N.W.  for  about  half  a  mile,  thus  forming  a  spit  projecting  to  the  east- 
ward ;  from  thence  it  curves  away  and  is  lost  in  the  sand-bank  which  extends 
half  a  mile  from  the  shore  of  Mintok. 

Two-thirds  of  a  mile  E.  by  S.  from  this  spit  is  a  3-fathoms  patch,  from 
which  Mintok  pier-head  bears  N.N.W.  |  W.,  distant  two-thirds  of  a  mile, 
and  Kalian  Point  lighthouse  West,  northerly. 

KALIAN  Point  and  Light. — Kalian  Point,  low  and  sandy,  with  some 
trees  behind  it,  is  the  south-western  extreme  of  the  West  end  of  Banka. 
The  lighthouse  upon  it,  in  lat.  2°  4'  37"  S.,  long.  105°  9'  E.,  is  a  white 
stone  tower  with  a  red  lantern,  which  shows,  at  an  elevation  of  170  ft.,  a 
fixed  white  light,  visible  in  clear  weather  at  20  miles. 

About  three-quarters  of  a  mile  N.W.  from  the  lighthouse  is  Tanjong  Batu- 
hrani,  the  trees  immediately  behind  which  are  127  ft.  high.  Kalian  Ledge  is 
a  small  reef,  with  only  6  to  9  ft.  water  over  it,  lying  a  little  more  than  a  mile 
to  the  N.W.  of  Kalian  Point ;  from  it  the  lighthouse  bears  S.E.  by  E.,  Ber- 
siap Point  N.  \  W.,  and  Monopin  Hill  N.E.  I  E. 

Kalian  Pass,  formed  by  Kalian  Point  and  Ledge  on  one  side,  and  the 
Karang  Hadji  Reef  on  the  other,  is  three-quarters  of  a  mile  wide,  with 
soundings  in  it  of  25  to  32  fathoms.  This  channel  is  generally  used  by 
vessels  coming  from  the  northward  and  proceeding  to  Mintok  Bay,  and  with 
a  fair  wind  is  preferable  to  the  passage  outside  the  Karang  Hadji ;  but  the 
great  depth,  bad  anchorage,  and  strong  currents,  render  it  unadvisable  to 
attempt  to  beat  through. 

In  using  this  channel,  the  sandy  point  upon  which  the  lighthouse  stands 
may  be  passed  pretty  close  to  ;  and  the  lighthouse  on  the  bearing  of  E.  by  S. 
leads  through  between  the  Kalian  Ledge  and  the  Karang  Hadji  Reef. 

MINTOK. — Two  miles  E.N.E.  from  Kalian  Point,  on  the  banks  of  a  small 

MINTOK.  211 

river,  is  the  town  of  Mintok,  the  capital  of  the  island,*  having  a  fort  upon  a 
hill,  and  some  stone  houses  close  to  the  shore,  the  red  roofs  of  which  are 
visible  at  a  considerable  distance.  The  resident  and  other  Dutch  officers 
have  houses  on  the  hill  near  the  fort,  most  of  the  native  houses  being  lower 
down  nearer  the  sea.  The  mail  steamers,  which  run  twice  a  month  between 
Batavia  and  Singapore,  always  call  here. 

A  pier  nearly  half  a  mile  long,  and  running  out  to  the  edge  of  the  bank, 
has  been  built,  and  is  of  great  advantage  to  the  trade  of  the  place  ;  on  the 
extremity  of  the  pier  a  small  fixed  white  light  is  shown  all  night. 

The  best  anchorage  for  large  ships  is  in  10  to  6  fathoms,  about  1 J  mile 
from  the  shore,  with  Monopin  Hill  bearing  about  N.  J  E.,  and  Kalian  Point 
about  W.N.  W.  or  W.  by  N.  The  ordinary  anchorage  of  the  Dutch  man-of- 
war  stationed  in  Banka  Strait,  and  of  the  merchant  vessels  trading  to  Min- 
tok, which  are  usually  of  a  small  class,  is  in  4^  or  5  fathoms  inside  the  3- 
fathoms  patch  lying  off  the  spit  which  extends  from  the  Binnen  Bank,  at 
any  convenient  distance  and  direction  from  the  pier-head. 

The  usual  route  to  Mintok  Road  is  across  the  Mintok  Bank,  between  the 
Karang  Hadji  Eeef  and  the  Amelia  Bank.  A  vessel  coming  from  the 
northward,  and  bound  for  the  road,  may  proceed  either  through  the  Kalian 
Pass,  or  she  may  pass  outside  the  Karang  Hadji  Reef,  and  then  follow  the 
usual  track  across  the  Mintok  Bank.  A  good  mark  for  crossing  the  bank  is 
Monopin  Hill  in  line  with  the  flagstaff  on  the  fort  bearing  N.  by  E.  \  E., 
which  will  lead  over  it  in  5  or  6  fathoms  water;  another  good  mark  is 
Monopin  Hill  in  line  with  the  lighthouse  N.E.  ^  N.  No  ship  can  cross  the 
bank  in  safety  with  Monopin  Hill  bearing  to  the  westward  of  North  ;  with 
the  hill  bearing  North,  a  ship  crossing  the  bank  would  have  3  fathoms  at 
low  water  spring  tides,  the  bottom  hard  sand,  coral,  and  shells.  When  over 
the  bank,  the  water  will  deepen  to  18  or  20  fathoms,  soft  muddy  bottom,  and 
shoal  again  quickly  towards  the  inner  bank  and  the  shore. 

With  a  working  wind,  keep  Monopin  Hill  N.  J  E.  and  N.N.E. 

To  enter  Mintok  Road  from  the  eastward,  a  vessel  must  work  between  the 
shore  and  the  Mintok  Bank,  being  careful  not  to  bring  Tanjong  Tadah  to 
the  eastward  of  E.  by  N.  f  N.,  until  Monopin  Hill  bears  N.  W.  by  N. 

A  hard  sandy  bottom  and  shoal  water  will  show  when  near  the  edge  of  the 

*  Banka,  like  the  adjacent  countries,  is  now  under  the  dominion  of  the  Dutch,  and  has 
been  so  without  dispute  since  1821,  M^hen  it  was  finally  conquered  from  the  treacherous 
Sultan  of  Palembang  in  Sumatra.  .\s  is  well  known,  the  chief  commercial  product  is  tin  : 
a  government  monopoly,  chiefly  worked  by  Chinese,  who  form  more  than  a  moiety  of  the 
total  population-  of  Banka,  estimated  at  35,000.  The  island  is  comparatively  sterile,  and 
the  natives  rude  and  treacherous.  There  are  numerous  other  colonies  of  Malays  and 
Javanese,  in  addition  to  the  Chinese  immigrants.  The  chief  geological  feature  is  the  range 
of  volcanic  and  granitic  hills  which  runs  through  the  island,  parallel  to  and  of  similar 
character  to  those  on  the  Malay  pcninbula. 


Mintok  Bank  ;  while,  to  avoid  the  shallow  along  the  coast,  Monopin  Hill 
must  not  be  brought  more  to  the  westward  than  N.W.  by  N.,  and  taking 
care  not  to  shoal  to  less  than  5  fathoms. 

At  Kalian  P(jint  it  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  in  the  N.W.  mon- 
soon, at  8''  17"  a.m.,  and  in  the  S.E.  monsoon  at  8  p.m.;  the  springs  rise 
12  J  ft. 

Tanjong  Bersiap,  168  ft.  high,  beai'sfrom  Tanjong  Batu-brani,  the  north- 
western extreme  of  Kalian  Point,  N.  by  W.  i  W.,  distant  3^  miles.  The 
coast  between  curves  slightly  inland,  and  is  fronted  by  a  bank  extending 
nearly  a  mile  from  it,  pretty  close  to  which  are  7  and  10  fathoms.  Inside 
the  edge  of  this  bank,  and  lying  some  distance  off  Bersiap  Point,  is  a  cluster 
of  rocks,  some  of  which  are  above  and  others  below  water.  Bersiap  Hill, 
336  ft.  high,  is  small,  and  stands  by  itself,  about  IJ  mile  N.E.  of  the  point. 
About  2  miles  N.E.  of  the  hill,  the  extreme  of  a  range  running  from  Monopin 
to  the  N.W.  forms  a  conspicuous  peak  709  ft.  high. 

Tanjong  Oelar,  156  ft.  high,  is  about  4  miles  N.  by  E.  from  Tanjong  Ber- 
siap ;  nearly  midway  between  is  a  remarkable  yellow  cliff.  About  three- 
quarters  of  a  mile  northward  of  the  yellow  cliff,  and  just  to  the  South  of  a 
point  with  a  rock  off  it,  is  a  stream  of  water.  Oelar  Reefs  is  the  name  given 
to  the  rocky  and  uneven  ground,  with  reefs  and  rocks  above  water  in  places, 
extending  off  shore  between  Bersiap  and  Oelar  Points.  From  a  mile  off 
Bersiap  Point,  it  runs  in  a  N.  by  W.  direction  for  nearly  3  miles,  when  it 
trends  away  to  the  north-eastward,  passing  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile 
outside  Oelar  Point,  immediately  off  which  are  several  rocks  above  water. 

Transit  Rock,  on  which  H. M.S.  7V«ws?Y  was  wrecked,  10th  July,  1857,  lies 
at  the  western  extremity  of  this  rocky,  imeven  ground,  at  2J  miles  off  shore, 
and  W.  I  N.  8  cables'  lengths  from  a  reef  which  generally  shows,  except  at 
high  tides,  with  6  and  10  fathoms  between  them.  The  least  depth  on  the 
rock  at  low  water  springs  is  12  ft.,  and  from  this  spot  Oelar  Point  bears 
N.E.  by  E. ;  the  highest  point  of  Monopin  Eange  E.  by  S.  f  S.  ;  and  Kalian 
Point  is  IJ"  open  of  Bersiap  Point  S.S.E.  southerly,  distant  from  the  latter 
point  2J  miles.  There  are  20  fathoms  water  at  a  cable's  length  to  the  west- 
ward of  the  12-feetline  ;  the  depth  around  varying  from  14  to  12,  7,  and  5 
fathoms  over  very  uneven  bottom. 

A  roL-k  awash,  at  low  water  springs,  lies  E.  |  N.  2  cables'  lengths  from 
the  Transit  Pock  ;  and  there  are  4i  fathoms  (perhaps  less)  rocky  bottom,  at 
half  a  mile  to  the  northward  of  the  Transit,  with  20  fathoms  close-to ;  the 
locality  of  the  latter  is  indicated  by  strong  ripples. 

Tanjong  Batu-brani  well  open  of  Tanjong  Bersiap,  bearing  S.S.E.  ^  E., 
clears  the  Transit  Eock  to  the  westward;  and  Tanjong  Biat,  well  open  of 
Tanjong  Oelar,  bearing  E.N.E.,  clears  it  to  the  northward. 

TANJONG  BIAT  bears  N.E.  |  E.,  distant  3  miles  from  Tanjong  Oelar, 
and,  like  that  point  and  Tanjong  Bersiap,  has  rocks  above  and  below  water, 


extending  some  distance  off  it.  The  line  of  danger  which  extends  about 
three-quarters  of  a  mile  off  Tanjong  Oelar,  follows  the  curve  of  the  coast  line 
at  about  the  same  distance  towards  Biat  Point,  where  it  projects  rather 
farther  off.  In  the  bay  between  Oelar  and  Biat  Points  is  a  small  stream  of 
water,  with  a  village  close  to  it. 

Rocky  Patches,  with  20  fathoms  close  to  them,  lie  off  Tanjong  Biat, 
having  a  narrow  channel  with  10  and  11  fathoms  water  in  it  between  them 
and  the  rocky  ground  extending  from  the  coast.  From  the  outer  patch  of  3 
fathoms,  Tanjong  Oelar  bears  S.  ^  W.  3  miles,  and  Tanjong  Biat  S.E.  by  E., 
a  little  over  2  miles. 

Tanjong  Oelar  bearing  South  leads  nearly  half  a  mile  westward  of  these 
dangers;  and  Buh'f  ^atu,  a  hill  708  ft.  high,  about  12  miles  eastward  of 
Tanjong  Biat,  bearing  E.  by  S.,  leads  northward  of  them. 

Caution. — The  West  coast  of  Banka,  between  Tanjong  Kalian  and  Tan- 
jong Biat,  is  very  dangerous  to  approach,  owing  to  the  rocky  patches  just 
described  and  the  deep  water  close  to  them ;  ships  should,  therefore,  exercise 
great  caution  when  in  this  vicinity,  observing  that  Tanjong  Bersiap,  if  not 
brought  to  the  westward  of  South,  will  clear  all  the  dangers  between  Tan- 
jongs  Oelar  and  Biat;  and  they  should  be  careful  to  regard  the  marks  given 
to  clear  the  Transit  Rock. 

FREDERICK  HElv  DRICK  ROCKS  lie  at  the  northern  entrance  of  Banka 
Strait,  nearly  midway  between  Batakarang  Point  on  the  Sumatra  coast  and 
Tanjong  Oelar  on  the  Banka  coast.  They  consist  of  two  rocky  patches, 
lying  North  and  South  of  each  other,  having  only  9  ft,  on  the  northern  patch, 
and  3  ft.  on  the  southern.  The  two  patches  occupy  a  space  about  a  mile 
long.  North  and  South,  and  half  a  mile  broad. 

From  the  3-feet  patch  Monopin  Hill  bears  nearly  E.  by  S.  14  miles;  and 
the  lighthouse  on  Kalian  Point  S.E.  by  E.  ^  B.  12f  miles. 

Monopin  Hill  E.  |  S.  leads  about  half  a  mile  southward  of  the  3-ft-  patch; 
and  Monopin  Hill  in  line  with  the  remarkable  yellow  cliff  between  Bersiap 
and  Oelar  Points,  E.  by  S.  |  S.,  leads  2  miles  northward  of  the  northern 

Close  around  the  shoal  are  16  to  20  fathoms  water. 

A  red  buoy  is  moored  on  the  South  point  of  Frederick  Hendrick  Reef, 
in  5  fathoms,  with  Kalean  light  bearing  S.E.  by  E.  \  E.,  Bersiap  Hill 
E.  by  S.,  and  Mount  Parree  N  E.  by  E.  It  is  visible  about  3  miles  off ;  but 
as  the  buoy  from  the  strong  tides  frequently  shifts  its  position,  vessels  are 
cautioned  not  to  place  too  much  dependence  on  it. 

Channels. — The  channel  westward  of  the  Frederick  Hendrick  Rocks  is  the 
one  most  generally  used,  the  depths  in  it  being  moderate,  decreasing  regu- 
larly towards  the  bank  extending  from  the  Sumatra  coast ;  whereas  in  the 
channel  eastward  of  the  shoal  the  water  is  much  deeper,  and  the  depths 


Between  the  shoal  and  the  3-fathoms  line  at  the  edge  of  the  mud-bant 
extending  from  Batakarang  Point,  the  channel  is  4|  miles  wide,  having  16 
and  17  fathoms  close  outside  the  10-fathoms  line  towards  the  rocks;  the 
depths  under  10  fathoms  decreasing  regularly  towards  the  bank. 

The  channel  between  the  shoal  and  the  Transit  Eoek  and  reefs  off  the 
"West  coast  of  Banka  is  8  miles  wide,  having  16  to  20  fathoms  at  3  or  4 
miles  eastward  of  the  shoal,  and  19  to  25  miles  nearer  Banka,  which  depth* 
increase  to  24  and  30  fathoms  close  to  the  dangers  extending  from  that 

Directions  for  West  Channel. — To  avoid  the  Frederick  Hendrick  Eocks, 
vessels  taking  the  channel  between  them  and  Sumatra  should  keep  in  4^  to 
7  fathoms  water  on  the  edge  of  the  bank  off  Batakarang  Point,  and  not  keep 
more  to  the  eastward  than  in  9  or  10  fathoms,  while  Monopin  Hill  bears 
between  East  and  E.S.E. 

In  working  thx'ough  this  channel  a  vessel  should  not  deepen  to  more  than 
9  fathoms  towards  the  Hendrick  Eocks,  but  the  bank  off  Batakarang  Point 
may  be  neared  to  5  or  4i  fathoms.  When  Monopin  Hill  bears  E.S.E.,  the 
vessel  will  be  northward  of  the  rocks. 

In  the  East  Channel,  Mounts  Punyabung,  Paree,  and  Jerankat,  on  the 
N.W.  part  of  Banka,  will  appear  like  islands.  To  pass  eastward  of  the 
Frederick  Hendrick,  keep  Mount  Punyabung  N.E.,  until  Monopin  Hillbears- 
E.  i  S.,  when  Punyabung  must  not  be  more  eastward  than  N.E. ;  and  when 
Monopin  is  E.  by  S.  J  S.,  Punyabung  must  not  be  more  ISorth  than  N.E.  ^  N., 
so  as  to  avoid  in  the  first  case  the  Hendrick  Eocks,  and  in  the  second  the 
Transit  Eock.  "When  Monopin  bears  southward  of  S.E.,  Mount  Punyabung 
must  not  be  brought  to  the  northward  of  N.E. 

Soundings  in  Banka  Strait. — In  Banka  Strait,  between  Lalarie  and  Second 
Points,  the  depths  are  from  17  to  25  fathoms,  shoaling  suddenly  from  those 
depths  to  10  fathoms  on  the  Banka  side  of  the  strait,  but  decreasing  regu- 
larly towards  the  10-fathoms  line  on  the  Sumatra  side. 

The  various  banks  and  coral  patches  which  exist  in  the  strait,  having  more 
than  5  or  6  fathoms  on  them,  will  be  best  understood  by  reference  to  the 
chart.  The  dangerous  banks  have  been  described.  Indeed,  throughout  the 
strait,  the  soundings  cannot  alone  be  relied  upon  to  conduct  a  vessel  safely 
through ;  but  when  associated  with  careful  bearings  and  frequent  references 
to  the  chart,  a  stranger  need  not  run  the  least  risk,  or  experience  any  diffi- 
culty in  passing  through  the  strait  for  the  first  time. 

(     215     ) 


The  STANTON  CHANNEL,  which  was  surveyed,  or  rather  discovered,  by 
Mr.  W.  Stanton,  E.N.,  in  command  of  H.M.S.  Saracen,  in  1859-60,  is  a 
most  important  addition  to  our  knowledge  of  these  entrances  to  the  China 
Sea.  This  is  the  more  so,  inasmuch  as  the  Lucipara  Channel  to  the  west- 
ward of  it  is  said  to  be  filling  up  in  consequence  of  the  extension  of  the  low 
Sumatran  coast  His  directions  which  follow  will  be  found  precise  and  suffi- 
cient. He  also  makes  the  following  general  remarks  :  It  has  hitherto  been 
the  custom  for  all  ships  to  work  along  the  Sumatra  coast,  where  they  have 
not  only  a  strong  wind,  but  a  constant  current  to  contend  with ;  consequently 
sailing  vessels  have  been  delayed  tivo  and  three  weeks,  and  instances  have  been 
known  of  vessels  being  a  month  making  the  passage  through  Banka  Strait. 

The  Saracen  frequently  worked  well  to  windward  under  fore  and  aft  sails, 
when  the  clipper  ships  could  not  make  any  progress,  and  were  compelled  to 
anchor  on  the  Sumatra  side.  From  my  past  experience,  I  feel  confident  that 
a  smart  sailing  vessel,  by  taking  advantage  of  the  tides  and  currents,  and 
following  the  directions  hereafter  given,  may  make  the  passage  even  in  the 
fall  strength  of  the  monsoon  in  three  or  four  days. 

The  Stanton  Channel,  lying  along  the  south-western  coast  of  Banka,  is  19 
miles  long,  and  nearly  3  miles  wide  at  its  narrowest  part,  with  depths,  mid- 
channel,  increasing  gradually  from  7  fathoms  at  its  south-eastern  entrance  to 
20  fathoms  near  the  other  extreme.  The  approaches  to  it  from  the  southward 
are  marked  by  the  well-defined  mountain  of  St.  Paul,  and  the  conical  hills 
of  Gadong  and  Toboe  Ali  Lama  (page  201),  and  in  fine  clear  weather  by  the 
more  distant  range  of  Padang,  2,217  ft.  high;  these  cannot  fail  to  point  out 
the  entrance,  and  the  water  being  deep  within  half  a  mile  of  the  Dapur 
Islands  (page  200),  will  give  strangers  confidence  in  steering  for  the  land. 
Prominent  points  and  bills  will  also  be  seen  along  the  Banka  coast,  bearings 
of  which  will  enable  a  vessel  at  any  time  to  ascertain  her  position. 

The  channel  is  bounded  by  narrow  banks  extending  in  a  N.W.  by  W.  and 
S.E.  by  E.  direction,  and  all  partaking  of  the  same  formation  (sand)  in  their 
shoalest  parts,  with  a  mixture  of  mud  and  sand  between.  The  two  marking 
the  western  boundary  of  the  channel  are  named  Smits  and  Melvill  Banks,  and 
off  the  latter  a  lightvessel  would  be  most  useful. 

Smits  Bank  consists  of  four  smaller  banks,  nearly  connected,  and  forming 
one  long  narrow  ridge  15  miles  in  length,  with  its  shoalest  part  of  3  ft., 
lying  6  miles,  and  the  next  shoalest  of  9  ft.,  3  miles  from  the  north-western 
end;  two  other  patches  of  3  fathoms  and  2f  fathoms  lie  on  the  S.E.  part  of 
the  bank. 

Panjang  Hill,  bearing  N.E.,  leads  to  the  north-eastward  of  this  bank,  be- 
tween it  and  the  Nemesis  Bank,  in  6  fathoms  at  low  water.     Gradong  Peak 

216  BA.NKA.  STRAIT. 

in  line  with  Toboe  Ali  Point  N.E.  i  E.,  or  Lucipara  S.W.,  clears  the  south- 
eastern end  in  4  fathoms  ;  and  Lalarie  Point  N.W.  by  W.  ^  W.,  or  not  ap- 
proaching the  bank  to  a  less  depth  than  10  fathoms,  clears  the  north-eastera 

Melvill  Bank,  5  miles  long,  and  nearly  half  a  mile  broad,  lies  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  to  the  eastward  of  the  south-eastern  part  of  Smits  Bank,  with  a 
depth  of  7  and  8  fathoms  between.  The  shoalest  part  of  this  bank  is  near 
its  north-western  extremity,  and  is  about  2  miles  in  length,  with  from  2  to 
3  fathoms  on  it.  At  the  North  end,  in  5  fathoms,  Laboh  Point  bears  N.E. 
by  E.  ;  and  tlie  bank  is  cleared  to  the  south-eastward  in  7  fathoms  by  the 
latter  point  b-^aring  N.  by  E.  i^  E.  ;  and  to  the  eastward  in  8  fathoms,  by 
bringing  Parmassang  Peak  to  touch  the  West  side  of  Banka  Hill  N.W.  |  N. 

Between  the  above  banks  and  Lucipara,  there  are  many  others  all  trend- 
ing in  the  same  direction,  with  narrow  deep-water  channels  between  ;  but  as 
these  channels  are  exceedingly  narrow,  and  no  marks  can  be  given  to  clear 
the  banks,  they  are  not  available  for  vessels. 

Eastern  Bank, — The  bank  bounding  the  eastern  side  of  Stanton  Channel 
is  13  miles  long  and  nearly  a  mile  wide,  at  3  miles  S.W.  by  S.  of  Laboh 
Point,  which  is  the  broadest  and  shoalest  part.  It  is  formed  by  three  smaller 
banks  nearly  joined  together,  with  from  2  to  3  fathoms  on  the  north-western 
and  south-eastern  ones,  and  only  4J  ft.  on  the  middle  of  the  centre  bank. 
The  north-western  extremity  is  separated  from  a  projecting  horn,  extending 
from  the  shore  mud  flat  at  2  miles  S.S.W.  of  Pulo  Dahun,  by  a  narrow 
channel  of  6  fathoms. 

Gadong  Peak,  in  line  with  Toboe  Ali  Fort,  bearing  N.E.  ^  N.,  leads  to 
the  southward  of  the  south-eastern  part  of  the  bank  in  4J  fathoms ;  Dapur 
Island  S.E.  by  E.  f  E.  leads  to  the  westward  ;  and  the  Mameion  or  Hum- 
mock, kept  open  to  the  westward  of  Pulo  Besar,  N.W.,  clears  the  West  side 
of  the  north-western  extremity  of  the  above  banks. 

A  small  bank  of  sand  lies  1  mile  to  the  westward  of  the  south-eastern 
extreme  of  the  eastern  bank,  but  as  not  less  than  4J  fathoms  were  found  on 
it  at  low  water,  it  is  not  dangerous  to  ships  passing  through. 

Inner  Channel. — To  the  eastward  of  the  eastern  bank  along  the  coast  of 
Banka,  there  is  an  inner  channel  nearly  a  mile  wide,  with  4  to  6  fathoms 
water  in  it,  but  as  it  is  encumbered  with  shoals  it  is  only  navigable  for  small 
vessels.     Dapur  Island,  bearing  S.E.  by  E.,  leads  nearly  in  mid-channel. 

There  are  also  two  outlets  into  the  main  channel  over  the  western  bank, 
in  5  and  4  fathoms  ;  the  former  with  Pulo  Dahun  bearing  N.N.E.  ;  the 
latter  and  southern  outlet,  when  Pulo  Puni  and  Gossong  Point  are  in  line, 
E.  ^N. 

Nemesis  Bank,  lying  nearly  mid-channel  between  Pudi  Point  and  False 
First  Point,  is  a  long  ridge  of  sand  extending  9  miles  in  a  N.W.  by  W.  and 


S.E.  by  E.  direction,  with  irregular  soundings  of  from  3  to  10  fathoms  on  it. 
The  shoalest  part  consists  of  two  patches  of  ?>  fathoms,  each  about  2  cables' 
lengths  in  extent^  upon  one  of  which  the  French  frigate  Nemesis  grounded  in 
1857.  They  lie  E. S.E.  and  W.N.  W.  from  each  other,  distant  half  a  mile, 
and  from  the  western  patch  Lalarie  Point  bears  N.N.W.  i  W.  4J  miles,  and 
False  First  Point  S.S.W.  i  W.  4^  miles. 

Casuarina  Point  kept  open  of  Lalarie  Point,  bearing  N.  by  W.  f  W.,  leads 
to  the  westward  of  these  shoal  patches,  in  14  fathoms  water;  the  Mamelon 
or  Hummock,  N.  by  E.  i  E.,  or  False  First  Point  S.W.  i  S.,  leads  to  the 
eastward  ;  and  Lalarie  Point  bearing  N.AV.  |  N.,  clears  them  to  the  north- 
ward. There  is  another  patch  of  5  fathoms  lying  2  miles  from  the  south- 
eastern extreme  of  the  bank,  with  False  First  Point  W.  i  S.,  and  First  Point 
S.  by  W.  i  W.,  distant  SJ  miles. 

Anchorage  may  be  found  anywhere  in  the  Stanton  Channel,  but  ships 
bringing  up  with  their  kedge  or  stream  anchor  must  always  be  prepared  to 
let  go  the  bower  anchor,  as  there  will  be  experienced,  particularly  during  the 
change  of  the  monsoons,  very  dangerous  squalls,  with  heavy  rain,  thunder, 
and  lightning,  which  generally  last  for  about  an  hour. 

TIDES. — In  the  S.E.  monsoon  it  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  Toboe 
Ali  Point,  on  the  Banka  shore,  at  8**  30™  p.m.,  and  at  10  a.m.  in  N.W. 
monsoon.  The  ordinary  rise  at  springs  is  lOf  ft.,  but  it  sometimes  reaches 
12  ft.  The  highest  tide  generally  occurs  two  days  after  full  and  change. 
The  rate  at  springs  is  2^-  knots.  The  flood  stream  sets  to  the  N."W.  and  runs 
for  about  12  hours,  and  the  ebb  the  same  period  in  the  opposite  direction, 
but  they  are  both  sometimes  influenced  by  the  strength  of  the  monsoon. 
When  it  is  blowing  strong  from  the  S.E.,  the  flood  stream  often  runs  for  14 

A  vessel  may  carry  a  fair  tide  all  the  ivay  through  by  starting  from  either 
extremity  of  the  strait  at  low  water,  as  the  tidal  waves  from  the  China  and 
Java  Seas  meet  near  the  Nangka  Islands. 

At  Laboh  Point  it  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  1 1  p.m.  in  the  S.E. 
monsoon,  and  the  rise  at  ordinary  springs  is  10  ft. 

After  rounding  Lalarie  Point  in  the  S.E.  monsoon  the  flood  sets  N.N.W., 
and  the  ebb  to  the  S.S.E.,  along  the  Banka  shore. 

The  time  of  high  water  at  Laboh  Point  being  2  J  hours  later  than  at  Toboe 
Ali  Puint,  in  the  southern  part  of  Stanton  Channel,  for  a  few  days  after  full 
and  change  the  tides  will  be  found  (as  there  is  generally  12  hours'  flow  and 
ebb)  to  run  in  one  direction  all  night,  and  the  opposite  direction  during  the 
day,  with  a  velocity  of  from  2^  to  3  knots.  The  current  also  setting  directly 
mid-channel,  the  flood  N.W.  by  W.,  and  the  ebb  S.E.  by  E.,  vessels  may 
take  advantage  of  it  in  light  airs  to  drop  through. 

Directions  for  Statiton  Channel  from  the  Southward. — Vessels  from  the  south- 

I.    A.  2  1' 

218  BANK  A  STEAIT. 

ward,  intending  to  proceed  into  Banka  Strait  by  the  Stanton  Channel,  can- 
not fail,  in  approaching  the  coast  of  Banka,  to  recognise  the  mountain  of 
St.  Paul  (page  201)  by  its  flattish  top  having  several  nipples  of  nearly  the 
same  elevation,  and  Gadong  and  Toboe  Ali  Lama  Peaks  by  their  conical 
appearance.  Should  the  weather  be  clear,  the  distant  high  range  of  Pedang 
will  be  visible.  The  highest  peak  of  this  range  is  quoin-shaped,  attaining 
from  its  western  shoulder  an  elevation  of  2,217  ft.,  with  several  lower  hilla 
of  a  rounder  and  more  conical  appearance  adjoining,  the  two  westernmost 
being  about  1,200  and  1,400  ft.  high. 

After  recognizing  Mount  St.  Paul  and  Toboe  Ali  Lama  Peak,  approach 
the  latter  on  a  North  bearing,  and  when  about  3  miles  to  the  southward  of 
the  Dapur  Islands,  steer  N.W.  by  W.,  which  will  lead  nearly  mid-channel 
to  abreast  Banka  Point ;  recollecting  the  marks  given  at  p.  216,  for  clearing 
the  Melvill  and  Eastern  Bank. 

When  off  Laboh  Point,  the  high  range  of  Parmassang  will  be  visible, 
rising  from  a  gradual  slope  on  its  western  shoulder  to  a  flat-top  peak,  with 
two  lower  ones  adjoining.  The  three  hills,  Banka,  Panjang,  and  Woody, 
will  also  be  seen ;  the  two  former  may  be  known  by  their  wedge  shape,  and 
the  latter  by  its  isolated  position. 

Prom  abreast  Banka  Point  a  course  may  be  shaped  along  the  Banka 
shore,  passing  Lalarie  Point  at  a  distance  not  within  IJ  mile,  and  from 
thence  to  Second  Point.  When  Pulo  Dahun  bears  North,  great  care  must 
be  taken  to  avoid  the  spit  which  extends  in  a  south-easterly  direction  from 
the  shore  mud  flat,  between  the  above  island  and  Banka  Point.  The  Ma- 
melon  or  Hummock,  N.W.,  well  open  to  the  westward  of  Pulo  Besar,  clears 
this  spit  (page  216) ;  from  thence  to  the  Timbaga  Eocks  the  bank  may  be 
avoided  by  not  shoaling  towards  it  under  a  depth  of  10  fathoms. 

Working  through  this  channel  from  the  eastward,  vessels  may  stand  towards 
the  South  extreme  of  the  Dapur  Islands  to  a  distance  of  half  a  mile,  as  these 
islands  have  deep  water  at  4  cables'  lengths  from  them.  Between  this  and 
Toboe  Ali  the  shore  mud  flat  may  be  approached  until  Pulo  Dapur  bears 
S.E.  by  E.  ^  E.,  and  Lucipara  may  be  neared  to  a  distance  of  5  miles ;  but 
when  Gadong  Peak  bears  N.E.  ^  N.,  or  comes  in  line  with  Toboe  Ali  Fort, 
Pulo  Dapur  must  not  be  brought  to  the  southward  of  S.E.  by  E.  |  E.  to  clear 
the  north-eastern  part  of  the  Eastern  bank. 

Parmassang  Peak  touching  the  West  side  of  Banka  Hill  N  W.  |  N.,  will 
clear  the  Melvill  Bank,  and  when  Laboh  Point  bears  N.E.  J  N.,  by  not 
shoaling  under  10  fathoms,  all  the  banks  on  both  sides  will  be  cleared. 
Lalarie  Point  N.W.  by  W.  \  W.  will  also  clear  the  north-eastern  part  of 
Smits  Bank. 

The  shoal  patches  on  the  Nemesis  Bank  should  not  be  approached  under  a 
depth  of  10  fathoms  until  Casuarina  Point  comes  open  of  Lalarie  Point,  and 
in  rounding  the  latter  point  take  care  not  to  come  into  a  less  depth  than  10 


fathoms,  as  the  bank  is  here  steep-to.  The  Timbaga  Rocks  may  also  be 
avoided  by  following  the  same  precaution,  and  from  thence  it  is  recommended 
to  work  up  from  Second  Point  along  the  Sumatra  coast. 

From  the  Westward.— Proceeding  through  Stanton  Channel  from  the 
westward,  when  abreast  and  IJ  mile  distant  from  Lalarie  Point,  an  E.S.E. 
course  will  lead  nearly  mid-channel  between  the  Nemesis  Bank  and  the 
bank  extending  from  the  Banka  shore,  but  when  Panjang  Hill  bears  N.E. 
a  more  southerly  course  must  be  shaped  to  pass  in  mid-channel.  When 
Dahun  Point  bears  North,  the  Mamelon  or  Hummock  open  of  Pulo  Besar 
N.W.  (the  clearing  mark  for  the  spit  off  Pulo  Dahun,  page  216),  also  leads 
directly  through  the  channel. 

Working  through  from  the  westward  in  the  S.E.  monsoon,  the  same  pre- 
caution must  be  taken  as  already  mentioned  to  avoid  the  shoalest  part  of  the 
Nemesis  Bank,  which  will  be  passed  when  the  Mamelon  bears  N.  by  E.  J  E. ; 
and  should  a  strong  flood  tide  be  'then  running,  it  would  be  advisable  to 
anchor  in  8  or  9  fathoms,  sand,  on  the  Nemesis  Bank,  as  the  water  on  both 
sides  of  it  is  deep,  and  wait  for  a  change  of  tide,  or  the  chance  of  the  land 
breeze,  which  blows  generally  either  during  the  night  or  early  in  the  morn- 
ing from  the  Banka  shore.  When  Panjang  Hill  bears  N.E.,  Lalarie  Point 
must  not  be  brought  to  the  northward  of  N.W.  by  W.  \  W.  to  avoid  Smits 
bank,  and  the  same  directions  as  already  given  in  not  approaching  the  banks 
under  10  fathoms  until  Laboh  Point  bears  N.E.  j  N.,  will  be  quite  sufficient 
to  enable  any  vessel  to  work  through. 

LTJCIPARA  CHANNEL. — The  South  entrance  to  this  channel  is  between 
Lucipara  Island  and  Lucipara  Point,  nearly  West,  9  miles  distant  from  it. 
The  western  side  of  the  channel  (p.  193)  is  bounded  by  the  mud  flat  which 
projects  from  the  coast  of  Sumatra  for  2  miles  and  more,  and  its  eastern  side 
by  various  hard  and  dangerous  sandbanks,  which  narrow  the  breadth  of  the 
passage  to  IJ  and  2  miles. 

Mr.  Stanton  is  of  opinion  that  this  channel  will,  within  a  few  years,  be- 
come unnavigable  for  vessels  of  large  draught,  owing  to  the  rapid  extension 
of  the  mud  flat  projecting  from  the  Sumatra  coast  on  the  western  side,  and 
to  the  extension,  also  of  the  sandbanks  on  the  eastern  side. 

Round  Shoal. — The  southern  sandbank  in  this  channel  is  nearly  2  miles 
long  W  N.W.  and  E.S.E.,  and  about  a  mile  broad,  the  least  water,  1^ 
fathoms,  being  near  the  middle  of  it.  From  its  southern  edge,  in  3  fathoms, 
the  summit  of  Lucipara  Island  bears  S.E.  ^  E.  1\  miles,  and  from  the 
western  edge  S.E.  ^  E.  9  miles.  The  narrowest  part  of  the  Lucipara  Channel 
is  between  the  lightvessel  off  the  western  extreme  of  this  bank  and  the 
mud  flat  extending  from  the  Sumatra  coast. 

LIGHTVESSEL. — In  1870  the  Lucipara  Channel  Lightvessel,  showing  a 
fixed  bright  light,  elevated  28  ft.,  and  visible  10  miles  off,  was  placed  in  the 
position  formerly  occupied  by  a  buoy,  in  the  narrowest  part  of  the  channel, 


off  the  N.W.  side  of  Round  Shoal.  She  is  painted  yellow,  and  carries  one 
mast  with  a  black  ball  on  the  top.  From  the  lightvessel,  Green  Point  bears 
N.W.  f  N.  4A  miles  nearly,  Lucipara  Point  S.  by  W.  ^  W.,  and  Lucipara 
Island  summit,  S.E.  |  E.  9  miles, 

Hindostan  Bank  extends  from  close  to  the  eastern  edoje  of  the  Round 
Shoal  N.N.W.  ^  W.  about  3-|-  miles.  The  depths  on  the  southern  and 
middle  parts  of  it  are  1  to  3  fathoms,  but  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile 
from  its  northern  extreme  is  a  patch  of  hard  sand,  with  only  3  feet  water 
over  it. 

Merapie  Shoal,  the  most  northern  of  the  banks  on  the  eastern  side  of  the 
Lucipara  Channel,  is  composed,  like  the  others,  of  hard  sand,  and  is  three- 
quarters  of  a  mile  in  extent  North  and  South,  and  more  than  half  a  mile 
broad.  The  least  water  on  it  is  2^  fathoms.  From  the  middle  of  the  shoal, 
False  First  Point  is  in  line  with  First  Point. 

In  the  Lucipara  Channel  the  bottom  is  generally  hard  sand  on  the  banks 
towards  the  eastern  side,  and  soft  mud  on  the  western  or  Sumatra  side  ;  yet 
close  to  the  north-western  edge  of  the  Middle  sand-bank  the  bottom  is  also 
soft,  with  5^  and  6  fathoms.  It  is,  therefore,  advisable  not  to  keep  in  too 
bard  or  in  too  soft  bottom,  but  in  the  middle  of  the  channel. 

Directions  for  Lucipara  Channd  from  the  Southward. — When  bound  towards 
Banka  Strait  from  the  southward,  the  Island  of  Lucipara  is  generally  made 
between  the  bearings  of  N.  by  E.  and  N.W.,  and  in  5'^  to  8  or  9  fathoms. 
With  westerly  winds  it  is  advisable  to  keep  on  the  western  side  of  the  chan- 
nel in  4f  to  5J  fathoms. 

In  clear  weather,  when  the  Parmassang  Range  is  visible,  the  highest  peak 
on  the  western  extreme  of  the  range  in  line  with  First  Point,  N.  by  W.  ^  W. 
will  lead  up  to  abreast  the  lightvessel.  This  mark  should  be  left  when  Luci- 
para Island  bears  about  E.S.E.,  or  S.E.  by  E. ;  then,  by  keeping  the  Mame- 
lon  Hummock  (page  202)  on  a  N.  f  W.  bearing,  it  will  lead  through 
between  the  bank  off  First  Point  and  the  Merapie  Shoal,  until  Lalarie. Point 
is  seen  well  open  of  First  Point,  when  a  vessel  may  begin  to  edge  away  to 
the  westward  to  round  First  Point,  taking  care  not  to  approach  it  nearer 
than  a  mile,  as  the  bank  projecting  from  the  point  is  steep-to,  especially  on 
its  N.E.  side.  After  rounding  First  Point  at  not  less  than  that  distance, 
a  N.W.  ^  W.  course  will  lead  midway  between  False  First  Point  and  the 
Nemesis  Bank. 

From,  the  Northward. — Entering  Lucipara  Channel  from  the  northward, 
First  Point  must  be  rounded  with  great  caution,  on  account  of  its  being 
steep-to,  especially  on  its  north-eastern  side,  and  it  must  not  be  approached 
nearer  than  a  mile  ;  at  the  same  time,  if  the  tide  is  running  to  the  south- 
eastward, it  will  be  necessary  to  use  proper  care  that,  in  giving  a  safe  berth 
to  First  Point,  the  vessel  is  not  set  too  near  the  Merapie  Shoal,  which  the 
tide  will  be  likely  to  do  unless  guarded  against.    When  Mamelon  Hummock 


bears  N.  f  W.,  keep  it  so,  until  Lucipara  is  S.E.  by  E.,  or  E.S.E.,  when 
Parmassang  Peak  may  be  brought  in  line  with  First  Point,  N.  by  W.  I  W., 
which  will  lead  clear  of  the  Sumatra  Bank  ;  or  a  S.E.  by  E.  course  may  be 
steered,  which  will  lead  midway  between  Lucipara  and  the  main. 

Working  through  this  channel,  a  vessel  may  stand  toward  the  Sumatra 
Bank  safely  by  attending  carefully  to  the  lead,  remembering  not  to  go  into 
less  than  6J  fathoms  when  near  the  elbow  projecting  just  to  the  southward 
of  Green  Point.  Lucipara  must  not  be  approached  nearer  than  2  miles, 
when  bearing  to  the  northward  of  N.E.  by  E. ;  between  the  bearings  of 
N.E.  by  E.  and  E.  by  S.  it  may  be  approached  to  a  mile. 

Careful  attention  to  the  lead  and  a  good  look-out  will  also  give  sufficient 
warning  when  standing  towards  the  banks  on  the  eastern  side. 

Caution. — Many  vessels  passing  through  the  Lucipara  Channel  have 
grounded  on  the  mud  flat  extending  from  the  coast  of  Sumatra,  especially  a 
short  distance  to  the  southward  of  Green  Point,  where  the  flat  extends  far- 
ther out,  and  all  have  been  obliged,  before  they  could  get  off,  either  to  trans- 
ship or  to  throw  a  part  of  the  cargo  overboard,  as  the  anchors  which  were 
laid  out  on  the  soft  muddy  bottom  to  heave  them  oflP  came  home.  This  part 
of  the  flat  shoals  suddenly  from  6  to  3  fathoms,  and  therefore  should  never 
be  approached  to  a  less  depth  than  6A-  fathoms. 

It  will  also  be  necessary  to  use  great  caution  when  working  through  this 
channel  from  the  southward,  and  standing  to  the  eastward,  to  avoid  being 
set  on  the  banks  by  the  tides,  which  sweep  over  them  with  great  strength. 
In  wofking  through  this  channel  from  the  northward,  similar  caution  is 
required.  With  light  winds  it  is  very  difficult  to  get  into  the  northern 
entrance,  the  tides  sweeping  vessels  away  to  the  south-eastward  amongst 
the  banks. 

Directiom  from  Lalarie  Point  through  Banha  Strait. — Having  passed  through, 
either  Stanton  or  Lucipara  Channels,  and  brought  Lalarie  Point  to  bear 
about  East,  distant  3  miles,  a  N.N.W.  f  W.  course  for  about  10  miles  will 
lead  midway  between  the  rocky  bank  of  7  or  8  fathoms  water,  lying  north- 
westward of  the  Timbaga  Rocks,  and  the  mud-bank  projecting  from  Second 
Point.  Continuing  the  same  course  for  6  or  7  miles  further,  the  vessel  will 
be  1^  to  If 'mile  outside  the  horn  or  spit  projecting  from  the  Sumatra  Flat 
(page  194).  Still  continuing  the  same  course  for  another  14  or  15  miles 
Third  Point  will  bear  S.W.,  distant  about  2  miles. 

If  a  vessel  following  this  track,  after  having  passed  Second  Point,  should 
shoal  the  soundings  under  6  fathoms,  she  wiU  be  getting  too  near  the  Suma- 
tra Flat,  and  should  haul  out  more  to  the  eastward ;  remembering  that 
Second  Point  must  not  be  brought  eastward  of  S.  by  E.  f  E.  until  Par- 
massang  Peak  bears  E.S.E.,  to  clear  the  spit  or  horn  projectino'  from  the 

From  the  above  position  ofi"  Third  Point,  a  W.  by  N.  I  N.  course  may  be 


steered  for  about  28  or  29  miles,  which,  if  the  vessel  be  not  affected  by- 
tides  or  currents,  will  place  her  in  a  position  from  which  Fourth  Point 
will  bear  about  S.E.  f  S.  distant  7  miles,  and  Monopin  Hill  N.  i  E.  t» 

N.  JE. 

From  thence  steer  about  N.W.  by  W.  for  Batakarang  Point— paying  par- 
ticular attention  to  the  tides,  which  frequently  set  strong  into  or  out  of  the 
Palembang  Eivers  (pp.  191-2) — and  the  vessel  will  soon  pass  over  a  narrow 
bank  of  sand,  having  7  fathoms  on  it,  and  again  deepen  the  water  to  13 
and  16  fathoms.  Having  run  15  or  16  miles,  the  soundings  will  again  de- 
crease under  10  fathoms,  and  she  will  be  on  the  edge  of  the  bank  extending 
from  Batakarang  Point,  and  may  proceed  along  the  edge  of  it  in  from  8  to  6 
fathoms;  the  directions  given  at  page  214  must  then  be  followed  to  pass 
westward  of  the  Frederick  Hendrick  Rocks,  which  channel  is  recommended 
as  being  the  best  and  safest,  especially  at  night. 

Through  Banla  Strait  from  the  Northward. — A  vessel  having  passed  the 
Toedjoe,  or  Seven  Islands,  and  steering  to  the  southward  for  the  entrance 
of  Banka  Strait,  will  find  no  difiiculty  in  clear  weather  in  fixing  her  position 
which  can  be  readily  done  by  cross  bearings  of  Mount  Punyabung  or  Saddle 
Hill,  and  Monopin  Hill ;  under  such  circumstances  the  strait  can  be  entered 
on  either  side  of  the  Frederick  Hendrick  Pocks  by  attending  to  the  directions 
given  at  page  214.  But  in  thick  weather  it  often  happens  that  no  land  can 
be  seen  until  the  vessel  has  arrived  very  near  to  the  entrance  of  the  strait, 
and  at  such  times  it  is  important  to  get  hold  of  the  bank  extending  from  the 
Sumatra  coast,  and  then  proceed  along  its  edge  in  8  to  6  fathoms,  carefully 
attending  to  the  lead.  Sometimes  Monopin  will  be  seen,  but  no  other  land, 
in  such  case  it  will  be  prudent  to  proceed  as  before,  keeping  along  the  edge 
of  the  bank. 

Working  through  Banha  Strait. — Directions  have  been  given  in  pages 
217-18  and  220,  for  working  into  the  strait  from  the  southward,  and  in  page 
214  for  working  into  it  from  the  northward  by  the  channels  on  either 
side  of  the  Frederick  Hendrick  Eocks  ;  it  may,  however,  be  as  well  to  remark 
again  here  that  the  passage  westwai-d  of  the  Frederick  Hendrick  Shoal  is 
much  to  be  preferred  at  night,  or  when  the  land  is  obscured  and  reliable 
bearings  cannot  be  obtained. 

The  bank  fronting  the  Sumatra  coast  may  be  conveniently  approaced  when 
well  between  the  points,  by  common  attention  to  the  lead  ;  but  off'  the  pijints 
and  for  a  few  miles  on  either  side  of  them  great  attention  must  be  paid  to 
the  soundings.  The  most  dangerous  part  of  the  bank  is  from  Fourth  Point 
for  about  6  miles  to  the  westward  of  it,  which  must  be  approached  with  the 
utmost  caution. 

Mr.  Stanton  strongly  recommends  vessels  working  in  either  direction 
through  the  strait,  or  proceeding  through  with  a  fair  wind  and_^contrary  tide, 
to  avoid  the  Sumatra  coast  and  keep  on  the  Banka  shore,  between  Lalarie 


Point  and  Tanjong  Tadah.  He  observes  that  hitherto  it  has  been  the  cus- 
tom for  all  ships  to  work  along  the  Sumatra  coast,  where  they  have  not  only 
a  strong  wind  but  a  constant  current  to  contend  with,  consequently,  sailing 
vessels  have  been  delayed  two  or  three  weeks,  and  instances  are  known  of 
vessels  being  a  month  making  the  passage  through  Banka  Strait,  whereas  a 
smart  sailing  vessel,  by  keeping  on  the  Banka  side,  taking  advantage  of  the 
tides,  and  following  the  directions  given  below,  may  make  the  passage  even 
in  the  full  strength  of  the  monsoon  in  three  or  four  days. 

The  advantages  gained  by  keeping  on  the  Banka  coast  are  as  follows : — 

A  vessel  may  carry  a  fair  tide  all  the  way  through  by  stai-ting  from  either 
extremity  at  low  water,  as  the  tidal  waves  from  the  China  and  Java  Seas 
meet  near  the  Nangka  Islands ;  prominent  hills  and  points,  with  a  gradual 
decrease  in  the  soundings,  give  confidence  to  mariners  when  steering  for  the 
land ;  a  strong  land  wind  will  be  generally  experienced  during  the  night, 
when  the  regular  monsoon  is  blowing  in  the  middle  of  the  strait  and  near  the 
Sumatra  coast ;  and  in  the  strength  of  the  monsoon  regular  tides  will  be  met 
with  on  the  Banka  shore,  while  strong  currents  will  invariably  be  found  set- 
ting to  leeward  along  the  Sumatra  shore. 

From  the  Soidhward  — In  working  between  Lalarie  Point  and  the  Nang- 
ka Islands,  the  lead  is  a  good  guide,  as  the  soundings  decrease  regularly, 
except  near  Lalarie  Point  and  the  Timbaga  Pocks,  where  they  decrease 
rather  suddenly  from  a  depth  of  10  fathoms  ;  if,  however,  Lalarie  Point  is 
not  brought  South  of  S.E.  ^  S.  until  Brani  Peak  bears  E.  by  N,  |  N.,  a  ves- 
sel will  keep  clear  of  all  danger  near  the  Timbaga  Rocks.  Having  arrived 
within  3  miles  of  the  Great  Nangka,  the  spit  extending  from  the  South  end 
of  that  island  should  not  be  approached  under  a  depth  of  7  fathoms  ;  and  to 
avoid  the  rocky  ledges  extending  from  Middle  and  West  Nangka,  West  Eeef 
(6  ft.  above  water,  page  205),  should  not  be  brought  to  the  westward  of  North 
after  the  peak  of  Great  Nangka  bears  N.E.,  until  the  vessel  is  to  the  north- 
ward of  the  Nangka  Group, 

From  the  Nangka  Islands  to  Tanjong  Tadah  the  shore  may  be  safely  ap- 
proached by  the  lead,  as  the  soundings  are  shoal  with  a  gradual  decrease. 
When  Tanjong  Tadah  bears  N.E.  f  N.  (which  clears  the  eastern  side  of  the 
Brom-Brom  Eeef),  vessels  should  cross  over  towards  Fourth  Point  on  the 
Sumatra  coast. 

From  the  Northioard. — Coming  from  the  northward,  it  is  merely  necessary 
to  reverse  the  order  of  the  above  directions.  Vessels  should  keep  towards 
the  Sumatra  coast  until  past  Fourth  Point,  which  they  should  not  approach 
nearer  than  3  miles.  When  Tanjong  Tadah  bears  N.E.  f  N.,  they  may  cross 
over  to  the  Banka  side,  taking  care  not  to  bring  that  point  to  the  eastward  of 
the  above  bearing.  From  Tanjong  Tadah  to  the  Nangka  Islands  they  may 
stand  in-shore  guided  by  the  lead ;  but  having  arrived  abreast  of  the  latter, 
take  care"  not  to  bring  West  Eeef  to  the  westward  of  North,  until  the  peak  of 


Great  Nangka  Island  bears  N.E.,  and  not  approach  the  spit  off  the  South 
end  of  the  island  under  7  fathoms.  From  2^-  miles  South  of  the  Nangka 
Islands  the  shore  may  be  approached  by  the  lead  to  any  convenient  depth  of 
water,  but  when  Brani  Peak  bears  E.  by  N.  ^  N.  the  vessel  will  be  nearing 
the  Timbaga  Rocks,  and  must  not  then  come  under  10  fathoms.  Lalarie 
Point  bearing  S.E.  |  S.  clears  all  the  dangers  near  the  Timbaga  Pocks,  and 
the  point  should  not  be  brought  to  the  southward  of  that  bearing  until 
Casuarina  Point  bears  East.  From  thence  to  Lalarie  Point  the  shore  may 
be  again  approached  by  the  lead  ;  but  when  nearing  the  point  the  soundings 
decrease  more  suddenly,  and  a  vessel  should  not  go  into  a  less  depth  than 
10  fathoms,  and  should  round  the  point  at  the  distance  of  about  1^^  mile. 
From  thence  she  can  proceed  to  the  southward  through  either  the  Stanton 
or  Lucipara  Channels,  according  to  the  directions  at  pages  217 — 219  and  222. 


BTJLO,  or  Jibuse  Bay. — The  N.W.  coast  of  Banka  is  43  miles  in  extent, 
from  Tanjong  Oelar  to  Tanjong  Malalu,  the  bay  of  Bulo  or  Jibuse  occupy- 
ing more  than  half  of  that  space.  From  Tanjong  Biat  (p.  212),  the  south- 
western point  of  the  bay,  to  Tanjong  Ginting,  its  north-western  point,  the 
direction  is  about  N.E.  f  N.,  and  the  distance  17^  miles  ;  the  depth  of  the 
bay  is  7  miles. 

The  whole  of  this  bay  is  shallow  to  a  distance  of  3  miles  from  the  shore, 
except  to  the  southward  of  Ginting  Point,  where  the  shoals  do  not  appear  to 
extend  farther  than  a  quarter  of  a  mile.  The  rivers  Bulo  and  Jibuse  disem- 
bogue in  its  N.E.  part.  The  bay  is  much  visited  by  coasters,  and  occasion- 
ally by  larger  vessels,  for  the  purpose  of  loading  tin. 

The  anchorage  is  in  5  or  6  fathoms,  on  soft  muddy  bottom,  with  Ginting 
Point  N.  by  E.  J  E.,  Songi  Bulo  E.  i  S.,  and  the  watering  place  N.E.  by 
E.  5  E. ;  or  in  5  fathoms  off  the  Bulo  River,  with  the  village  N.E.  ^  E.,  and 
Ginting  Point  N.  by  W.  f  W.,  3  miles  from  the  shore. 

Water — Fresh  water  can  be  obtained  in  a  small  bay  about  li-  mile  to 
the  eastward  of  Tanjong  Ginting. — Commander  J.  W.  King,  R.N.,  says  it  is 

TANJONG  GINTING,  the  N.  VV.  point  of  Bulo  Bay,  is  a  long,  low  point, 
having  a  reef  projecting  2  miles  from  it,  close  to  which  are  8  fathoms  water. 
The  position  of  the  point  may  be  easily  recognized  by  the  three  hills,  Paree, 
Funyabung,  and  Jerankat,  which  at  a  great  distance  appear  like  islands.  The 
first,  858  ft.  high,  is  the  most  southern  one  of  the  three,  and  rises  4  miles 
East  of  the  point ;  Punyabung,  a  remarkable  saddle-shaped  hill,  794  feet 
high,  very  conspicuous  from  seaward,  rises  close  to  the  coast,  about  3  milea 

KLABAT  BAY.  225 

south-eastward  of  Ginting  Puiut ;  Jerankat,   657  ft.  high,  is  about  4  miles 
E.N.E.  from  Punyabung. 

The  Coast  between  Grinting  Point  and  Punyabung  Hill  forms  a  small  bay, 
which  appears  to  be  nearly  filled  with  rocks.  It  then  trends  E.N.E.  about 
18  miles  to  Tanjong  Melalu.  The  whole  coast  between  Punyabung  Hill 
and  Tanjong  Melalu  is  fronted  by  a  reef  which  projects  1  or  2  miles  from 
the  shore. 

Malan  Hyu,  Malan  Boyang,  and  Malan  Guntur,  are  three  rocks  lying  off  the 
coast  between  Tanjong  Dugong  and  Tanji>ng  Melalu.  Malan  Hyu  is  about 
the  size  of  a  boat,  and  covered  with  white  guano.  It  lies  about  3  miles 
North  from  Tanjong  Dugong.  Malan  Doyang  is  not  much  above  water,  and 
only  the  size  of  Malan  Hyu.  it  lies  about  3  miles  off  shore,  with  Punya- 
bung Hill  S.W.  J  S.  Malan  Guntur  is  nearly  midway  between  Malan 
Doyang  and  Tanjong  Melalu,  and  about  a  mile  off  shore.  It  is  larger 
than  the  other  two  rocks,  and  lies  within  the  limit  of  the  shoal  water  pro- 
jecting from  the  coast.  All  these  rocks  appear  to  be  surrounded  to  a  short 
distance  by  sunken  rocks  ;  and  a  sunken  rock  lies  southward  of  Malan 
Doyang,  midway  between  it  and  the  shore. 

ZLABAT  BAY.— Ta)iJo>ig  Melalu,  in  lat.  1°  31^'  S.,  long.  105°  38i'  E.,  is 
the  western  point  of  entrance  of  Klabat  Bay,  and  upon  it  is  a  pretty  high 
hill,  known  as  Mount  Melalu.  Here  the  N.W.  coast  of  Banka  terminates, 
as  the  coast  line  on  the  other  side  of  entrance  of  Klabat  Bay  trends  to  the 
eastward,  and  forms  the  North  shore  of  the  island. 

Klabat  Bay  runs  up  into  Banka  Island  about  27  miles  in  a  S.E.  direction, 
but  being  encumbered  with  many  rocks  and  shoals,  there  is  only  a  narrow 
passage  left,  of  4  or  5  fathoms  water,  by  which  vessels  of  heavy  burden  pro- 
ceed as  far  as  the  mouth  of  the  Lyang  Eiver.  Over  the  inner  end  of  the  bay 
hangs  the  highest  of  the  Banka  Mountains,  called  Gunong  Marass,  or  Maradi. 
This  beautiful  mountain  is  easily  recognized  by  its  three  peaks,  the  summits 
of  which  may  often  be  seen  when  passing  through  Banka  Strait,  presenting 
somewhat  the  appearance  of  a  crown.  The  highest  of  the  peaks,  2,320  it. 
high,  is  in  lat.  1°  61'  S.,  and  long.  105°  53'  E. 

Tanjong  Penyusu,  the  eastern  point  of  Klabat  Bay,  is  a  long,  low  projec- 
tion, with  an  islet  and  some  rocks  extending  nearly  2  miles  from  it. 

Karang  Trasseh  Laout  is  a  reef  with  only  2  or  3  fathoms  water  over  it, 
and  10  and  11  fathoms  around  it,  lyiug  about  3  miles  N.W.  J  N.  from  Tan- 
jong Punyusu.  From  the  reef  the  West  point  of  Punyusu  Islet  is  in  line 
with  the  hill  near  Monkubur  Point,  bearing  S.S.E.,  Moncudu  Islet  East,  and 
Mount  Melalu  S.W.  by  W.  \  W. 

Vessels  coming  to  Klabat  Bay  for  cargoes  of  tin,   usually  anchor  outside 
the   entrance,  between  its  eastern  point  and  the  Trassie  Eeef,  in  9  J  or  10 
fathoms,    soft   muddy  bottom,   having  Punyusu  Islet  in   line  with  Mount 
I.   A.  2  G 


Harass  S.S.E.  i  E.,  Klabat  Hill  S.S.W.  ^  W.,  Melalu  Point  W.  by  S.  i  S., 
and  Moncudu  Island  E.  J  N. 

The  Coast  from  Tanjong  Punyusu  takes,  with  a  slight  curve  inland,  a 
direction  about  E.  by  N.  for  10  miles,  to  a  point  abreast  of  a  small  islet 
named  Fulo  Moncudu;  and  from  thence  East  for  2^  miles  to  Tanjong  Crassok, 
the  northernmost  point  of  Banka,  in  lat.  1°  29'  S.,  long.  105°  56^'  E.  Many 
rocks  lie  close  to  this  part  of  the  coast,  and  shoal  water  extends  nearly  a  mile 
from  it.  From  Tanjong  Crassok  the  coast  trends  to  the  south-eastward, 
forming  the  N.E.  coast  of  Banka. 

A  reef,  having  2  fathoms  water  over  it,  lies  about  2  miles  off  shore,  with 
Moncudu  Islet  bearing  East,  and  Gunong  Chundong  S.E.  ^  S.  Eocks  are 
also  marked  on  the  chart,  one  at  3  miles  E.S.E.  from  Tanjong  Crassok,  and 
another  at  2i  miles  farther  to  the  south-eastward,  and  1^  mile  off  shore. 

(     227     ) 



The  channels  between  Banka  and  Lepar  on  the  West  and  Billiton  to  east- 
ward are  collectively  known  as  the  Strait  of  Gaspar.  Captain  Huddart 
says  that  the  first  ship  which  passed  through  was  the  Macclesfield  galley, 
Capt.  Hurle,  in  March,  1702.  This  is  the  westernmost  channel.  The  name 
Gaspar  is  that  of  the  Spanish  commander  from  Manila,  who  passed  through 
it  in  1724.  Besides  the  first-named  channel  westward  of  Pulo  Leat,  there 
is  a  second,  called  the  Middle  Pass,  on  the  eastern  side  of  that  island.  The 
third  is  the  Clements  Channel,  named  after  the  Commodore  of  the  homeward 
bound  English  East  India  Fleet,  in  1781,  which  passed  through  between, 
the  islets  south-eastward  of  Pulo  Leat ;  and  the  fourth,  the  Stohe  Channel, 
to  the  eastward  of  these  islets,  is  named  after  the  Dutch  officer  who  first 
surveyed  it.  Of  these  the  first  and  fourth  are  most  used,  as  will  be  explained 

Banka  or  Gaspar  Strait  ? — From  the  earliest  times  of  our  China  commerce 
Gaspar  Strait  has  been  preferred  to  Banka  Strait,  by  ships  coming  from 
China.  But  it  is  of  much  more  dangerous  approach,  both  from  North  and 
South,  and  the  new  and  excellent  Stanton  Channel  in  the  latter  may  lead 
to  a  preference  being  given  to  it.  Upon  this  subject  the  following  is  given 
in  the  China  Sea  Pilot. 

Banka  Strait  possesses  unquestionable  advantages  over  those  of  Gaspar 
and  Carimata,  and  is  without  doubt  the  best  and  safest  route  into  the  China 
Sea.  Although  of  much  greater  length,  and  not  so  direct  for  vessels  bound 
to  China  as  Gaspar  Strait,  yet  it  is  manifestly  superior  to  that  strait ;  for  it 
is  easy  and  safe  of  approach.  It  affords  convenient  anchorage  in  every  part, 
which  enables  vessels  to  avail  themselves  of  favourable  winds  and  tides ;  and 
it  leads  into  a  part  of  the  China  Sea  free  from  danger.  Gaspar  Strait,  on 
the  contrary,  is  difficult  and  dangerous  of  approach,  rocks  and  shoals  ex- 
tending for  35  miles  to  the  southward.  The  depths  of  water  are  too  great  to 
afford  convenient  anchorage  ;  and  it  conducts  into  a  part  of  the  China  Sea 


very  imperfectly  explored,  and  abounding  with  hidden  dangers,  amongst 
■which  vessels  are  liable  to  be  set  by  uncertain  currents.  No  serious  accident 
has  occurred  within  the  last  few  years  to  vessels  passing  through  Banka 
Strait ;  whereas  many  fine  ships,  with  valuable  cargoes,  have  been  lost  in  or 
near  Gaspar  Strait. 

For  vessels  proceeding  to  Singapore  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  Banka 
Strait  is  in  all  respects  to  be  preferred,  and  it  has  in  fact  become  the  recog- 
nized highway  of  the  trade  passing  between  Sunda  Strait  or  Batavia,  and 
Singapore.  But  for  ships  to  China,  Gaspar  Strait  being  shorter  and  more 
direct,  is  still  preferred,  and  will  no  doubt  continue  to  be  by  many  navi- 
gators, especially  those  who  are  anxious  to  make  quick  passages,  even  at 
the  expense  of  incurring  additional  risk.  It  is  certain  that  a  vessel  arriving 
off  the  entrance  of  Banka  or  Gaspar  Strait  in  the  morning,  and  favoured 
with  a  commanding  breeze,  would  gain  some  advantage  in  point  of  time  by 
passing  through  the  latter  ;  but  in  calms  and  light  airs,  or  against  the  N.E. 
monsoon,  there  is  good  reason  to  believe  that  vessels  will  make  quick,  and 
often  quicker  passages,  by  proceeding  through  Banka  Strait,  and  they  will 
always  be  assured  of  much  greater  safety.  In  thick  or  bad  weather,  it  is 
possible  to  proceed  through  Banka  Strait  without  risk  ;  but  Gaspar  Strait 
can  never  be  approached  at  such  times  without  incurring  considerable 

The  fast  clipper  ships,  which  every  season  contend  for  the  honour  of  land- 
ing the  first  of  the  year's  teas  in  England,  usually  proceed  through  Gaspar 
Strait,  as  do  most  homeward-bound  ships,  to  whom  saving  of  time  is  of  the 
first  importance,  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  but  they  will  continue  to  do  so 
in  preference  to  the  more  circuitous,  although  much  safer,  route  of  Banka 
Strait.  Until,  however,  the  correct  positions  of  the  shoals  and  dangers 
known  to  exist  to  the  northward  of  Gaspar  Strait  are  determined,  and  this 
space  properly  explored,  vessels  must  keep  a  vigilant  lookout  when  ap- 
proaching the  strait  from  the  northward,  and  be  prepared  for  the  possibility 
of  meeting  with  some  danger  not  marked  on  the  charts.  Nor  must  they 
relax  their  vigilance  when  getting  near  to  Pulo  Leat,  and  when  passing 
through  the  strait.  No  opportunity  should  be  lost  of  determining  the  ship's 
exact  position  ;  and  the  greatest  attention  should  be  paid  to  ascertaining  the 
Bet  of  the  current,  and  to  guard  against  its  effects.  Many  fine  ships  have 
been  lost  in  Gaspar  Strait — not  a  few  on  the  Alceste  Eeef,  from  wrongly 
estimating  their  distance  from  the  land  ;  but  in  the  majority  of  instances 
from  causes  which  might  have  been  guarded  against  by  the  exercise  of  due 
care  and  judgment. 

Gaspar  Strait  was  surveyed  in  1854  by  the  officers  of  the  United  States 
Navy  attached  to  an  exploring  expedition. 

The  territory  on  either  side  of  the  strait  being  in  possession  of  the  Dutch, 
the  names  in  strict  propriety  should  be  in  accordance  with  that  orthography. 


But  as  the  strait  is  a  common  highway  for  the  whole  world,  only  those  names 
which  might  be  otherwise  ambiguous  will  be  thus  denoted. 

BILIITON  ISLAND,  or  in  Malay  Blitung,  is  only  one-half  the  size  of 
Banka,  but  it  resembles  it  in  its  geographical  structure  and  in  the  produc- 
tion of  tin,  which  is  worked  by  a  Dutch  company.  This  is  the  south-eastern- 
most extremity  of  the  mining  fields  for  this  important  metal,  the  northern- 
most being  at  Tavoy,  on  the  Tenasserim  coast,  a  range  of  20  degrees  of 

The  following  description  of  and  directions  for  the  strait  are  taken  from 
the  China  Sea  Pilot. 


Dangerous  shoals  extend  for  about  35  miles  to  the  southward  of  Gaspar 
Strait,  rendering  great  caution  necessary  when  approaching  the  strait  from 
that  direction.* 

Sharpshooter  Shoal. — The  British  merchant  ship  Belted  Will,  Captain 
Alexander  Locke,  in  July,  1869,  during  her  passage  from  Canton  to  London, 
slightly  touched  on  a  shoal  patch  lying  S.  |^  E.,  34  miles  from  entrance  point 
in  Gaspar  Strait.  The  ship  was  going  9  knots  at  the  time,  but  the  state  of 
the  weather,  occasioned  by  the  monsoon  blowing  very  strong,  prevented  an 
examination  of  the  danger  beyond  two  casts  of  9  fathoms,  which  were  ob- 
tained shortl}'  after  the  shoal  was  passed.  Observations  obtained  on  the 
same  day,  as  well  as  the  reckoning  carried  from  Entrance  point,  place  this 
patch  in  lat.  3°  3o'  35"  S.,  long.  106'^  56'  E. 

Near  this  position  the  Sharpshooter  Shoal,  of  12  ft.  water,  and  lying  12 
miles  W.  f  S.  from  the  Hancock  Shoal,  was  unsuccessfully  searched  for  by 
Staff  Commander  Edward  Wilds  of  H.M.S.  Sivallow,  in  1866.  It  is  pro- 
bably the  same  danger,  and  the  name  has  therefore  been  retained  on  the 

HANCOCK  SHOAL,  in  lat.  3^  34i' S.,  long.  107°  4' E.,  is  a  small  patch 
about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  in  extent,  but  whether  composed  of  sand  or  coral 
does  not  aj)pear  on  the  chart.  It  has  only  1  fathom  of  water  over  it,  and  6 
to  7  fathoms  around  it. 

HIPPOGRIFFE  SHOAL  was  so  named  after  an  American  ship  lost  on  it. 
Mr.  Wilds,  R.N.,  in  H.M.S.  SwaUoiv,  searched  for  the  Hippogriffe  Shoal, 
and  found  it  in  lat.  3°  23'  36"  S.,   long.  106°  54'  30"  E.     It  is  a  dangerous 

*  Doubtful  Dangers. — A  doubtful  rock  was  marked  in  former  charts  at  3f  miles  S.W. 
by  W.  5  W.  of  the  Hancock  Shoal ;  a  small  shoal  of  6  feet  water,  named  Mary  Goddard, 
at  4^  miles  S.S.E.  of  the  Hancock  ;  but  a  careful  search  having  been  made  for  these  dan- 
gers in  May,  1866,  by  Mr.  Wild-,  Master  commanding  H.M.  surveying-vessel  Stcallow, 
without  the  slightest  indication  of  their  existence,  thej'  have  been  expunged  from  the 


boulder  rock,  with  only  3  ft.  over  it  at  low  water,  of  circular  shape,  and 
about  150  ft.  in  diameter,  having  large  branches  of  coral  upon  it.  It  was 
not  seen  until  close  to,  and  at  the  time  it  was  examined  there  was  not  the 
slightest  swell  or  ripple  to  indicate  its  position ;  the  weather  being  fine  and 
clear,  and  the  wind  light  from  the  S.S.E.  Regular  soundings  of  8  fathoms, 
sand  and  shell,  were  found  around  it,  and  the  water  in  that  depth  was  of  a 
pale  colour. 

TURTLE  SHOAL  lies  about  2  miles  N.E.  by  E.  from  the  Hancock  Shoal, 
and  is  of  about  the  same  extent ;  it  has  but  3  ft.  water  over  it,  and  8  to  12 
fathoms  around  it.     There  are  tide  ripples  over  this  shoal. 

LARABE  SHOAL,  in  lat.  3°  33'  S.,  long.  107°  10'  E.,  and  distant  nearly 
6  miles  E.  by  N.  |  N.  from  the  Hancock  Shoal,  is  about  a  third  of  a  mile  in 
extent,  having  3^  fathoms  of  water  over  it,  and  5  to  8  fathoms  around  it. 

SAND  ISLAND  is  the  name  given  to  a  small  patch  of  sand,  just  awash  at 
high  water,  with  8  to  14  fathoms  water  around  it,  lying  about  4  miles 
northward  of  the  Larabe  Shoal,  in  lat.  3°  29'  S.,  long.  107°  9'  E.  At  a  mile 
E.N.E.  from  Sand  Island  is  a  shoal  patch  about  a  third  of  a  mile  in  extent, 
having  2^  fathoms  water  over  it,  and  8  to  9  fathoms  around  it ;  the  tide  also 
ripples  over  this  bank. 

There  is  a  danger,  named  Padang  Reef,  marked  on  the  chart  about  2 J  miles 
W.  ^  N.  of  Sand  Island,  but  we  have  no  information  about  it. 

MIDDLE  REEF,  lying  N.N.E.  |  E.  nearly  2^  miles  from  Sand  Island^ 
appears  to  be  a  rock,  just  above  water,  on  the  North  end  of  a  small  sand 
patch  having  2  fathoms  water  over  it,  and  8  to  9  fathoms  around  it.    ' 

BRANDING  SHOAL  {BreaUng,  Dutch).— North-west,  nearly  If  mile  from 
Middle  Reef,  are  two  small  patches  occupying  a  space  about  two-thirds  of  a 
mile  in  extent,  E.N.E.  and  W.S.W.,  and  with  12  fathoms  water  between 
them.  The  western  patch  has  1  \  fathom  water  over  it,  the  eastern  one  only 
3  ft. ;  all  around  them  are  7  or  8  fathoms. 

FAIRLIE  ROCK,  in  lat.  3°  27}'  S.,  long.  106°  59'  E.,  was  discovered 
by  the  East  India  Coinpany's  ship  of  that  name  grounding  upon  it  in  1813. 
It  is  of  coral,  about  a  cable's  length  in  diameter,  nearly  awash  at  low  water, 
and  6  or  7  fathoms  close  around  it.  The  sea  breaks  over  the  rock,  and  all 
around  are  overfalls  caused  by  the  rocky  and  uneven  character  of  the  bottom. 
From  it  Entrance  Point,  the  south-eastern  extreme  of  Pulo  Lepar,  bears 
N.  by  W.  h  W.,  distant  26^  miles,  and  Shoal-water  Island  N.E.  by  E.  15 
miles,  and  just  in  sight  from  the  deck  of  a  large  ship  ;  therefore,  to  avoid 
this  rock,  Shoal-water  Island  must,  from  the  deck  of  a  large  ship,  be  sunk 
below  the  horizon  by  the  time  it  bears  N.E.  by  E.,  this  island  being  the  only 
land  distinctly  visible  from  the  rock. 

SHOAL-WATER  ISLAND  and  SHOALS  form  a  group  amongst  which  it 
would  not  be  prudent  to  venture.  Shoal-water  or  EinUeton  Island,  in  lat. 
3°  19i'  S.,  long.  107"  llf  E.,  is  a  little  more  than  half  a  mile  in  diameter, 


and  from  it  Middle  Eeef  bears  S.  f  W.,  distant  8  miles.  Hancock  is  a 
small  islet,  lying  N.E.  ^  N.,  three-quarters  of  a  mile  from  Shoal-water 

Dangerous  reefs  surround  both  these  islands,  among  which  are  some  deep 
but  very  narrow  and  intricate  channels.  From  Shoal-water  Island  a  reef 
extends  from  half  to  three-quarters  of  a  mile,  on  its  S.E.,  South,  and  S.  W. 
sides  ;  and  about  half  a  mile  off  its  West  side  is  a  small  detached  reef,  having 
10  fathoms  between  it  and  the  reef  bordering  that  side  of  the  island.  Off  its 
East  side  reefs  extend  nearly  1^  mile.  The  reefs  surrounding  Hancock 
Island  are  separated  from  those  around  Shoal-water  Island  by  a  very  narrow 
channel,  with  depths  of  6  to  10  fathoms  on  it.  On  the  N.E.  side  of  Hancock 
the  reef  extends  about  a  third  of  a  mile,  and  on  its  N.W.  side  about  three- 
quarters  of  a  mile,  with  some  rocks  above  water  on  its  outer  edge. 

One-fathom  Patch. — A  patch  having  but  1  fathom  water  over  it,  and  7  to 
9  fathoms  around  it,  lies  W.  J  N.  nearly  2  miles  from  Shoal- water  Island. 

Embleton  Rock  is  just  above  water  on  the  N.W.  extreme  of  a  bank  of  hard 
sand,  which  nearly  dries,  distant  2  miles  N.N.W.  f  W.  from  Shoal-water 
Island;  there  are  12  to  14  fathoms  around  it. 

Bliss  Shoal,  lying  N.E.  by  E.  nearly  a  mile  from  Embleton  Eock,  and 
N.  f  W.  2i  miles  from  Shoal-water  Island,  is  about  a  third  of  a  mile  in  ex- 
tent, N.W.  and  S.E. ;  it  has  only  a  quarter  of  a  fathom  water  over  it,  and  6 
to  14  fathoms  at  a  short  distance  from  it. 

There  appear  to  be  no  dangers  between  the  reefs  contiguous  to  Shoal- 
water  and  Hancock  Islands,  or  between  One-fathom  Patch,  Embleton  Eock, 
and  Bliss  Shoal,  the  soundings  being  from  6  to  14  fathoms  ;  but  vessels  had 
better  keep  well  outside,  as  there  is  nothing  to  be  gained  by  venturing  among 
those  dangers. 

BLAS  MATEU  ROCK  is  said  to  lie  right  in  the  fairway  track  of  vessels 
proceeding  through  Gaspar  Strait  by  the  Macclesfield  Channel.  The  American 
surveyors  searched  for  it  without  success,  but  their  chart  does  not  exhibit 
many  soundings  in  that  vicinity,  and  it  would  be  very  unsafe  to  disregard 
its  reputed  existence  in  the  face  of  the  following  circumstantial  account  :  — 
The  Bias  Eock  was  first  discovered  on  September  23,  1839,  by  the  Spanish 
brig  San  Joaehim,  Captain  Bias  Mateu.  Having  anchored  in  12  fathoms, 
coarse  sand,  he  took  the  boat  and  found  three  rocks,  each  about  10  ft.  in 
diameter.  Upon  the  northei*n  rock  he  had  9  ft.,  on  the  southern  12  ft.,  and 
on  the  western  17  ft.  water,  and  between  them  passages  of  4^  fathoms. 
Shoal-water  Island  bore  E.  \  N.,  the  opening  between  the  two  hill  on 
Lepar  Island  N.N.W.  ^  W.,  and  the  latitude  determined  by  the  sun's  meri- 
dian altitude  3°  20'  38"  S.  The  whole  extent  of  the  three  rocks  is  about  half 
a  cable's  length,  and  round  them  the  depths  were  12,  13,  and  14  fathoms; 
but  there  was  reason  to  believe  that  there  were  more  rocks,  because  the  chain 
parted  while  the  anchor  was  being  weighed. 


Another  Spanish  captain,  M  Aldon,  who  examined  these  rocks  afterwards, 
gives  them  a  similar  description,  and  states  that  the  light  colour  of  the  water 
over  them  was  distinctly  visible  at  a  considerable  distance  N.N.W.  of  them. 
He  places  them  in  3°  21'  S.,  with  Fairlie  Rock  S.S.E.  %  E.,  Shoal-water 
Island  East,  and  the  hills  of  Lepar  Island  N.N.W, 

To  avoid  this  danger,  Entrance  Point  must  not  be  brought  more  to  the 
westward  than  N.  ^  W.,  when  Shoal-water  Island  bears  between  E.  ^  S.  and 
E.  i  N. 

Sand  Banks. — At  12  miles  South  of  Entrance  Point  is  a  patch  of  5  fathoms  ; 
and  at  2^  miles  W.  ^  S.  of  this  is  another  of  the  same  depth  ;  between  them 
the  depth  is  7  fathoms.  These  spots  appear  to  be  on  the  eastern  end  of  one 
of  the  long  sand  ridges  which  lie  to  the  southward  of  Banka  (page  200), 
probably  an  extension  of  the  strip  upon  which  is  shown  the  following 
sounding  of  4^  fathoms. 

A  Bank,  in  3°  19'  S.,  with  4^  fathoms  water,  lies  South  from  a  remarkable 
hummock  in  Banka  ;  and  there  are  two  other  banks  of  5  fathoms,  from 
which  a  hummock  upon  the  low  long  point  of  Baginda  bears  N.N.W.  i  W, 
To  avoid  these  banks,  the  low  land  which  unites  the  hills  of  Banka,  must  be 
kept  from  a  vessel's  deck  below  the  horizon,  till  Entrance  Point  bears  N.  by  W., 
when  a  vessel  may  steer  towards  the  strait ;  taking  care  not  to  bring  thia 
point  more  to  the  northward  than  N.  by  W.  or  N.  ^  W. 

VANSITTART  SHOALS  are  a  collection  of  rocky  patches  divided  into 
groups,  lying  between  the  bearings  of  S.E.  ^  E.  and  E.  f  S.,  distant  about 
12  miles  from  Entrance  Point,  and  extending  from  lat.  3°  10'  to  3*^  4'  S.  At 
their  southern  part  are  two  patches,  lying  E.  ^  S.  and  W.  ^  N.  from  each 
other,  their  inner  edges  being  about  2^  miles,  and  their  outer  edges  nearly 
3^  miles  apart.  From  the  western  patch  of  1^  fathom  water,  Entrance 
Point  bears  N.W.  i  W.  12  miles.  Shoal- water  Island  S.E.  i  E.  14  miles, 
and  Barn  Island  N.N.E.  J  E.  12  miles ;  from  the  eastern  patch  of  only  3  ft. 
water,  Shoal- water  Island  bears  S.E.  J  S.  11^  miles,  and  Barn  Island 
N.  by  E.  iE.  U  miles. 

Nearly  the  centre  of  the  space  occupied  by  these  shoals  are  a  group  of 
patches  extending  N.E.  and  S.W.  about  a  mile,  some  having  but  1  fathom 
over  them,  and  one  patch,  the  north-eastern,  dries  at  low  water. 

The  patches  at  the  northern  end  of  the  shoals  lie  close  together,  and 
extend  in  an  E.N.E.  and  W.S.W.  direction,  about  2^  miles.  One  or  two  of 
thorn  are  dry,  and  others  have  but  3  ft.  water  over  theoi  at  low  tides.  Erooi 
the  S.W.  patch,  which  dries.  Barn  Island  bears  N.N.E.  h  E.,  distant  6^ 
miles ;  the  South  extreme  of  Saddle  Island  is  open  of  the  South  extreme  of 
Low  Island,  N.E.  by  E.  i  E.  ;  and  Pulo  Jelaka  bears  N.  by  W.  f  W.  13 
miles.  From  the  N.E.  patch,  of  2  fathoms  water.  Low  Island  is  distant  2-J 
miles,  with  its  South  extreme  in  line  with  the  middle  of  Saddle  Island,  bear- 


ing  N.E.  by  E. ;  and  Sand  Island  is  just  open  of  the  East  extreme  of  Piilo 
Leat,  bearing  N.  ^  "W. 

The  marks  to  clear  the  Vansittart  Shoals  are  given  hereafter. 

GEORGE  BANKS  is  the  name  given,  on  the  American  chart,  to  four  or 
five  patches,  under  a  depth  of  5  fathoms,  lying  southward  and  south-westward 
of  the  western  Entrance  Point.  The  southern  extreme  of  one  of  these  patches, 
which  is  about  H  mile  long  North  and  South,  half  a  mile  broad,  and  has  3 
fathoms  water  on  it,  lies  S.W.  §  W.  4  miles  from  Entrance  Point.  About  a 
mile  S.W.  of  this  patch  is  another,  but  smaller  one,  of  3J  fathoms  water ; 
and  5  miles  S.W.  by  W.  i  W.  from  this  last  patch,  or  S.W.  i  W.  9  miles 
from  Entrance  Point,  is  a  patch  ot  3J  fathoms  water,  but  this  latter  lies 
quite  out  of  the  ordinary  track  of  vessels.  All  these  patches  lie  within  the 
edge  of  the  10-fathoms  line,  which,  passing  Entrance  Point  about  Ij  mile  oj6F, 
runs  with  an  irregularly  curved  outline  to  the  south-westward. 

A  bank,  under  a  depth  of  10  fathoms,  9  or  10  miles  long,  which  assumes 
on  the  chart  the  form  of  a  shoulder  of  mutton,  N.E.  and  S.W.,  with  its 
small  end  to  the  north-eastward,  lies  nearly  2  miles  outside  the  10-fathoms 
line  extending  from  Pulo  Lepar.  Between  it  and  the  shore  banks  the  depths 
are  13  to  17  fathoms. 

Two-and-a-half  Fathoms  Bank. — ^About  the  middle  of  the  above  shoulder 
of  mutton  bank,  and  about  a  mile  from  its  eastern  or  outer  edge,  is  a  patch 
of  only  2 1  fathoms  water.  This  was  formerly  known  as  the  George  Bank, 
because  the  ship  Royal  George  had,  in  1813,  passed  over  its  edge  in  5^ 
fathoms.  It  was  afterwards  explored  by  Capt.  D.  Eoss.  From  it  Entrance 
Point  bears  N.  \  W.,  distant  6|  miles  ;  and  Baginda  Peak,  on  Banka  Island, 
W.  by  N.  I  N.,  121  miles.  To  avoid  this  bank,  keep  the  high  trees  near 
Klippige  Point,  or  Eocky  Point  Hill,  open  to  the  eastward  of  Entrance 

About  2  miles  West  of  the  2^-fathom8  bank  is  a  small  patch  with  5 
fathoms  water  over  it. 

Two-fathoms  Patch. — It  would  appear  from  the  following  report  of  Capt. 
Keay,  of  the  ship  Falcon,  March  13th,  1862,  that  a  patch  having  but  2 
fathoms  water  over  it,  lies  about  3  miles  to  the  southward  of  Round  Island, 
off  the  South  point  of  Pulo  Lepar :  — 

Clear,  light,  northerly,  and  smooth  sea ;  steering  towards  Entrance  Point, 
Caspar  Strait ;  Round  Island  bearing  N.  ^  W.  by  compass,'  apparently  3 
miles  distant,  the  Falcon  drawing  18  ft.,  ran  aground  on  a  small  sand  patch, 
with  12  ft.  least  water  over  it,  the  diameter  of  the  shallowest  part  being 
about  30  ft.  The  position  of  this  was  not  properly  ascertained  by  cross- 
bearings,  but  it  seems  as  if  it  was  not  one  of  the  previously  known  shoals  off 
the  entrance  of  the  Lepar  Strait. 

I.  A.  2» 



The  approacli  to  the  Macclesfield  Channel,  the  westernmost  of  those 
through  Gaspar  Strait  from  the  southward,  is  bounded  on  the  eastern  side 
by  the  Hippogriffe  Shoal,  the  position  of  the  Doubtful  dangers  (page  229), 
the  Fairlie  Rock,  and  the  Vansittart  Shoals ;  and  on  the  western  side  by  the 
outermopt  of  the  George  Banks.  The  Bias  Mateu  Eock,  if  it  exists,  lies 
right  in  the  fairway. 

The  Sharpshooter,  Hancock,  and  Turtle  Shoals,  may  be  said  to  form  a 
point,  from  which  the  shoals  already  mentioned  as  bounding  the  eastern 
limit  of  approach  to  Macclesfield  Channel  diverge  in  one  direction,  whilst 
those  forming  the  western  limit  of  approach  to  Stolze  and  Clements  Channel 
diverge  in  another ;  these  last  may  also  be  said  to  form  the  eastern  limits  of 
the  southern  entrance  to  Macclesfield  Channel,  as  vessels  may  stand  to  the 
eastward  of  the  Fairlie  Eock  over  towards  them,  if  they  should  find  it  con- 
venient to  do  so. 

EAST  COAST  of  BANKA.— From  Tanjong  Baginda  (page  199),  th& 
south-western  limit  of  Gaspar  Strait,  the  coast  of  Banka  turns  sharp  to  the 
northward,  and  after  running  4  miles  in  a  northerly  direction,  forms  a  large 
bay,  the  northern  limit  of  which  is  Brekat  Point,  which  is  also  the  north- 
western limit  of  Gaspar  Strait.  There  are  several  rivers  upon  this  part  of 
the  coast,  the  principal  of  which,  the  Medang,  is  sometimes  visited  by  coasters, 
but  little  is  known  of  it. 

LEPAR  STRAIT,  between  Banka  and  Pulo  Lepar,  is  6  or  7  miles  wide 
at  the  entrance,  but  narrows  to  less  than  2  miles  some  4  or  5  miles  within. 
The  entrance  appears  from  the  chart  to  be  barred,  although  there  seems  to 
be  deep  water  inside.  It  is  said  to  be  so  crowded  with  small  islands  and 
reefs,  as  to  be  available  only  for  small  coasters.  The  most  southern  of  these 
islands,  named  ISugar-loaf,  is  very  conspicuous,  rising  to  a  peak  650  ft.  high. 

PULO  LEPAR  is  an  irregularly  shaped  island,  about  12  miles  in  diameter, 
lying  close  off  the  southern  part  of  the  East  coast  of  Banka.  On  its  southern 
part  are  several  ranges  of  hills  of  moderate  elevation,  viz  :  Six  Peak  Ranges 
781  ft.  high;  Maroon  Rill,  850  ft.  ;  Four  Peah  Range,  750  ft.  ;  and  two  hiUs 
not  named  on  the  chart,  650  ft.  high  ;  further  to  the  westward  is  a  hill,  700 
feet  high,  named  False  Sugar-loaf. 

Entrance  Point,  the  south-eastern  extreme  of  the  island,  is  in  lat.  3°  1|'  S., 
long.  106°  53'  E.  The  land  over  it  is  hilly,  and  the  point  is  bordered  by  a 
reef,  extending  1  or  2  cables'  lengths  from  it.  Per  gam  or  Round  Island  is  a 
small  islet  surrounded  by  reefs,  lying  W.S.W.  2|  miles  from  Entrance  Point, 
and  ab  lut  half  a  mile  off  the  South  coast  of  the  island.  False  Rocky  Point 
bears  N.  f  E.,  distant  4  miles  from  Entrance  Point.  Immediately  to  the 
northward  of  it  is  a  small  stream  named  Eed  Eiver. 


Rocky  Point  and  Light. — Tmyong  Lahoe,  Klippige,  or  Rocky  Point,  the 
N.E.  extreme  of  Pulo  Lepar,  is  distant  1^  mile  N.  ^  E,  from  False  Rocky 
Point.  Eocky  Point  Hill,  622  ft.  high,  stands  If  mile  to  the  westward  of 
the  point.  The  light  on  Rocky  Point  was  first  shown  in  October,  1870.  It 
is  affixed  hright  light,  elevated  39  ft.,  and  visible  in  every  direction  seaward  8 
miles  off. 

At  1|  mile  N.W.  f  W.  from  the  lighthouse  is  Tree  Point,  from  which  the 
coast  runs  nearly  straight  to  the  north-westward  for  about  6  miles. 

Shore  Reef. — The  whole  coast  from  Entrance  Point  to  Tree  Point  is  fronted 
by  a  reef,  which  at  about  2  miles  northward  of  Entrance  Point,  just  to  the 
southward  of  the  entrance  of  Fresh-water  River,  extends  ofi'  to  the  distance 
of  1^  mile;  it  then  runs  nearly  straight  to  the  northward,  and  rounding  Rocky 
Point  at  a  quarter  of  a  mile,  turns  to  the  north-westward,  and  beyond  Tree 
Point  projects  but  a  short  distance  from  the  shore. 

Water. — To  the  northward  of  Entrance  Point  the  coast  forms  a  bay,  in 
which  are  two  small  rivers.  Vessels  may  anchor  about  a  mile  to  the  north- 
eastward of  the  point,  abreast  of  which  position  is  a  sandy  beach.  Captain 
Ross  watered  here,  and  found  the  water  a  little  tinged  with  a  red  colour,  but 
it  produced  no  pernicious  effect  upon  the  crew. 

KLIPPIGE  SHOALS  is  the  name  given  to  three  or  four  reefs,  with  rooks 
above  water  on  them,  and  deep  channels  between  them,  lying  off  Rocky 
Point.  The  outer  reef  lies  E.  by  N.  |  N.  2  miles  from  the  point ;  the 
southern  reef,  over  which  is  a  depth  of  4  fathoms,  lies  E.  i  N.,  2  miles  from 
False  Rocky  Point. 

Close  to  these  shoals  are  depths  varying  from  9  to  14  fathoms,  and  there 
appears  to  be  a  channel  three-quarters  of  a  mile  wide,  with  6  to  10  fathoms 
in  it,  between  them  and  the  shore,  but  it  would  be  a  very  unwise  proceeding 
for  vessels  to  venture  to  use  it. 

Discovery  Rocks  appear  on  the  American  chart  as  two  rocks  lying  N.N.E. 
^  E.  3f  miles  from  Rocky  Point,  with  a  shoal  bank  extending  nearly  half  a 
mile  north-eastward  of  them.  Close  to  the  rocks  and  bank  are  6  to  10 
fathoms,  with  13  to  15  fathoms  at  a  short  distance  all  around  them. 

Capt.  D.  Ross,  in  the  Discovery,  was  the  first  to  determine  the  exact  posi- 
tion of  these  rocks,  and  he  says  they  have  only  2  ft.  least  water  over  them. 

A  rocky  Patch,  with  only  3  ft.  water  over  it,  lies  about  l^  mile  W.  by  S. 
from  the  Discovery  Rocks.  In  the  channel  between  the  soundings  are  from 
10  to  16  fathoms. 

There  is  also  a  4-fathom  patch  lying  midway  between  Rocky  Point  and  the 
rocky  patch,  and  a  4|-fathom  bank  3^  miles  N  by  W.  from  Rocky  Point. 

PULO  LEAT,  or  Middle  Island,  which  separates  Macclesfield  Channel  from 
Clements  Channel,  is  about  5f  miles  long.  North  and  South,  and  4J  miles 
wide.  Upon  it  are  several  hills,  400  to  600  ft.  high,  which  appear  at  a 
distance  like  a  group  of  islands. 


LIGHT. — Pulo  Jelaka  is  a  small  islet  lying  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  north- 
westward of  the  West  point  of  Pulo  Leat,  to  which  it  is  connected  by  a  reef 
of  rocks.  Since  the  year  1870  a.  fixed  hright  light  has  been  shown  from  Pulo 
Jelaka  over  the  Macclesfield  Channel  to  the  westward  from  N.E.  by  N. 
round  by  North  and  West  to  S.S.E.  It  is  elevated  39  ft.,  and  visible  8 
miles  off.  A  dangerous  reef  surrounds  both  Pulo  Leat  and  Pulo  Jelaka,  in 
addition  to  which  are  numerous  outlying  rocks,  in  many  places  extending 
far  from  the  shore. 

The  South  and  S.W.  coasts  of  Pulo  Leat  are  fronted  by  a  reef  which  pro- 
jects from  the  shore  in  a  convex  form  to  seaward  for  the  distance  of  a  mile. 
Off  the  S.E.  point  of  the  island  are  outlying  rocks  and  dangers  extending  in 
a  S.  by  W.  \  W.  direction,  to  the  distance  of  nearly  2J  miles.  A  rock  also 
lies  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  South  of  Jelaka,  just  outside  the  edge  of 
the  reef  extending  from  the  shore,  but  there  are  no  other  outlying  reefs  on 
the  S.W.  coast  of  the  island. 

When  three-quarters  of  a  mile  distant  from  Jelaka,  outside  the  reef  ex- 
tending from  the  shore,  is  a  3-fathoms  patch  ;  and  N.W.  by  W.,  more  than 
a  mile  from  that  islet,  is  a  rock  near  the  water's  edge,  with  11  fathoms 
water  between  it  and  the  shore  reef.  All  along  the  N.W.  shore  of  Pulo 
Leat,  and  at  little  less  than  2  miles  from  it,  are  numerous  outlying  rocks  and 
patches  of  reef,  between  which  and  the  reef  extending  from  the  shore  are 
some  dry  sand-banks.*' 

ALCESTE  REEF.— The  Alceste  Rock,  upon  which  H.M.  ship  of  that  name 
was  wrecked  in  February,  1817,  when  returning  from  China  with  Lord  Am- 
herst and  suite,  is  the  outer  patch  of  a  coral  reef  which  projects  N.N.W. 
nearly  2  miles  from  the  North  point  of  Pulo  Leat,  and  has  but  2  fathoms 
water  on  its  shallowest  part.  It  is  the  same  reef  upon  which,  in  1816,  the 
Portuguese  ship  Amelia  was  wrecked,  the  remains  of  both  her  and  the 
Alceste  being  still  visible,  with  only  a  few  yards  between  them,  at  the  time 
the  reef  was  surveyed  by  Captain  D.  Ross.  The  wreck  of  the  Alcede  was 
lying  li  mile  from  the  North  point  of  Leat,  with  the  West  point  of  Jelaka 
in  one  with  the  southern  sand-bank  West  of  Leat ;  the  northern  sand-bank 
in  one  with  a  white  rock  which  lies  between  Jelaka  and  the  N.W.  point  of 
Leat  and  close  to  it ;  and  a  white  rock  near  the  N.W.  point  open  to  the  east- 
ward of  a  high  tree  on  the  centre  of  the  eastern  hill  of  Leat. 

Many  ships  have  since  been  lost  on  this  reef,  or  on  some  of  the  coral 
patches  contiguous  to  it,  and  they  have  generally  furnished  bearings  which 

*  Captain  Joass,  of  the  British  ship  Lammermuir,  reports  that  at  2*^  20™  a.m.,  December 
Slst,  1863,  when  proceeding  through  the  Macclesfield  Channel,  his  vessel  struck  on  a  rock, 
the  position  of  which,  from  bearings  taken,  is  lat.  2°  53'  S.,  long.  107°  E.  H.M.S.  Rifleman 
has  since  searched  for  this  rock,  but  could  find  no  danger  in  the  vicinity  of  the  position 
ascribed  to  it. 


would  show  them  to  have  been  wrecked  some  distance  from  these  dangers; 
but  the  wrecks  of  several  of  them  have  afterwards  been  found  upon,  or  close 
to  the  Alceste  Reef ;  and  two  such  wrecks,  the  Cornelius  Haja^  and  the  Mem- 
71071,  have  found  a  place  on  the  American  chart.  There  is  good  reason  to  be- 
lieve that  there  is  no  danger  in  the  fairway  of  the  Macclesfied  Channel  in  this 

A  reef  ia  placed  by  Dutch  authorities  2  miles  E.  by  N.  from  Alceste  Eeef, 
with  only  6  ft.  water.  From  a  position  three-quarters  of  a  cable  northward 
of  the  shoal,  the  northern  point  of  Pulo  Leat  bears  S.W.,  and  the  eastern 
point  of  Bulo  Anak,  or  Selagin,  S.  by  E.  ^  E. 

The  soundings  round  Alceste  Eeef  do  not  by  any  means  afford  a  certain 
guide,  although  to  the  north-eastward  they  appear  to  be  a  few  fathoms  shoaler 
than  elsewhere.  Close-to  on  the  West  side  are  17  fathoms,  and  from  15  to 
21  fathoms  at  the  distance  of  1  or  2  miles ;  close-to  on  the  North  side  12  fa- 
thoms, with  16  to  18  fathoms  at  1  or  2  miles  ;  and  close-to  on  the  N.E.  side 
16  fathoms,  with  12  to  17  fathoms  at  1  to  2  miles. f 

KILAPAN  and  SENIOR  are  two  hilly  islands  lying  2  or  3  miles  North  of 
Pulo  Lepar.  Kilapan  is  about  1^  mile  in  extent  East  and  West,  and  a  mile 
wide,  and  bears  from  Eocky  Point  light,  N.W.  by  N.  6|  miles.  Senior 
is  not  quite  so  large  as  Kilapan,  from  which  it  bears  W.  by  N.  2  miles. 

Wilson  Bank,  discovered  by  Captain  Lestock  Wilson,  of  the  Carnatic,  in 
February,  1787,  has  but  1  fathom  water  on  its  shoalest  spot,  although  Capt. 
Wilson  did  not  find  less  than  3  fathoms.  From  the  1 -fathom  spot  the  ex- 
treme of  Brekat  Point,  the  N.W.  point  of  Macclesfield  Strait,  bears  N.N. W. 
\  W.  6|  miles  ;  the  hummock  just  inside  the  point,  which  is  more  conspicuous, 
bearing  N.W.  by  N.  The  bank  extends  about  a  mile  to  the  northward  of 
the  shoal  patch,  having  2f  fathoms  over  that  part  of  it ;  to  the  southward  it 
extends  about  a  quarter  of  a  ndle.  Close-to  on  the  East  side  are  13  or  14 
fathoms,  but  to  the  N.N.E.  8  to  10  fathoms  for  about  If  mile,  when  the  depths 
suddenly  increase  to  19  or  20  fathoms.  The  extreme  of  Brekat  Point  bearing 

*  This  vessel  was  reported  to  have  struck  on  a  rock  in  lat.  2°  441'  S.,  long.  107°  1'  E.— 

t  The  barque  Carl  Eonneberg,  Captain  C.  L.  Lied,  is  reported  to  have  struck  upon  a  rock 
about  6  miles  to  the  northward  of  the  Alceste  Eeef,  in  lat.  2"^  42'  S.,  long.  107°  5'  E.  It  is 
said  to  be  about  a  cable's  length  in  circumference,  having  from  4  to  20  ft.  water  on  it,  and 
surrounded  by  depths  of  19  fathoms.  The  American  chart  exhibits  many  soundings  in  the 
locality  ascribed  to  this  danger,  which  were  obtained  in  searching  for  the  rock  on  which  the 
Cornelius  Eaja  was  reported  to  have  been  wrecked,  said  to  lie  W.S.W.,  distant  4  miles 
from  the  reported  position  of  the  Lied  Rock.  llr.  Richards,  in  H.M.S.  Saracen,  also 
searched  for  the  Cornelius  Haja  Rock  without  discovering  any  danger  in  that  locality  :  for 
these  reasons  the  Lied  Rock  is  not  placed  upon  the  Admiralty  charts,  and  the  wreck  of 
the  Cornelius  Haja  (as  mentioned  above)  was  subsequently  found  by  the  American  surveyors 
upon  the  Alceste  Reef. 


N.W.  by  N.,  or  the  hill  over  it  N.W.,  leads  a  mile  outside  Wilson  Bank,  as 
does  also  the  eastern  extreme  of  Kilapan  Island,  bearing  S.  by  W.  I  W. 
The  same  bearings  also  clear  the  elbow  of  Brekat  Bank. 

Brekat  Bank. — A  long,  narrow  strip  of  bank,  which  appears  to  have  from 
3  to  4  fathoms  water  over  it,  and  deeper  water  inside  of  it,  runs  in  a  S.  by  W. 
direction  for  3  or  4  miles  to  the  southward  of  Wilson  Bank,  and,  passing 
about  li  mile  westward  of  that  shoal,  forms  to  the  northward,  about  a  mile 
farther  on,  an  elbow  projecting  to  seaward,  with  Ij  fathom  water  on  it,  and 
a  small  patch  which  dries  at  low  water  ;  it  then  takes  a  N.  by  W.  ^  W. 
direction,  until  it  joins  the  bank  extending  from  Brekat  Point,  which  bears 
from  the  elbow  N.N.W.,  distant  4  miles. 

The  soundings  in  the  channel  between  Brekat  and  Wilson  Banks  are  4^ 
to  8  fathoms.  Near  the  elbow  they  decrease  suddenly  from  10  fathoms; 
there  are  9  or  10  fathoms  at  2^  miles  eastward  of  the  elbow,  and  12  and  15 
fathoms  at  a  mile  N.E.  of  it. 

BREKAT  POINT,  in  lat.  2°  34'  S.,  long.  106°  50'  E.,  has  a  rock  off  it  28 
feet  high,  and  forms  the  eastern  extreme  of  Banka,  and  the  north-western 
limit  of  G-aspar  Strait.  The  land  from  the  inner  part  of  the  projecting  point 
falls  away  to  the  southward,  and  has  a  hill  or  hummock  620  ft.  high  upon 
it.  Immediately  off  the  point  are  some  rocks,  and  shoal  water  extends 
nearly  a  mile  from  it  to  the  eastward.  The  point  should  not  be  approached 
nearer  than  2  miles,  the  soundings  off  it  being  deep  and  irregular,  14  to  21 

AKBAE  SHOAL. — The  American  ship  Akhar  struck,  in  1843,  upon  a  shoal 
having  only  12  ft.  water  upon  it,  in  lat.  2°  39'  S.,  long.  107°  11'  E.  In  the 
American  chart  the  position  of  this  shoal  is  marked  doubtful,  so  that  the 
American  surveyors  did  not  succeed  in  finding  it. 

The  ship  Scaivfell  reports  that,  on  March  23rd,  1864,  she  passed  close  to 
the  Akbar  Shoal,  which  had  apparently  very  little  water  on  it,  though  no 
breakers,  as  the  sea  was  quite  smooth.  It  appeared  to  be  a  narrow  ridge  of 
coral,  about  2  cables  long,  North  and  South,  and  not  half  a  cable  wide.  Its 
position  is  given  as  2°  38'  S.,  long.  107°  13^'  E. 

This  places  the  shoal  3  miles  N.E.  by  E.  from  the  position  ascribed  to  it 
by  the  Akhar ;  in  either  case  it  is  much  in  the  way  of  vessels  proceeding 
through  Clements  or  Stolze  Channels,  and  until  its  exact  position  is  deter- 
mined, it  will  be  necessary  to  keep  clear  of  the  localities  in  which  it  is  re- 
puted to  lie. 

TREE  ISLAND  [Bootnpjes  Mland),  distant  10  miles  N.E.  |  E.  from  Brekat 
Point,  and  7  miles  S.W.  by  W.  ^  W.  from  Gaspar  Island,  is  a  barren  rock, 
40  ft.  high,  with  two  or  three  trees  on  the  summit,  giving  it  the  appearance 
of  a  ship  under  sail,  and  making  it  visible  15  miles  off.  It  is  surrounded 
by  a  coral  reef,  and  a  rock  about  as  high  as  a  boat  lies  a  third  of  a  mile 
south-eastward  of  it.     There  is  a  cave  upon  this  island  where  the  Mahiys 


come  to  collect  birds'  nests,  which  are  probably  found  also  on  the  other 

A  detached  coral  reef  lies  more  than  half  a  mile  N.E.  of  the  island,  and 
another  about  the  same  distance  S.E.  of  it ;  between  these  reefs  and  the  one 
surrounding  the  island  are  narrow  channels,  with  deep  water. 

GASPAR  ISLAND,  or  Pulo  Gelassa,  in  lat.  2°  24|'  S.,  long.  107°  3J'  E., 
bears  N.  \  E.  24^  miles  from  the  North  point  of  Pulo  Leat,  and  N.E.  |  E. 
nearly  17  miles  from  Brekat  Point.  Its  centre  rises  to  a  peak  812  ft.  high, 
which  may  be  seen  in  clear  weather  at  a  distance  of  30  miles,  and  is  the 
principal  mark  for  avoiding  the  shoals  in  sailing  to  or  from  the  northern 
part  of  the  strait.  It  is  nearly  surrounded  by  a  reef,  which  projects  from 
the  South  and  East  points  of  the  island  about  a  third  of  a  mile.  The  West 
and  North  points  are  bold  close-to.  The  soundings  near  the  island  are 
variable,  12  to  19  fathoms. 

Fresh  water  is  to  be  found  upon  this  island,  but  the  chart  does  not  point 
out  the  particular  spot  where  it  may  be  obtained. 

Glassa  or  Gelassa  Rock,  24  ft.  high,  with  some  trees  on  it,  and  rocks^ 
contiguous  to  it,  lies  about  a  mile  westward  of  Gaspar  Island.  It  is  sur- 
rounded by  a  reef  extending  about  a  third  of  a  mile  south-eastward  and 
eastward  from  it,  but  not  quite  so  far  in  other  directions. 

Gaspar  Island,  Glassa  Eock,  and  Tree  Island,  form  the  northern  limit  of 
Gaspar  Strait.  The  Canning  Eock,  Warren  Hastings  Eeef,  Belvidere  Shoals, 
and  other  dangers,  are  described  hereafter. 

TIDES  and  CURRENTS.— It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  in  the  Mac- 
clesfield Channel,  at  2^  30'",  and  the  ordinary  rise  is  only  4  ft.  The  Vmi- 
sittarth  boat  is  roperted  to  have  found  at  Tree  Island  a  perpendicular  rise  of 
18  it.,  between  the  hours  of  8  a.m.  and  5  p.m. ;  but  there  is  probably  some 
mistake  in  this,  as  12  ft.  is  an  extraordinary  rise  in  Banka  Strait,  into  which 
some  very  large  rivers  disembogue. 

The  currents  greatly  depend  upon  the  strength  of  the  monsoon.  When* 
the  monsoon  is  strong,  the  current  will  generally  be  found  setting  in  the- 
same  direction  at  the  rate  of  2  or  3  knots  an  hour,  but  aflFected  somewhat  by 
the  tides.     In  light  winds  and  calms  the  tides  are  seldom  very  regular. 

Directions  from  the  Southward. — Proceeding  towards  the  Macclesfield 
Channel  during  the  S.E.  monsoon,  having  passed  the  Two  Brothers  (^p.  185), 
steer  N.  by  E.  J  E.,  or  N.N.E.,  keeping  midway  between  the  Clifton  Shoal 
and  tlie  Brouwers  Eeefs.  The  depths  in  this  track  are  pretty  regular,  10  tO' 
15  fathoms,  soft  bottom.  In  thick  weather,  or  if  uncertain  of  the  vessel's 
position,  the  entrance  of  Gaspar  Strait  should  be  approached  with  great 
caution,  keeping  a  good  lookout  for  broken  or  shoal  water. 

Be  also  guarded  when  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Bias  Mateu  Eock,  for  although 
the  American  surveyors  could  not  find  that  danger,  yet,  for  reasons  given  at 
p.  231,  it  would  be  unsafe  to  conclude  that  it  does  not  exist.      The  Six-peak 


range  (the  first  clump  of  hills  to  the  westward  of  Entrance  Point)  kept 
N.  by  W.,  will  lead  3  miles  westward  of  this  rock,  and  when  Baginda  Peak 
bear  N.W.  ^  N.,  and  the  water  has  deepened  from  8  or  9  to  11  or  15 
fathoms,  steer  to  the  north-eastward  until  the  highest  trees  on  Klippige  or 
Eocky  Point,  or  Rocky  Point  Hill,  are  well  open  of  Entrance  Point,  which 
will  lead  clear  of  the  2^-fathom  bank. 

Being  3  or  4  miles  to  the  northward  of  the  Bias  Mateu  Rock,  a  N.  i^  E. 
course — guarding  against  currents — for  14  miles,  will  lead  about  5  miles 
eastward  of  Entrance  Point,  and  in  this  track  the  depths  Avill  be  13  to  18 
fathoms ;  if  the  vessel  gets  too  far  to  the  eastward  the  water  will  deepen, 
and  if  to  the  westward,  it  will  shoal  to  12,  11,  or  9  fathoms.  Prom  5  miles 
eastward  of  Entrance  Point,  a  North  course  for  about  16  miles  will  lead 
nearly  midway  between  the  shoals  West  of  Jelaka  and  the  Discovery  Rocks. 
In  this  track  there  will  be  from  14  to  25  fathoms  till  abreast  of  Klippige  or 
Rocky  Point,  when  there  will  be  23  or  24  fathoms,  deepening  to  30  or  33 
fathoms  between  Pulo  Jelaka  and  the  Discovery  Rocks,  having  passed  which 
they  will  decrease  to  25,  19,  and  16  fathoms.  The  vessel  will  now  have 
arrived  in  a  position  with  Pulo  Kilapan  bearing  S.W.  by  W.,  and  the 
North  point  of  Pulo  Leat  S.E.  by  E.,  and  may  steer  N.  by  E.  ^  E.  for 
Gaspar  Island,  in  which  track  she  will  have  16  to  21  fathoms. 

Since  the  survey  of  the  sandbanks  South  of  Banka  by  Mr.  Stanton,  it  no 
longer  appears  dangerous  to  approach  the  coast  to  a  less  distance  than  14 
miles,  and  it  might  be  convenient  for  a  vessel  to  make  Entrance  Point  on  a 
N.  by  E.  or  N.N.E.  bearing,  and  pass  inside  the  2^-fathom  bank  by  keeping 
Klippige  and  Entrance  Points  in  line. 

To  work  through  from  the  Southward. — During  the  northern  monsoon  it  is 
very  difficult,  almost  impossible,  to  work  through  Gaspar  Strait,  even  in  the 
latter  part  of  the  monsoon,  about  March,  when  vessels  are  obliged  to  an- 
chor often  on  account  of  the  faintness  of  the  wind  and  the  rapidity  of  the 
southerly  current.  In  the  southern  monsoon  vessels  will  often  meet  with 
light,  variable  winds,  rendering  it  impossible  for  them  to  preserve  a  straight 

Macclesfield  Channel  does  not  afford  convenient  objects  as  marks  to  keep 
vessels  clear  of  danger,  but  the  following  have  been  taken  from  the  Ameri- 
can chart  as  being,  so  far  as  we  are  able  to  judge,  the  best  that  can  be  given 
for  that  purpose  ;  as,  however,  some  of  the  objects  are  at  a  considerable 
distance  from  the  dangers,  navigators  are  cautioned  not  to  depend  too  im- 
plicitly upon  having  made  out,  or  being  able  to  make  out,  such  distant 
objects,  but  rather  to  rely  upon  a  more  general  exercise  of  judgment,  paying 
attention  to  the  soundings,  frequently  referring  to  the  chart,  «S:c.  It  is  indis- 
pensable that  the  greatest  vigilance  be  observed,  and  careful  regard  had  to 
the  set  of  the  tides  and  currents,  in  order  to  work  a  vessel  safely  through 
this  dangerous  channel. 


Standing  to  the  eastward. — A  vessel  having  passed  eastward  of  the  Fairlie 
Eoek  may  stand  on,  keeping  a  good  lookout,  until  she  is  about  2^  miles 
from  Sand  Island,  or  1  mile  from  Branding  Breakers,  and  will  have  from 
13  to  7  fathoms  water.  Sand  Island  is  just  awash  at  high  water,  and  Shoal- 
water  Island,  bearing  N.N.E.  i  E.,  leads  a  mile  to  the  westward  of  the 
Branding  Breakers.  Shoal-water  Island  should  not  be  approached  nearer 
than  o  miles,  on  account  of  the  1 -fathom  patch  lying  about  2  miles  westward 
of  it. 

The  Java  Guide  gives  the  following  directions  to  clear  the  Vansittart 
Shoals  : — 

"  To  avoid  the  Vansittart  Shoals  with  a  contrary  wind,  do  not  bring 
Entrance  Point  more  to  the  westward  than  N.W.  ^  N.  before  the  peak  of 
Saddle  Island  bears  N.E.  by  E.,  or  rather  keep  Leat  Island  a  little  to  the 
eastward  of  North.  When  near  the  N.W.  part  of  these  shoals,  the  West 
end  of  Leat  may  be  brought  N.  |  W.,  but  not  more  westerly,  until  South 
Island  is  open  to  the  northward  of  Low  and  Saddle  Islands.  The  northern 
extremities  of  these  two  islands,  and  the  southern  part  of  South  Island  in 
one,  E.  by  N.  %  N.,  just  clear  the  northern  part  of  the  shoals." 

It  appears,  however,  by  the  American  chart,  that  Entrance  Point  bearing 
N  W.,  and  the  peak  of  Saddle  Island  N.E.  |  E.,  will  keep  a  vessel  nearly 
\h  mile  clear  of  the  S.W.  prong  of  the  shoals.  Leat  Island  a  little  eastward 
of  North,  seems  rather  an  indefinite  mark,  unless  it  be  known  how  much  of 
the  island  is  visible  ;  but,  taking  it  to  mean  the  highest  point,  viz.,  Putat 
Hill,  613  feet  high,  and  which  would  appear  from  the  southward  nearly  in 
the  middle  of  the  island,  it  should  not  be  brought  to  the  northward  of 
N.  ^  E.,  until  the  peak  of  Saddle  Island  bears  N.E.  i  E.,  when  it  may  be 
brought  to  bear  North.  The  North  extremes  of  Saddle  and  Low  Islands 
in  line,  bearing  N.E.  by  E.  f  E.,  clears  the  northern  end  of  the  shoals 
nearly  a  mile. 

Being  to  the  northward  of  the  Vansittart  Shoals,  Low  Island  must  not  be 
brought  South  of  E.  by  S.  J  S.,  or  Sand  Island  West  of  North,  to  avoid  the 
shoals  between  those  islands  ;  and  to  clear  the  patches  lying  southward  of 
the  S.E.  point  of  Pulo  Leat,  keep  Barn  Island  East  of  E.S.E.,  until  Middle 
Point,  or  Putat  Hiil,  bears  N.  by  W.  \  W.,  when  Barn  Island  may  be 
brought  to  S.E.  by  E.  i  E.,  which  will  clear  the  reef  extending  from  Middle 
Point.  To  clear  the  reefs  South  of  Jelaka,  the  S.E.  point  of  Leat  should 
not  be  shut  in  by  Middle  Point,  until  Pulo  Jelaka  bears  N.N.E. ;  and  to 
avoid  the  reefs  westward  of  that  islet,  keep  Middle  Point  East  of  E.S.E., 
until  Jelaka  bears  East.  Jelaka  bearing  East  also  leads  northward  of  the 
Discovery  Hocks. 

Having  arrived  2  miles  West  of  Jelaka,   and  to  the  northward  of  the 
Discovery  Eocks,  Entrance  Point  must  not  be  brought  West  of  S.S.W.  j  W., 
I.  A.  2  I 


nor  Klippige  Point  West  of  S.W.  f  S.,  until  Pulo  Kilapan  bears  W.8.W., 
which  will  lead  outside  the  dangers  extending  from  the  N.W.  coast  of  Leat, 
and  1^  mile  to  the  northward  of  the  Aleeste  Reef.  Rocky  Point  Hill  in 
line  with  Tree  Point,  S.W.  j  S.,  leads  about  a  mile  north-westward  of  the 
Aleeste  Reef. 

Standing  to  the  westward. — To  avoid  the  2i-fathom  bank,  keep  the  high 
trees  on  Klippige  or  Rocky  Point,  or  Rocky  Point  Hill,  well  open  of  En- 
trance Point,  bearing  N.  by  W.  i  W.,  or  keep  Entrance  Point  West  of  N.  by 
W.  i  W.,  until  Baginda  Peak  bears  W.  by  N.,  when  a  vessel  may  stand 
over  until  Entrance  Point  bears  N.  by  E.  1  E. 

To  clear  the  Klippige  Shoals,  do  not  bring  Entrance  Point  South  of  S.W. 
I  S.,  until  the  right  extreme  of  Pulo  Kilapan  bears  N.W.  by  W.,  Klippige 
Point  S.W.  by  W.,  or  Pulo  Jelaka  N.E.  by  E.,  leads  about  half  a  mile 
northward  of  the  Klippige  Shoals. 

When  standing  towards  the  Discovery  Rocks,  do  not  bring  Entrance  Point 
South  of  S.S.W.,  or  Klippige  Point  South  of  S.W.  i  S.,  until  the  right 
extreme  of  Kilapan  bears  W.  by  N.  ^  N.,  or  Pulo  Jelaka,  East,  when 
a  vessel  will  be  northward  of  the  dangers,  and  may  stand  westwards  towards 
the  bank  into  10,  or  even  8  or  7  fathoms,  until  she  nears  Wilson  Bank. 

The  Saddles,  two  hills  on  the  Banka  coast,  912  It.  high,  bearing  W.N. W., 
or  the  Padang  Hills  W.  by  N.  i  N.,  lead  about  1:^  mile  southward  of  the 
Wilson  Bank  ;  and  the  extreme  of  Brekat  Point,  N.W.  by  N.,  leads  more 
than  half  a  mile  eastward  of  that  danger,  and  will  also  keep  a  vessel  clear  of 
the  elbow  when  standing  inshore  between  Wilson  Bank  and  Brekat  Point. 

Directions  from  the  northward. — In  the  early  part  of  the  N.E.  monsoon, 
northerly  and  north-westerly  winds  prevail  about  the  entrance  of  G-aspar 
Strait,  when  strong  south-easterly  currents  will  generally  be  experienced 
between  Gaspar  Island  and  Pulo  Leat.  It  appears  certain  that  the  frequent 
accidents  happening  to  vessels  in  the  vicinity  of  Aleeste  Reef  arise  princi- 
pally from  neglecting  to  guard  against  the  effects  of  this  current.  A  vessel, 
therefore,  intending  to  proceed  to  the  southward  through  Macclesfield  Chan- 
nel, and  having  passed  a  mile  or  two  eastward  of  Gas  par  Island,  should 
steer  to  the  south-westward  until  Gaspar  Island  bears  N.  by  E.  ^  E.,  upon 
which  bearing  it  should  be  kept  until  Pulo  Kilapan  is  S.W.  by  W.,  and  the 
North  point  of  Pulo  Leat  S.E.  by  E.,  when  she  will  be  in  the  fairway  of  the 
channel,  and  may  steer  South,  carefully  guarding  against  the  effects  of  tides 
or  currents  by  frequent  cross  bearings  of  the  North  point  of  Leat,  Pulo 
Jelaka,  Rocky  Point  Hill,  or  Pulo  Kilapan.  If  a  South  course  be  preserved, 
when  Pulo  Kilapan  bears  West,  Middle  Point,  the  S.W.  point  of  Leat,  wiU 
be  the  breadth  of  Jelaka  open  of  that  islet,  and  Rocky  Point  will  bear 
S.W.  by  S.,  which  latter  bearing  also  leads  dose  to  the  East  side  of  the 
Discovery  Rocks.  If,  when  Pulo  Kilapan  bears  West,  Middle  Point  be  not 
open  of  Jelaka,  the  vessel  will  be  too  far  to  the  eastward  j  and  if  Middle 


Point  should  be  Tnore  than  the  breadth  of  Jelaka  open  of  that  islet,  she  will 
be  too  far  to  the  westward. 

If,  in  consequence  of  light  or  baffling  winds,  it  be  found  impossible  to  keep 
Gaspar  Island  N.  by  E.  IE.,  but  that  as  the  vessel  approaches  Pulo  Leat 
it  is  found  to  bear  N.  by  E.,  or  N.  f  E.,  great  caution  must  be  observed  in 
passing  Alceste  Eeef,  for